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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. The concerns around the Aadhaar-Voter ID linkage

2. The Avoidable War


 GS Paper 3:

1. The cyber threat to mobile banking

2. UPI payment charges


GS Paper 4:

1. Corruption reflects a crisis of ethics, values

2. Whistleblowing

3. Sachin Tendulkar’s family and coach shaped his success


Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay)

1. Meet the Champion Initiative

2. Brick by brick


Facts for Prelims:

1. Smriti Van memorial

2. UNESCO Felix Houphouet-Boigny Peace Prize

3. ‘Ma-on’ Cyclone

4. UP seeks 13 lakh more houses under PMAY

5. Khhula (right to ‘instant divorce’)

6. Design-led Incentive (DLI) Scheme

7. Identifying a forest

8. India’s INDC target

9. Recovery of the Ozone layer

10. ‘PEN-PLUS’ strategy


The concerns around the Aadhaar-Voter ID linkage

GS paper 2

Syllabus: Government policies and interventions for the development of various sectors and issues arising out of it etc


Directions: Important topic for the perspective of the main, can be asked directly or can be used as an example in privacy-related issues.

Source: The Hindu

Context: There have been reports of instances where block-level officers have asked individuals to link their Aadhaar with their Voter IDs, failing which their Voter IDs could be cancelled.

Need for Linking Aadhaar with Voter ID:

      • Exercise by EC: Updated and accurate record of the voter base by the Election Commission.
      • Weed out duplication of voters: Such as migrant workers(who may have registered more than once on the electoral rolls in different constituencies) or persons registered multiple times within the same constituency.

Is the linking of Aadhaar with one’s Voter ID mandatory?

      • Election Laws (Amendment) Act, 2021:
        • Amended RPA,1950 and Section 23(4) was inserted.
        • It states that the electoral registration officer may “for the purpose of establishing the identity or authentication of any person already enrolled, to furnish their Aadhaar numbers”.
      • Registration of Electors Rules, 1960(Rule 26B): Every person whose name is listed in the roll may intimate his Aadhar number to the registration officer.
      • Form 6B: It provides the voter to either submit their Aadhaar number or any other listed document.

Advantages related to Aadhar:

      • Universal: At the end of 2021, 99.7% of the adult Indian population had an Aadhaar card exceeding any other officially valid document such as a driver’s license, ration cards, PAN cards etc that are mostly applied for specific purposes.
      • More reliable: Aadhaar-based authentication and verification are considered more reliable, quicker and cost-efficient when compared to other IDs.

 Issues with linking:

      • Puttaswamy judgment(2017): The Court held that depriving a person of their right to privacy for non-linkage fell foul of the test of proportionality.
      • Lal Babu Hussein (1995): The Supreme Court held that the Right to vote cannot be disallowed by insisting only on four proofs of identity — voters can rely on any other proof of identity and obtain the right to vote.

What are the operational difficulties with Aadhar:

      • Proof of residence only: The preference for Aadhaar to determine voters is puzzling as Aadhaar is only a proof of residence and not a proof of citizenship.
      • Errors in biometrics: The estimate of error rates in biometric-based authentication differ widely.
        • As per the UIDAI in 2018, Aadhaar-based biometric authentication had a 12% error rate.
      • Violation of the right to privacy and surveillance measures by the state: Linking of the two databases of electoral rolls and Aadhaar could lead to the linkage of Aadhaar’s “demographic” information with voter ID information.

Way forward:

      • Form 6B: It is important that the government clarifies through a correction in Form 6B that the linking is not mandatory
      • Data protection legislation: The enactment of data protection legislation that allays concerns of unauthorized processing of personal data held by the government.


