Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2023] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 25 August 2022

 

InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

 

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. Floor test in Bihar Assembly

2. SC bench to revisit 2013 poll promises

3. State’s borrowing powers hit: Kerala FM

 

GS Paper 3:

1. Making out a case for the other UBI in India

2. Setting target of 10 Mn apprenticeship in 10 years

3. The Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2022

 

GS Paper 4:

1. Drugmakers, doctors, and the ethical code to keep a nexus at bay

 

Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay)

1. Soldiers donated blood to Pak terrorist injured in J&K

 

Facts for Prelims:

1. Mandala art

2. Production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme to develop ‘niche’ batteries

3. Coradia iLint

4. Wind project addition to peak by 2024

5. Restructuring of Department of Commerce

6. Multi-Modal Logistics Park (MMLP)

7. SING Project

8. White Dwarf

9. Ayushman cards can be used for state schemes

10. National Gopal Ratna Awards -2022

11. Ayushman cards can be used for state schemes

12. MCA21 Version -3

13. Stockholm World Water Week 2022

 


 

Floor test in Bihar Assembly  

GS  Paper 2

Syllabus: Parliament and state legislature: structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers and privileges.

 

Source: The Hindu

Direction: Read the article for understanding the parliamentary proceedings. No need to make note.

Context: In Bihar Nitish Kumar–led Mahagathbandhan government won the floor test in the State Assembly to prove majority. Mr. Kumar proved his majority first by voice vote and then by counting of votes.

 

What is a floor test?

  • A floor test is primarily taken to know whether the executive enjoys the confidence of the legislature by proving his majority

 

How it takes place?

This voting process occur in the state’s Legislative Assembly or the Lok Sabha at the central level.

  • As per the Constitution, the Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor of the state.
  • In case the majority is questioned, the leader of the party which claims majority has to move a vote of confidence and prove majority among those present and voting.
  • The Chief Minister has to resign if they fail to prove their majority in the house.
  • This happens both in the parliament and the state legislative

 

What is a composite floor test?

Composite floor test is necessitated when more than one person stakes the claim to form the government and the majority is not clear.

  • Governor may call a special session to assess who has the majority. The majority is counted based on those present and voting and this can be done through voice vote also.

 

How is the voting done?

These are the modes by which voting can be conducted:

  1. Voice vote: In a voice vote, the legislators respond orally.
  2. Division vote: In case of a division vote, voting is done using electronic gadgets, slips or in a ballot box.
  3. Ballot vote: Ballot box is usually a secret vote – just like how people vote during state or parliamentary elections.

 

What happens if there is a tie?

Following the vote, the person who has the majority will be allowed to form the government. In case there is a tie, the speaker can cast his vote.

Insta Link:

Prelims Link:

  1. Floor test vs Composite floor test.
  2. Majority required to form the govt.
  3. Voting during floor test.
  4. Appointment of Chief Minister when there is clear majority vs Hung assembly.
  5. Can speaker cast his vote?

Mains Link:

  1. Ambiguity in the law on conducting floor tests often lead to abuses and misuses. Comment.
/ Aug 25 CA, Polity, Today's Article

Supreme Court Bench to revisit 2013 verdict on poll promises

GS Paper -2

Topic covered: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

 

Source: The Hindu

Direction: It is an important case for RPA act and debate around freebies. Just quote ‘Balaji case (2013)’ wherever needed. Know the crux of the judgement.

 Context: The Supreme Court said it will constitute a three-judge Bench to re-consider a 2013 judgment which held that pre-poll promises made by a political party cannot constitute a corrupt practice under the Representation of the People (RP) Act.

 

Background:

SC in (S. Subramaniam Balaji Vs Tamil Nadu (2013)) case announced that only an individual candidate, not his party, can commit a ‘corrupt practice’ under the RP Act by promising free gifts.

  • During a hearing on ways to rein in irrational freebies, The Balaji judgment came under the spotlight after nine years.

Chief Justice N. V. Ramana’s Bench was told that:

  • There cannot be a dichotomy between a political party and its candidate.
  • What the candidate promises is what his party wants him to promise. The party cannot escape liability.

