GS paper 2
Syllabus: Issues related to the development of the social sector relating to health, education, SDGs etc
Direction: Most of the points are generic here. Go through it once.
Context: This is an editorial piece. The author wishes that India at 100 will be an equitable country, built on firm access to high-quality education and healthcare along with gender parity, employment opportunities for all, etc. He gives prescriptions of what should be done.
Improvements in schooling and skills:
- Vocational training centres: we must strengthen vocational training centres — Industrial Training Institutes, for instance — that provide skills necessary for employment.
- Reducing the number of degrees: The degrees that do not serve as a gateway to professional development or knowledge acquisition.
- Barriers to education: We must ensure that finances are not a barrier to education
A World Bank report: Reports from the early 2000s made the case for education of women as the major driver of change in the health status of societies.
- Factors linked to education: Reduced fertility, safer births and better health of children and increased social status are causally linked to the education of women
- Healthcare beyond maternal and child care: Healthcare must move beyond maternal and child health packages and programmes to treat diseases.
- Preventing life-threatening diseases: Enabling people to improve their health, preventing life-threatening diseases and improving palliative care for patients of such diseases.
The UN’s Sustainable Development Goals for 2030: They are unlikely to be addressed in full measure by 2047 if we do not address health, health emergencies and catastrophic health expenditures.
- Although only Goal 3 of the SDGs directly focuses on good health and well-being, the other goals are also linked to health.
- For example, Goals 1 and 2 — no poverty and zero hunger — cannot be attained if issues related to health are not addressed.
- Make primary healthcare truly functional, especially when it comes to preventing illness and high out-of-pocket expenses on health.
- Place healthcare providers close to patients by creating proper and functional physical and digital infrastructure.
- Create the right and rapid referral pathways, so that delays in care do not result in unnecessary burden on individuals and their families.
- Place individuals and their needs at the centre and ensure that these needs are met without large payments being required at the point of care.
- Regulate the private sector and ensure that no part of the country is a health “desert”.
- Trained and motivated personnel and inexpensive drugs and vaccines for which India is well-known.
- Equitable access requires that we deliver to all, and not just the privileged few.
2047 may seem distant, but to create the foundation for the next century, we need to invest in education and health in the next 25 years — not just for the elite, but for all.
Q. Besides being a moral imperative of the Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary precondition for sustainable development.” Analyze. (UPSC 2021)
Link it with World Bank, Club of Rome etc.