Insta Links:


Mains Link:

Q. Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in light of the latest judgment of the Supreme Court on the Right to Privacy. (UPSC 2017)


Prelims Links:

      • Aadhaar
      • UIDAI
      • Voter card
      • ECI
      • Puttaswamy judgment(2017)

Consider the following statements: (UPSC 2018)

    1. Aadhaar card can be used as a proof of citizenship or domicile.
    2. Once issued, Aadhaar number cannot be deactivated or omitted by the Issuing Authority.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (d)


      • Section 9 of the Aadhaar Act, 2016: It states that “the Aadhaar number or the authentication thereof shall not, by itself, confer any right of, or be proof of, citizenship or domicile in respect of an Aadhaar number holder.
      • The Aadhaar Act regulations state that an individual’s Aadhaar number may be “omitted” permanently or deactivated temporarily by the Unique Identification Authority of India, the agency responsible for issuing the numbers and managing the database.
/ Aadhaar, Aug 29 CA, Polity, Today's Article

The Avoidable War

GS paper 2

Syllabus: International relations: Bilateral, regional and global grouping involving India and India’s neighbourhood etc


Source: The Hindu

Directions: The mapping of disputes between India and China is important for Prelims and for mains-Issues concerning the India-China relationship


      • There are parallels between China’s actions at the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and the tensions between China and the US over Taiwan, says former Australian Prime Minister and China watcher Kevin Rudd.
      • Book: “The Avoidable War: The Dangers of a Catastrophic Conflict between the U.S. and Xi Jinping’s China”.

Current Affairs


 Xi Jinping’s ambitions for China:

      • National rejuvenation: This cannot be achieved in the absence of Taiwan and that programme has a timetable of
      • Military reforms: China’s military reform and modernization program from 2035 to 2037.

10 concentric circles of interest of Xi Jinping:

      • First four or five are largely domestic: They are about the politics and economics and the security apparatus remaining in power.
      • Concentric circle eight: It is the use of the Belt and Road initiative to extend China’s overall economic and therefore political sphere of influence across the vast Eurasian continent.
        • India figures in this.

 Is there a way for India to counter China’s influence in the neighbourhood?

      • Balance between different groupings: India should strengthen the quad Alliance quad arrangement with Australia, Japan and the United States and keep the present balance as a member of the SCO and BRICS with Russia and China.
      • International rules-based system: Adding a voice to the existing international rules-based system is in many respects, as important as the fundamental to the reality of Chinese strategic power.


Insta Links:

India-China relations


Mains Links:

Q. China is using its economic relations and positive trade surplus as tools to develop potential military power status in Asia’. In light of this statement, discuss its impact on India as her neighbour. (UPSC 2017)


Prelims Links:

      • LAC
      • South China sea
      • Taiwan
      • SCO
      • QUAD
      • AUKUS

Which of the following groups India is a member of?

      1. AUKUS
      2. SCO
      3. NATO
      4. BIMSTEC

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a. 1, 2 and 3 only

b. 2, 3 and 4 only

c. 2 and 4 only

d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (c)


AUKUS: Grouping between Australia, US and UK

NATO: India is not a member

SCO: India along with Pakistan became member in 2017

BIMSTEC: It’s a South Asian and South East Asian grouping, India is a member.

Tags: #International relations  ,India-China relations

/ Aug 29 CA, Today's Article

The cyber threat to mobile banking

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Internal Security


Source: The Hindu

Context:  Global cybersecurity firm Kaspersky warns of an increase in cyberattacks on Android and iOS devices in the Asia Pacific (APAC) region


Status of Mobile banking in India:

      • 26% of Indian adultshave a digital bank account and that figure is expected to hit 39% by 2023 and 46% by the year 2027.
      • According to a 2020 Statista survey across 25 States in India, two-thirds of respondents said they had a smartphone.



Mobile banking Trojans are dangerous malware that can steal money from mobile users’ bank accounts by disguising the malicious application as a legitimate app to lure unsuspecting people into installing the malware.