 

Sec 123 of RP Act:

Section 123 of the RP Act deals with ‘corrupt practices’

  • The provision says it is ‘bribery’ and thus deemed a corrupt practice if any gift, offer or promise of gratification is made to voters directly or indirectly by a candidate or his agent.

 

Questions on The Balaji judgment:

The judgment had clearly drawn a distinction between an individual candidate put up by a political party and the political party itself.

 

Rationale of Balaji judgment:

The judgment had held that it was directly part of the Directive Principles of State Policy for a State to distribute “largesse in the form of distribution of colour TVs, laptops, etc., to eligible and deserving persons”.

  • In what way the State chooses to implement the Directive Principles of State Policy is a policy decision of the State and this court cannot interfere with such decisions unless it is unconstitutional

 

Supreme Court’s current observation:

Supreme Court said for identifying the issue and to draw a distinction between welfare schemes and doles, its previous judgment required a relook.

  • The apex court had directed the Election Commission to consult with recognised political parties and frame guidelines for the general conduct of candidates, etc., and also for election manifesto.
  • The court said, that all of this could be included in the Model Code of Conduct for the Guidance of Political Parties and Candidates.
  • Chief Justice Ramana said, a three-judge Bench will be constituted for this.

 

Insta Link:

Prelims Link:

  1. Sec 123 of RP Act.
  2. Balaji judgment.
  3. Rationale behind the Balaji judgment.

Mains Link:

The Balaji judgment had clearly drawn a distinction between an individual candidate put up by a political party and the political party itself Ambiguity in the law on conducting floor tests often lead to abuses and misuses. Comment.

State’s borrowing powers hit: Kerala FM

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure

 

Source: The Hindu

Direction:

Context: Finance minister of Kerala KN Balagopal defended the state’s financial position saying it was not under stress and that the state’s debt level in comparison to its own GDP is below the permissible limit.

 

Background:

The Reserve Bank of India in a report titled ‘State Finances: A Risk Analysis‘ said states’ fiscal positions deteriorated sharply in 2020 with a sharp decline in revenue, an increase in spending and a sharp rise in debt to GSDP ratios.

  • Based on the debt to GSDP ratio in 2020-21, the RBI found the debt burden in 10 states including Kerala quite high.
  • Kerala’s debt during the financial year 2021-22 was estimated to be at 37 per cent and is expected to be 2 per cent during the current financial year, data showed.

 

Kerala’s stand:

Finance minister of Kerala said, there were no “lapses in finance management.”

  • Centre had taken powers of the states to collect taxes: As part of GST, the central government has taken all powers to collect taxes from state governments and also decreased the states’ share. The state lost a minimum of ₹ 12,000 crores.

 

Basics about borrowing of states:

Constitutional provisions:

Article 293 in The Constitution deals with the Borrowing by States.

It says:

  • The executive power of a State extends to borrowing within the territory of India upon the security of the Consolidated Fund of the State within such limits, and to the giving of guarantees within such limits, if any, as may be so fixed.

 

Why states need Centre’s permission while borrowing?

  • Article 293(3) of the Constitution requires states to obtain the Centre’s consent in order to borrow in case the state is indebted to the Centre over a previous loan.
  • In practice, the Centre has been exercising this power in accordance with the recommendations of the Finance Commission.
  • Every single state is currently indebted to the Centre and thus, all of them require the Centre’s consent in order to borrow.

 

Need for such restrictions:

  • One possible purpose behind conferring this power upon the Centre was to protect its interests in the capacity of a creditor.
  • A broader purpose of ensuring macroeconomic stability is also discernible, since state indebtedness negatively affects the fiscal health of the nation as a whole.

 

InstaLinks:

Mains Link:

Discuss the issues related to financial autonomy of states and how they can be addressed?

Prelims Link:

  1. Are state governments allowed to take loans directly through borrowings?
  2. Role of Central Government.
  3. States with highest GSDP.
  4. Article 293.
  5. When can the centre impose conditions on states?
/ Aug 25 CA, Today's Article

The Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2022

GS Paper 2 & 3

Syllabus: Parliament-Structure, functioning and conduct of business, Competition Commission of India etc

 

Directions: Competition bill, 2022, competition commission, gun-jumping etc

Source:The Hindu

 

Context:

  • The changing market dynamics due to technological advancements, artificial intelligence, factors other than price, amendments became necessary to sustain and promote market competition. A review committee was established in 2019 which proposed several major amendments.

 

Background:

  • The Competition Commission primarily pursues three issues of anti-competitive practices in the market:
    • Anti-competitive agreements
    • Abuse of dominance
    • Combinations

 

What is the major change in dealing with new-age market combinations?

  • ‘Deal value’ threshold: Amendment makes it mandatory to notify the Commission of any transaction with a deal value in excess of ₹2,000 crore and if either of the parties has ‘substantial business operations in India’.
    • Under Section 5 currently parties indulging in merger, acquisition, or amalgamation need to notify the Commission of the combination only on the basis of ‘asset’ or ‘turnover’.
  • Frame regulations to prescribe the requirements for assessing(an enterprise having ‘substantial business operations in India): This change will strengthen the Commission’s review mechanism, particularly in the digital and infrastructure space.
  • Information to commission: When business entities are willing to execute a combination, they must inform the Commission.
    • The Commission may approve or disapprove the combination, with a check on adverse effect on competition.
  • Increase in timeline: The new Bill seeks to accelerate the timeline from 210 working days to only 150 working days with a conservatory period of 30 days for extensions to approve the combination.
  • Anti-competitive agreements: The amendment broadens the scope of ‘anti-competitive agreements’ to catch entities that facilitate cartelisation even if they are not engaged in identical trade practices.
  • Framework for settlements and commitments: For cases relating to vertical agreements and abuse of dominance.
    • In the case of vertical agreements and abuse of dominance, the parties may apply for a ‘commitment’ before the Director General (DG) submits the report.
    • Settlement’ will be considered after the report is submitted and before the Commission decides.
  • Leniency Plus: It allows the commission to give an additional waiver of penalties to an applicant who discloses the existence of another cartel in an unrelated market.
  • Appointment of the DG: To be appointed by the Commission rather than the Central government, giving the Commission greater control.
  • Penalties and penalty guidelines: For any false information filed, a penalty of five crore will be imposed, and for failure to comply with the Commission directions, a penalty of ₹10 crore will be imposed.
  • NCLT: For an appeal to be heard by the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) against the Commission’s order, the party will have to deposit 25% of the penalty amount.

 

Challenges combining parties face in open market purchases:

  • Gun jumping cases: There have been several gun-jumping cases owing to the combining parties’ inability to defer the consummation of open market purchases.
  • Unaffordable transaction: If parties wait for the Commission’s clearance, the transaction may become unaffordable.
  • Exempt open market purchases: The amendment proposes to exempt open market purchases and stock market transactions instead of notifying to the Commission in advance(Similar to the European Union merger regulations).
    • This is subject to the condition that the acquirer does not exercise voting or ownership rights until the transaction is approved and the same is notified to the Commission subsequently.

 

Conclusion:

By implementing these amendments, the Commission should be better equipped to handle certain aspects of the new-age market and transform its functioning to be more robust.

 

Hub-and-Spoke arrangements:

  • A Hub-and-Spoke arrangement is a kind of cartelisation in which vertically related players act as a hub and place horizontal restrictions on suppliers or retailers (spokes).
  • Currently, the prohibition on anti-competitive agreements only covers entities with similar trades that engage in anti-competitive practices

 

What is gun-jumping?

  • If the combining parties close a notified transaction before the approval, or have consummated a reportable transaction without bringing it to the Commission’s knowledge, it is seen as gun-jumping.
  • The penalty for gun-jumping was a total of 1% of the asset or turnover. This is now proposed to be 1% of the deal value

 

Competition Commission of India:

  • It is a statutory body of the Government of India, responsible for enforcing the Competition Act, 2002 throughout India
  • It prevents activities that have an adverse effect on competition.

 

Insta Links:

Competition Commission of India

 

Mains Links

Q. How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India?(UPSC 2018)

 

Prelims Links:

Competition commission of India

Gun jumping

Hub and spike arrangements

NCLT

With reference to Competition commission of India, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a statutory body responsible for enforcing the Competition Act, 2002.
  2. It ensures freedom of trade in the market.
  3. It protects the interests of the consumers.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 and 3 only

c. 1 and 3 only

d. 1, 2 and 3

Ans: (d)

Justification:

Refer to image above

 

Making out a case for the other UBI in India

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Indian Economy

 

Source: The Hindu

Direction: This is an Editorial Piece. Understand the crux of the argument.