      • A Trojan is a malicious code or software that looks legitimate but can take control of your device, including smartphones.
      • The perpetrators infect the device through legitimate-looking and high-ranking malicious apps on Google Play, smishing (phishing messages sent through SMS)


Examples of threats:

      • Anubis mobile banking trojan virus: It has been targeting Android users since 2017.
      • Roaming Mantis is another prolific malware targeting mobile banking users.
      • BianLian Malware


Issues in regulation:

      • The lack of adequate cybersecurity and the dearth of talent in banking (technology, engineering, data and security experts) could potentially lead to a further rise in cyberattacks on user devices.
      • Interoperability compounds problems: Countries are trying to make payments from one platform to other interoperable:
        • China, for instance, has ordered its internet companies to offer their rival firms link and payment services on their platforms.
        • India, a new law demands all licensed mobile payment platforms to be capable of providing interoperability between wallets.


Conclusion and way forward:

It helps to be careful and extremely cautious when using a mobile device to make payments. Apart from the usual digital hygiene practices like keeping the phone up-to-date and rebooting regularly, consumers can ensure they use their phones for banking only when the device is connected to a secure VPN. iOS 16 users can turn on the Lockdown Mode as it limits the device’s functionality and protects it from any potential malware.


Insta Links

Cyber security


Mains Links

Q. Cyber security is a very important topic for Mains. Do have a ready-made note prepared on various aspects, issues, and solutions related to it.


Prelims Link

The terms ‘WannaCry, Petya and Eternal Blue’ sometimes mentioned in the news recently are related to (2018)

(a) Exoplanets

(b) Cryptocurrency

(c) Cyber attacks

(d) Mini satellites

Answer: C

In India, it is legally mandatory for which of the following to report on cyber security incidents? (2017)

      1. Service providers
      2. Data centres
      3. Body corporate

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

UPI payment charges

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning


Source: RBI

Direction UPI is an important topic. Know how UPI work? How is it different from other modes of electronic payment?

 Context: Recently RBI came out with a discussion paper seeking stakeholder views on charges in payment systems.

Zero charge framework: Most other modes of digital retail payments attract a charge on transactions. But the government has mandated a “zero-charge framework” for UPI transactions (from 2020), meaning charges on UPI for users as well as merchants (on MDR) being nil.


Government’s view:

      • Terming UPI services as a “digital public good”, Finance Ministry clarified that there is “no consideration” in the government to levy any charges for Unified Payments Interface (UPI)

 RBI’s view:

      • It views that subsidy on these payments may have to be withdrawn as digital payment increases, thus increasing the subsidy burden.
      • RBI had asked stakeholders if the merchant discount rate (MDR), a fee paid by merchants to acquiring banks, should be brought back for UPI transactions.
        • MDR, or merchant discount rate, on UPI transactions, has been a long-standing demand of the payments industry.
      • Recently, the RBI allowed UPI on credit cards as well starting with NPCI’s RuPay cards.

Benefits of charges on UPI and MDR:

      • It will boost the payment system as more private investors will be pitching in.
      • Save government finances on subsidies: The government allocated Rs 200 crore for reimbursement of charges towards RuPay debit card and UPI transactions.
      • In 2021-22, it had budgeted Rs 1,500 crore towards this.


      • It will discourage booming UPI transactions by citizens
      • It will dampen the digital ecosystem based on UPI/MDR

 What is UPI?

Unified Payments Interface (UPI) is an instant real-time payment system, allowing users to transfer money on a real-time basis, across multiple bank accounts without revealing details of one’s bank account to the other party.

      • UPI is currently the biggest among the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) operated systems including National Automated Clearing House (NACH), Immediate Payment Service (IMPS), Aadhaar enabled Payment System (AePS), Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS), RuPay etc.


Insta Links


Mains Links:

Q. Link the topic with Fintech Industry (important for this year’s mains) and the digital ecosystem.


Q. India’s progress in payment systems will provide a useful backbone to make a state-of-the art central bank digital currency (CBDC), but challenges remain. Discuss. (250 Words)


Prelims Links:

Know the basics of UPI and the agencies who operate it. Also, know a few current affairs e.g. (Nepal will be the first foreign country to adopt the UPI system)

Which of the following is the most likely consequence of implementing the ‘Unified Payments Interface (UPI)’?

(a) Mobile wallets will not be necessary for online payments.

(b) Digital currency will totally replace physical currency in about two decades.

(c) FDI inflows will drastically increase.