 Context:  As per the Author, there are good reasons why Universal Basic Insurance is a better proposition than Universal Basic Income

 Social security systems are like a safety net. It saves a household from falling into a poverty trap. Social security mainly encompasses food security (NFSA), health security (Ayushman Bharat Scheme) and income security.

Types of security nets

  • Passive safety net: E.g., Rising economy, creating more jobs
  • Active safety net (it works like a trampoline so that those who fall on it are able to bounce back) e.g., National Food Security Act, MGNREGA, Ayushman Bharat Scheme
  • Proactive safety net which acts like a launchpad out of poverty e.g., Universal Basic Income

Income security is the trickiest part to tackle in the social security basket. Various government schemes for Income security are:

  • General Provident Fund (GPF)- for Central and State government employees
  • Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF)- for workers in the other organised sector.
  • Public Provident Fund (PPF) that can be availed by any Indian citizen
  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan-Dhan Yojana (PM-KMY)
  • PM-KISAN scheme (for farmers)
  • Atal Pension Yojana (APY)

  

What is Universal Basic Income?

UBI is a model for providing all citizens of a country with a guaranteed minimum sum of money, regardless of their income, resources or employment status.

  • This provides a “safety net preventing any citizen” from sinking below a basic minimum standard of living
  • Economic Survey 2016-17 has recommended UBI as an alternative to the various subsidy

 

Issues with UBI:

  • Lack of political will
  • Huge fiscal pressure
  • Free cash to people may increase the inflation rate
  • Difficulty in reducing subsidies on exiting schemes
  • No guarantee that cash will be spent on productive assets.

 

Why Universal Basic Insurance?

  • Low insurance penetration: The insurance penetration (premium as a percentage of GDP) in India has been hovering around 4% for many years compared to 17%, 9% and 6% in Taiwan, Japan and China, respectively.
    • Thus insurance can become a need-based safety net for the poor.
  • Availability of Data: The economy largely remains informal, data of that informal sector are now available both for businesses (through GSTIN, or Goods and Services Tax Identification Number) and for unorganised workers (through e-Shram, which is the centralised database of all unorganised workers).
    • The social registry portal, ‘Kutumba’, developed by Karnataka is a good example of social security data.

 

Conclusion:

Till the Indian economy grows to have adequate voluntary insurance, social security can be boosted through the scheme of universal basic insurance.

Insta Links

Universal Basic Income

 

Mains Links:

Link it with issues of social justice such as Poverty alleviation, will UBI be successful, Link it with UBI of other countries such as Switzerland (why was it rejected)

Q. The Universal Basic Income, implementation of which has repeatedly been debated in India, seeks to alleviate poverty. Critically discuss the possibility of UBI in India. (250 Words)

 

Prelims Links

Link it with various flagship schemes of government-linked to food security (NFSA), health security (Ayushman Bharat Scheme) and income security. Know the basics of these schemes.

/ Aug 25 CA, Today's Article

Setting target of 10 Mn apprenticeship in 10 years

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Employment/ Government intervention in various sectors.

 

Source: Economic Times

Direction: Certain sectors such as Health, Education, and Skilling is always on the radar of UPSC. Have a ready note prepared for them. For this article, know key stats, key reasons and a few government programmes.

 

Context: As per a study, doubling the number of apprentices from 5 lakh to 10 lakh per year, and setting an initial target of 10 million apprentices in ten years, is a crucial step in bridging the skill gap.

 

An apprenticeship is a paid job where the employee learns and gains valuable experiences. It may involve on-the-job along with part-time classroom study.

 

Current status:

  • India currently has only 5 lakh apprentices, which constitutes 0.11% of the pool of apprentices worldwide.
  • Unemployment rate in India was 3.3% (2020-21)- with the youth unemployment rate at 12.9%
  • Formal training in India remains low at less than 4% (In South Korea, more than 90% are formally trained)

Reasons for low apprenticeships:

  • Complex labour and regulatory requirements for firms who hire apprentices
  • In India, academic education (theoretical) is preferred over vocational training (practical)
  • Significant mismatch between what the world of work needs and what youth knows
  • Apprentices are seen as the source of cheap labour and enjoy inadequate protections.
  • Lack of information and matching of skillset for the employee as well as employer
  • Government sector lacks behind g., of 339 Central PSUs, only 150 engage apprentices.

 

Government efforts:

  • National Policy of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015 (strongly focuses on apprenticeship as a means to provide gainful employment)
  • Apprentice Protsahan Yojna (Government reimburses the cost of basic training of apprentices)
  • National Apprenticeship Training Scheme (NATS) (1-year apprenticeship programme, under the Ministry of Education)
  • National Employability through Apprenticeship Program (a PPP programme to hire 2 lakh apprentices every year for the next 10 years, under the Ministry of Skill Development)
    • It also releases Apprenticeship Outlook Report
  • National Apprenticeship Mela (support hiring of more than one lakh apprentices)
  • SHREYAS (scheme for higher education youth in apprenticeship and skill)
  • YuWaah Youth Skilling Initiative
  • Apprentices Act, 1961(regulates training of apprentices in the industry)

 

What should be done?

  • New employer-led training manual to impart need-based skills
  • Change in pedagogy and curriculum in universities
  • Better skilling governance
  • As per the study if each MSME engages only one apprentice, still India will have 25 lakh

 

Conclusion:

With these reforms, India will not only ramp up our apprenticeship adoption but will also be closer to what is already happening in Europe, China, and Japan – countries that have pioneered apprenticeships over the decade.

Insta Links

SHREYAS Scheme

 

Mains Links

Q. Apprenticeships could be the real key to Skill India’s success as they could help business firms raise productivity in several ways. Discuss. (250 words)

 

Prelims Link

Know basic few data on unemployment and a few flagship schemes (and their ministry), but not all the schemes are important.

With reference to Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana, consider the following statements: (UPSC 2018)

    1. It is the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Labour and Employment.
    2. It, among other things will also impart training in soft skills, entrepreneurship, financial and digital literacy.
    3. It aims to align the competencies of the unregulated workforce of the country to the National Skill Qualification Framework.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2, and 3

Answer C

PMKVY is implemented by the National Skills Development Corporation (NSDC) under the guidance of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE). The last two statements are correct.

Drugmakers, doctors, and the ethical code to keep a nexus at bay

GS Paper 4

 

Source: Business Standard

Context: The recent controversy over the distribution of freebies worth Rs1000 cr by makers of popular paracetamol brand Dolo has raised the issue of corruption in marketing practices related to the Pharma Sector.

In 2015, ‘Uniform Code of Pharmaceuticals Marketing Practices’ UCPMP was adopted as a voluntary code to keep unethical practices at bay.

Ethical Issues associated:

  • Doctor Pharma Nexus: Creating a kind of monopoly of drugs (E.g: Dolo) in the market.
  • Bribing doctors – through cash or expensive gifts.
  • Associating doctors into illegal practices: Drug tests, clinical trials, etc where patients trust their doctors and take part in these trials without knowing its consequences.

Measures need to be taken:

  • Making the Uniform Code for Pharmaceutical Marketing Practices (UCPMP) a legally binding code of ethics. Giving UCPMP a statutory basis – and making it effective, transparent, and accountable.
  • A stringent ethical marketing code needed to be brought in for the pharmaceutical industry.
/ Aug 25 CA, Today's Article

Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay)


Soldiers donated blood to Pak terrorist injured in J&K

Source: Indian Express

Army has said that Indian soldiers donated blood to a Pakistani terrorist, who was critical after being shot during an attempt to attack a border post in J&K. The terrorist said that a Pakistani Intelligence officer, identified as Colonel Yunus Chaudhry, sent him.

This example can be used in Compassion, empathy, Humanity/ Universal Human Values, etc.

 


Facts for Prelims


Mandala art

Source: Indian Express

Context: Residents of Liverpool are marveling over a mandala the size of one and a half football pitches in length created by artist James Brunt with materials such as leaves and rocks.

Mandala is a geometric design or pattern that represents the cosmos or deities in various heavenly worlds. “It’s all about finding peace in the symmetry of the design and the universe,”. Mandala patterns are motifs that are centuries old and are used to depict the cosmos.