(d) Direct transfer of subsidies to poor people will become very effective.


Answer: A

UPI allows direct payment from bank account to merchant account. So the need for wallet will not longer be required.

Corruption reflects a crisis of ethics, values

GS Paper 4

Syllabus: Probity in Governance


Source: BusinessLine

Direction: Corruption has always been in news, you can pick up a few suggestions given in this article and add them to your notes.


Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s recent Independence Day speech revealed his anguish and exasperation as also his passionate campaign for more transparency and honesty in public life to reduce corruption.

      • Even after 75 years of Independence, we continue to be branded internationally as a corrupt nation.


Areas which have issues:

      • Dishonesty of government officials, both in the higher echelons and at the bottom. This evil prevails both in State administration and in a few bureaucratic segments at the Centre.
      • Real Estate Corruption remains unbearable in areas such as registration of documents relating to buying and selling property and sanction of planning permissions to put up new buildings.
      • Political issues: The reference to the demand for a ‘plum portfolio’ during the formation of a government is nauseating and has many dismaying connotations.
      • Corruption in law enforcement: Police departments all over the country are notorious for their dishonesty. There are hardly any among the 10,000 or more police stations in the country which can claim they are free from the malady.


Few suggestions given :

      • Public Participation: Handling corruption is supposed to be a joint endeavour between the government and the public. Without a union of minds and endeavour little can be achieved to enhance our moral credibility. A bribe taker cannot flourish without a bribe giver.
      • Education in ethics: Unless our future generations are indoctrinated in favour of honesty in their careers there is precious little to hope for them.
/ Aug 29 CA, Today's Article


GS Paper 4


Source: The Hindu

Direction: We had already covered Whistleblowing in detail earlier. You can value add a few points from this article into your notes along with the earlier article.

Context: CNN and The Washington Post newspaper reported that Peiter ‘Mudge’ Zatko, a former head of security at Twitter, had filed a whistleblower complaint with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, which among other things alleges that the Indian government forced the social media network to hire its agent, who then had access to sensitive user data.

Role of Social Media

Mediator: Being a mediator, it is their duty to secure the privacy of people. Compromising privacy leads to a loss of public trust.

Ethical duties: Social media should have a strict code of conduct regarding appointing and regulating these platforms.

You can go to our previous article on  Whistleblowing

Mains Links:

      • Social Media’s role
      • Whistleblowing
      • Government regulation on social media

/ Aug 29 CA, Today's Article

Sachin Tendulkar’s family and coach shaped his success

GS Paper 4

Syllabus:  “Role of Family Society and Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values.”


Context: Sachin Tendulkar’s emotional farewell speech during his retirement highlighted how important the role of family, friends and teachers is in the journey to a successful career.

Messages from a close member of the family act as a guiding lamp in a child’s life. 

  • He had mentioned how each and every member of his family had encouraged him in some way or other because of which he could excel in Cricket.
  • He is known to be one cricketer who never had any rivals nor did he abused anyone, with moral and ethical sportsmanship.
  • Even after his retirement, all his public endorsements were very carefully selected. He had denied advertising for many alcohol and cigarette brands.

This is why he was called God of Cricket”. (I have seen God. He bats at number four for India – Matthew Hayden).

/ Aug 29 CA, Today's Article


Content For Mains Enrichment (Ethics/ Essay)

Brick by brick

Source: Indian Express

Context: Tamil Nadu’s Tiruvallur district, has long been notorious for the prevalence of bonded labour. The workers are primarily members of the Irula community that falls under the Scheduled Tribe category.

District Collector Dr Alby John Varghese first proposed the project of SHG by co-owning and operating a brick kiln with these workers.

Approximately half of the total production was sold to the projects under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) scheme.


Along with the state government’s Mahalir Thittam, a socio-economic empowerment programme for women being implemented by Tamil Nadu Corporation for Development of Women Ltd., the IJM is also supporting and mentoring the brick kiln project in its operative aspects.

This initiative can be mentioned in ethics answers – Good initiatives taken by Civil Servants to ameliorate the issues of minorities.