While it can also be created in the shape of a square, a mandala pattern is essentially interconnected.

 

Production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme to develop ‘niche’ batteries

Source: Live Mint

Context: The government plans to offer production-linked sops worth around $500 million to develop ‘niche’ batteries to achieve climate goals and cut reliance on fossil fuel imports.

A new PLI is coming on niche advanced chemistry cell, unlike other PLI schemes where the focus is on manufacturing, this scheme is likely to provide sops for research and development of newer chemistries, along with production.

The search for new technologies and battery chemistry comes against the backdrop of an acute shortage of lithium in India.

 

Coradia iLint

Source: Al Jazeera

Context: Germany has launched the world’s first fleet of hydrogen-powered passenger trains Coradia iLint

Coradia iLint trains have a range of up to 1,000 kilometers and a maximum speed of 140 kmph (87 mph).

By using hydrogen produced with renewable energy the trains will save 1.6 million liters (more than 422,000 gallons) of diesel fuel a year. Hydrogen is currently produced as a byproduct of chemical processes, but German specialty gas company Linde plans to manufacture it locally using only renewable energy within three years.

 

Wind project addition to peak by 2024

Source: The Hindu

Context: Annual installation of new wind power projects in India will peak by 2024 and likely decline thereafter, according to a report. After 2024, fresh projects are likely to be wind-solar hybrids.

So far, only 40 GW of wind power capacity has been established.

Wind industry installations have been slowing down in India since 2017. Only 1.45 GW of wind projects were installed in 2021 with many delayed due to the second wave of COVID-19 and supply chain-related disruptions.

  

Restructuring of Department of Commerce

Source: PIB

Direction: Just understand the broader aim of restructuring.

 Context: Ministry of Commerce and Industry released the ‘Department of Commerce Restructuring Dossier’ aimed at preparing India to become a key global player in world trade.

 The broader aim of the restructuring:

  • Increasing India’s share in global trade (achieve the US $2 trillion worth of exports by 2030)
  • Assume leadership role in multilateral organisations
  • Democratization of trade
  • Creating 100 Indian Brands as Global Champions
  • Setting up Economic Zones in India to strengthen the manufacturing base and attract investments

 Specific programmes for restructuring:

  • Focus on 3 Ts- Trade, Technology and Tourism.
  • Dedicated ‘Trade Promotion Body’ to drive formulation & execution of promotion strategy
  • Digitization of trade facilitation processes
  • Rehauling of the data & analytics ecosystem and capacity building of Indian Trade Service to drive specialization & institutional memory.

The Ministry of Commerce and Industry administers two departments, the Department of Commerce and the Department for Promotion of Industry & Internal Trade.

 

 

Multi-Modal Logistics Park (MMLP)

Source: PIB

Direction: 

Context: Agreement for swift development of modern Multi Modal Logistics Park (MMLP) under Bharatmala Pariyojna

  • The tripartite agreement was signed by National Highways Logistics Management Limited (NHLML), Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) and Rail Vikas Nigam Limited (RVNL).

Aim:

  • To centralize freight consolidation (freight is goods transported in bulk by truck, train, ship, or aircraft)
  • Reduce logistics costs from 14% to less than 10% of GDP (at par with International Standards)
  • To ensure that cargo is swapped/shifted from and to Waterways, Dedicated Freight Corridors & Road Transport
  • Ensure swift, efficient, economical and environmentally friendly logistics movement
  • Empower and energise the economies of scale via PM Gati Shakti.

About MMLP

  • MMLP will be a freight handling facility with rail and road accessibility, comprising of container terminals, custom clearances, cargo terminals (bulk, break-bulk), warehouses and other infrastructures.
  • It is being developed under a ‘Hub & Spoke’ model,
  • It will focus on a technology-driven implementation of a state-of-the-art freight management system.
  • 35 locationshave been identified for the development of MultiModal Logistics Parks.
  • India’s first MMLP is at Jogighopa in Assam.

About Schemes:

  • Bharatmala Pariyojanais an umbrella program for the highways sector envisaged by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
  • Gati Shakti scheme(now subsumed Rs 110 lakh crore National Infrastructure Pipeline (2019)) aims at coordinated planning and execution of infrastructure projects to bring down logistics costs.