Meet the Champion Initiative

Source: PIB

Context: PM Modi’s ‘Meet the Champion’ Initiative to be held in over 25 cities on National Sports Day tomorrow


      • ‘Meet the Champions’ is a unique school visit campaign that was kicked off by Olympic Gold medallist Neeraj Chopra in December last year and has reached various parts of the country over the past few months.
      • During the school visit, the champion athlete shares their experiences, life lessons, and tips on how to eat right and also give an overall inspirational boost to school children.

Facts For Prelims

Smriti Van memorial

Source: Live Mint

Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the Smriti Van memorial, which celebrates the courage shown by people during the devastating 2001 earthquake in the Kutch region of Gujarat. It is spread over 470 acres on Bhujiyo Hill near Bhuj town.

The forest around the memorial has been developed under the Miyawaki method (The method involves planting two to four trees per square metre. Miyawaki forests grow in two to three years and are self-sustaining)


 UNESCO Felix Houphouet-Boigny Peace Prize


Context: Former German Chancellor Angela Merkel has won UNESCO Felix Houphouet- Boigny Peace Prize 2022 for her efforts at ‘welcoming and protecting refugees’

About the Prize (est. 1989):

In accordance with the Charter of UNESCO, the prize is given to living individuals who have made a significant contribution to maintaining and safeguarding peace.


UP seeks 13 lakh more houses under PMAY

Source: Indian Express


      • The Center has turned down the Uttar Pradesh (UP) government’s request for approval of houses for 13 lakh additional “eligible beneficiaries” under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G).


Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana –Gramin (PMAY-G):

      • Objective: To provide pucca houses to all who are houseless and living in dilapidated houses in rural areas by 2022.
      • Target: Construction of 95 crore houses with all basic amenities by the year 2022.
      • Cost sharing: The cost of unit assistance in this scheme is shared between Central and State Governments in the ratio of 60:40 in plain areas and 90: 10 for North Eastern and the Himalayan States.
      • Selection of beneficiaries: Based on housing deprivation parameters of Socio-Economic and Caste Census (SECC), 2011, subject to 13-point exclusion criteria, followed by Gram Sabha verification.
      • The beneficiary is entitled to 90 days of unskilled labour from MGNREGA.
      • The beneficiary would be facilitated to avail loan of up to Rs.70,000/- for the construction of the house which is optional.



More Muslim women are opting for khhula, their right to ‘instant divorce

Source: The Hindu


      • More Muslim marriages end with khhula, the woman’s inalienable right to instant divorce, and not as it’s widely perceived through instant triple talaq, which was set aside by a Supreme Court verdict in 2017, or through talaq-e-Hassan, divorce at the man’s initiative.


      • It is the woman who initiates the divorce, and surrenders her mehr (wealth transferred or promised to the woman at the time of marriage) at the time of such a divorce.
      • Khhula can be initiated orally or through a document called the ‘Khhulnama’.
      • It has the effect of an instant divorce.

What is instant triple talaq?

      • Triple talaq is the practice under which a Muslim man can divorce his wife by simply uttering “talaq” three times.
      • It was banned by the Supreme Court verdict in 2017 (case Shayara Bano v. Union of India).
      • It is prevalent among India’s Muslim community majority of whom follow the Hanafi Islamic school of law.

 ‘Ma-on’ Cyclone

Source: Business Standard

Context: It is tropical storm hit the northern Philippines, injuring at least three people and displacing thousands.

Tropical Cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system. It is characterized by a low-pressure centre, strong winds, closed low-level atmospheric circulation and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms producing heavy rain.



Design-led Incentive (DLI) Scheme

Source: PIB
PLI scheme has gained importance in the manufacturing sector. Keep a note on it.

Context: Ministry of Communication had previously invited applications under DLI as a part of the Production linked Incentive Scheme (PLI)

Difference between DLI (launched 2022) and PLI

      • DLI will offer a 1% additional incentive over the PLI scheme. Telcom equipment makers who use at least 50% Made in India components will be eligible for it.

PLI Scheme (launched in 2020)

It offers a production-linked incentive to boost domestic manufacturing and attract large investments in a specified sector.

      • e.g., in the electronics sector, the scheme shall extend an incentive of 4% to 6% on incremental sales (over the base year) of goods manufactured in India for a period of five years.

So far, the government has announced PLI schemes for 14 sectors including auto, electronics, telecom, pharma, solar, metals and mining, textiles, white goods, drones, and advanced chemistry cell batteries.


Identifying a forest

Source: Indian Express

Direction: Go through it once

 Context: Recently there was a tussle between MoEFCC and the Chhattisgarh government over the transfer of land from its forest to the Revenue department.

 Views and counterview

      • Centre contention: An un-demarcated protected forest cannot be used for non-forest purposes without its consent under Forest Conservation Act 1980 (FCA)
      • State’s contention: Transferred land was not a forest land.

Legal provisions:

      • States can define land (previously not classified under centre or state records) as forests
        • As per SC (Godavarman case 1996)
      • Forest is under the Concurrent list

Jurisdiction over forest:

      • Forest department of state (Reserve Forest (nothing allowed unless specified) and Protected forests (everything allowed unless specified)
      • Revenue department of state (village and Nagarpallika forests)


India’s INDC target

Source: Hindustan Times

Direction: These targets are important, do know them. Also know a few basic stuffs such as India is 3rd largest emitter (6.8% of global emission) but its per capita emission is very low.

 Context: India has formally submitted an updated Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) target to UNFCCC

 India’s INDC (to be achieved primarily by 2030)

      • Original Target: A total of 40% of the installed capacity for electricity will be from non-fossil fuel sources.
        • New Target: 50% by 2030 (with help from international finance (Global climate fund) and transfer of technology
      • Original Target: To reduce the emissions intensity of the GDP by 33-35% (from the 2005 level)
        • New Target: 45% of GDP by 2030
      • New target added: Propagating a sustainable way of living: mass movement for ‘LIFE- Lifestyle for environment’ using traditions and values of conservation.
      • India also promised an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by the year 2030.

 New targets at COP26: India announced the goal of reaching net-zero by 2070 (Read Panchamitra Plan)

      • As per the recent report, achieving these targets will boost India’s GDP by up to 4.7% (2036) and create million new jobs

INDC: The INDCs are the primary means for governments to communicate internationally the steps they will take to address climate change in their own countries. They are not legally binding.


Recovery of the Ozone layer

Source: Down to Earth

Direction: Several Qn has directly been asked on Ozone. Have basic info. On it.


Context: As per NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of US), the concentration of the ozone-depleting substance in mid-latitude has significantly reduced (to the level of 1980)


About Ozone:

      • Ozone is a naturally occurring, highly reactive molecule made up of three oxygen atoms. It is measured using the Dobson unit.
      • About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere is concentrated between 15 and 30 kilometres above the earth’s surface (stratospheric ozone).
      • It is also found at ground levelin lower concentrations (tropospheric ozone). Here ozone is a pollutant that is a key part of smog over cities


Ozone-depleting substance:

      • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halogenated ozone-depleting substances (ODS)are mainly responsible for man-made chemical ozone depletion.
      • These are mainly used in refrigerators, air conditioners, fire extinguishers and foams.


Treaty for ODS regulations:

      • Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985);
      • Montreal Protocol (regulated production and consumption of ODS, 1987);
      • Kigali Amendment (phase down the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs))


‘PEN-PLUS’ strategy

Source: DownToEarth

Context: African health ministers adopt the PEN-PLUS strategy against non-communicable diseases(NCDs).

PEN-PLUS is basically a regional strategy to address serious non-communicable diseases at first-level referral health facilities, the strategy is aimed at bridging the access gap in treatment and care of patients with chronic and severe NCDs.

NCDs account for most of the out-of-pocket spending of patients in Africa. By offering NCD care as a package of services available at primary and district health facilities, patients will find their expenses decrease as they spend less money on transportation, and lodging in cities and less time commuting to the health facilities.

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