About Bodies:

  • NHLML is a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) of the National Highway Authority (NHAI)
  • IWAI is a statutory authority under the Ministry of Ports, Shipping & Waterways
  • RVNL is a wholly owned Public Sector Enterprise under the Ministry of Railways.

 

SING Project

Direction: Go through once

 Context: Spectrographic Investigation of Nebular Gas (SING) Project is a collaboration between the Indian Institute of Astronomy (IIA) and the Russian Academy of science for designing payload for China’s Tiangong Space station.

Concern: Tension between India has China has caste a concern about the future of the project.

A spectrograph is an instrument that separates incoming light by its wavelength or frequency and records them. Many astronomical observations use telescopes as, essentially, spectrographs.

About China’s Programme:

  • The space station will operate in low-Earth orbit (340-450 km)
  • ISS is scheduled to be decommissioned after 2024to leave place for the Lunar Gateway, a small outpost that will orbit the Moon (under NASA’s Artemis Mission)- China not included

 Others planned space stations:

  • Lunar Gateway: NASA, European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and Canadian Space Agency (CSA).
  • The Russian Orbital Service Stationis scheduled to begin construction in 2025.
  • Starlabis the name given to the planned LEO space station designed by Nanoracks for commercial space activities uses.
  • Indian Human Spaceflight Programme: as a follow-up programme of the Gaganyaan mission.

  

 

White Dwarf

Source: PIB

Direction: Have a basic idea about White Dwarf, the formation of stars, and types of stars.

 Context: As per the recent study, a bright explosion born out of the cosmic dance of a white dwarf and its companion star resulting in thick dust around an imploding novae could unravel mysteries behind the start of life.

 What is Novae?

A nova is an astronomical event in which a strong explosion occurs temporarily, thus increasing the brightness and then slowly darkening over weeks or months.

It generally occurs in a binary system (two stars orbiting around a common centre of mass) consisting of a white dwarf and a main sequence star.

 Significance: Space dust out of collisions may have propelled organisms over enormous distances between planets to start life on a planet.

 

Who of the following scientists proved that the stars with mass less than 1.44 times the mass of the Sun end up as White Dwarfs when they die? (2009)

(a) Edwin Hubble
(b) S. Chandrashekhar
(c) Stephen Hawking
(d) Steven Weinberg

Ans: B

‘Chandrasekhar Limit’ is a theoretical limit on the mass of the White Dwarf Stars, which is approximately 1.44 solar masses. Those with masses under the Chandrashekhar limit exist as White Dwarf, while those above are subject to further gravitational collapse and may turn into a neutron star or Black hole

 

Ayushman cards can be used for state schemes

 Directions: Ayushman Bharat Scheme, Ayushman cards etc

Source: Indian Express

Context:

  • The beneficiary card for Ayushman Bharat-–Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY)  can now be used to avail benefits for any existing state health insurance schemes as well, with the National Health Authority (NHA) allowing co-branding with logos and names of both schemes on the new cards.
  • The co-branded cards will allot space to both PM-JAY ad state specific logos.
  • At the bottom of the card, the name of the scheme will be mentioned as “Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojna-Mukyamantri Yojna (or the name of the state scheme).

 Ayushman Bharat:

It has two interrelated components –

  • Health and Wellness Centers (HWCs)
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY).

Key Features of PM-JAY:

  • The world’s largest health insurance/assurance scheme fully financed by the government.
  • It provides cover of 5 lakhs per family per year, for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization across public and private empaneled hospitals in India.
  • The National Health Authority (NHA) is the nodal agency responsible for the nationwide roll-out and implementation of the AB-PMJAY scheme.
  • This scheme is a Centrally sponsored scheme with some Central sector components.

 Eligibility:

  • No restrictions on family size, age or gender.
  • All pre–existing conditions are covered from day one.
  • Covers up to 3 days of pre-hospitalization and 15 days post-hospitalization expenses such as diagnostics and medicines.
  • Benefits of the scheme are portable across the country.
  • Services include approximately 1,393 procedures covering all the costs related to treatment, including but not limited to drugs, supplies, diagnostic services, physician’s fees, room charges, surgeon charges, OT and ICU charges etc.

Wellness Centers:

  • The 5 lakh sub-centres that are converted into wellness centers will cater to the majority of services such as detection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, screening for common cancers, mental health, care of the elderly, eye care, etc.
Govt to provide health insurance for trans persons, sex reassignment surgeries to be covered:
  • Transgender persons will get yearly health insurance of Rs 5 lakh each under the Ayushman Bharat scheme.
  • The insurance policy will also cover sex reassignment surgeries.
  • Health cards issued to trans persons will not cover their family members.
  • Benefits will be extended to those holding a transgender certificate issued by the national portal for transgender persons.

 

National Gopal Ratna Awards -2022

Gopal Ratna Award is one of the highest National Award in the field of livestock and dairy sector.

  • Given by: Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying under the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying
  • Objective: to encourage all individuals and Dairy cooperative societies / Milk Producer Company / Dairy farmers Producers Organizations working in this sector, are conferred in three categories.

The “Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM)”, was launched in December 2014 for the first time in the country, with a view to conserve and develops indigenous bovine breeds in a scientific manner.

 

Ayushman cards can be used for state schemes

Source: Indian Express

Direction: Ayushman Bharat is government’s flagship scheme. Do keep a note on it

Context:

  • The beneficiary card for Ayushman Bharat-–Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY)  can now be used to avail benefits for any existing state health insurance schemes as well, with the National Health Authority (NHA) allowing co-branding with logos and names of both schemes on the new cards.

Ayushman Bharat:

  • Health and Wellness Centers (HWCs)
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY).

Key Features of PM-JAY:

  • The world’s largest health insurance/assurance scheme fully financed by the government.
  • It provides cover of 5 lakhs per family per year, for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization across public and private empaneled hospitals in India.
  • The National Health Authority (NHA) is the nodal agency responsible for the nationwide roll-out and implementation of the AB-PMJAY scheme.
  • This scheme is a Centrally sponsored scheme with some Central sector components.

 Eligibility:

  • No restrictions on family size, age or gender.
  • All pre–existing conditions are covered from day one.
  • Covers up to 3 days of pre-hospitalization and 15 days post-hospitalization expenses such as diagnostics and medicines.
  • Benefits of the scheme are portable across the country.
  • Services include approximately 1,393 procedures covering all the costs related to treatment, including but not limited to drugs, supplies, diagnostic services, physician’s fees, room charges, surgeon charges, OT and ICU charges etc.

 

Wellness Centers:

  • The 5 lakh sub-centres that are converted into wellness centers will cater to the majority of services such as detection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, screening for common cancers, mental health, care of the elderly, eye care, etc.
Related News:

Govt to provide health insurance for trans persons, sex reassignment surgeries to be covered:

  • Transgender persons will get yearly health insurance of Rs 5 lakh each under the Ayushman Bharat scheme.
  • The insurance policy will also cover sex reassignment surgeries.
  • Health cards issued to trans persons will not cover their family members.
  • Benefits will be extended to those holding a transgender certificate issued by the national portal for transgender persons.

 

MCA21 Version -3

Context: MCA21 version-3.0 is a technology-driven forward-looking project, envisioned to strengthen enforcement, promote Ease of Doing Business and enhance user experience.

What is the MCA21?

MCA21 is an e-Governance initiative of Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) that enables an easy and secure access of the MCA services to the corporate entities, professionals and citizens of India.

  • This will help the business community to meet their statutory obligations.

 

Stockholm World Water Week 2022

Context: National Mission for Clean Ganga  hosts virtual session on the first day of the Stockholm World Water Week 2022.

What is World Water Week?

World Water Week is the leading annual event on global water issues, organized by ‘Stockholm International Water Institute’ (SIWI) since 1991.

The theme for World Water Week 2022 is “Seeing the Unseen: The Value of Water.”

World Water Week: History

  • In 1991, a public water festival was held in Stockholm city to celebrate the fact that it was again possible for them to fish and swim in the city.
  • As part of this festival, a water conference was held, named Stockholm Water Symposium, attended by leading scientists.

It is this symposium which became World Water Week.


Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE

Please subscribe to Our podcast channel HERE

Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE

Follow our Twitter Account HERE

Follow our Instagram ID HERE