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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS:23 August 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1.  ‘Jana Gana Mana’ – our national anthem reflects the history, traditions and composite culture of India. It has been serving as an expression of national identity since its adoption. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Economic Times 

Why the question:

Whenever someone plays or sings the national anthem of India, no matter where we are, we all come together, stand at attention, salute, and chant ‘Jana Gana Mana’. The national anthem is the pride of India and Indians are proud of it.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the significance of our national anthem.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving background about the composition and adoption of national anthem.

Body:

Write about the significance of national anthem – highlights India’s national heritage and demonstrates Indianness, symbol of patriotism, symbol of national identity and a song meant to unite the people of the nation, and loyalty to one’s country.

Conclusion:

Conclude by Summarising.

 

Introduction

The Indian National anthem – ‘Jana Gana Mana’ – was adopted as the country’s National Anthem by the Constituent Assembly of India on January 24, 1950, the last day of its last session. ‘Jana Gana Mana’ is the first stanza of the Bengali hymn ‘Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata’, written by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore in his Anand Math. On December 27, 1911, the National Anthem was first sung at the Calcutta session of the Congress.

Body

Our national anthem reflects the history, traditions and composite culture of India

  • The National Anthem is perhaps one of the most potent declarations of a country’s independent status.
  • The song is a prayer to Goddess Bharatavarsha (Mother India) for her guidance and blessings for her children (the citizens of India).
  • The first two lines are written in Bengali, followed by a shloka in classical Sanskrit. It is written as an ode to Lady Justice, embodying all that is noble in our motherland.
  • The first verse notes humility and love, while the second is a prayer of aspiration, delivered in a great feeling.
  • The third verse glorifies the nation’s struggles and seeks strength from God to carry on that battle.
  • The last stanza signifies the resolve to be worthy of freedom and act worthy of independence – not for ourselves alone but for all humanity.
  • If put forwards succinctly, the National Anthem conveys the spirit of pluralism or in more popular term the concept of ‘Unity in Diversity’, which lies at the core of India’s cultural heritage.
  • India is a nation of multiple languages and dialects therein.
  • Jana Gana Mana is understood unequivocally throughout India and thus brings forth the spirit of unity among these diverse languages.
  • Our National Anthem conveys very aptly the traditions and values that still hold strong as the backbone of the country.
  • It helps reinforce the accepting and assimilating nature of Indian culture along with its tolerance to pluralism.
  • Jana Gana Mana appeals to the country’s patriotic emotions and helps unifying the different races, castes and creeds by solemn singing of the hymn-like verses.
  • Thus our National Anthem has a note of universality and all-inclusiveness – it is not parochial in its outlook. The ideals expressed in this song are worth attaining by all people.

Conclusion

Every Indian has an instinct to rise up the moment they hear the pride-inspiring words of our national song, putting all else behind. The moving tune and powerful lyrics will undoubtedly transport you to the land of patriotism, if only for a few periods. The national anthem emphasizes India’s value as a varied country. It symbolizes India’s unity under one banner, despite variations in culture, customs, religion, and languages. The hymn has an important role in connecting people and reminding us that we are one under Indian unity.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Role of women and women’s organization

2. The construction of the “new India” which is a gender-inclusive nation, based on the liberal ethos found in our cultural-civilisational values and new ideas for a post-modern world would be crucial women empowerment. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Independence Day speech was transformative. It did not just trace a historical journey but outlined how the unsung warriors of pre-independence Bharat contributed to the nation.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the idea of ‘new India’ which is a mix of liberal cultural ethos and post modernity for empowerment of women.

Directive:

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

First, in detail, trace the journey of women empowerment in India.

Next, write about the need for harness the liberal cultural ethos of India for new India for women empowerment. Outline the cultural ethos that must be imbibed.

Next, write about the new ideas that are needed as part of the post-modern world for women empowerment. Outline its role.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

The Prime Minister in the 75th Independence Day speech marked the creation of a gender-inclusive nation, based on the liberal ethos found in our cultural-civilisational values and new ideas for a post-modern world. He said such a society will achieve the dreams of all its members, the entire nation, by channelling to a greater degree the potential of women. He also underlined the role of women — veeranganas — in our freedom movement.

Gender inequality in India

  • India scores quite low in when it comes to gender inequality, according to latest UNDP Human development report, India is ranked 125 of 159 countries in the Gender Inequality Index (GII).
  • Labour participation:In terms of labour participation only 23.3% of women (79.1% men) above 15 years are part of India’s labour force.
  • Wage gap: Research from India’ leading diversity and inclusion consulting firm Avtar Group shows that women are paid 34% less than men for performing the same job with the same qualifications.
  • Lack of Economic Empowerment:Women are underrepresented in senior managerial position and overrepresented in low paying jobs. Oxford Survey shows that globally only 19% firms have a female senior manager.
  • Access to productive capital: It is harder for women to access funds and capital for farming, starting a business or for other developmental works.
  • Secondary Education for women is lower than man in majority of countries while this stands at less than 80% in India.
  • Social norms and stereotypes:Classifying men as “bread winners” and women pursuing jobs as “career women” was reported by Oxford University Survey. It also highlighted that most of the unpaid work is seen as a women’s job.

Need for harness the liberal cultural ethos of India for new India for women empowerment

  • Women are known for delivering multiple roles effortlessly per day, and thus, they are considered the backbone of every society.
  • Living in male-dominating societies, women play a wide range of roles, such as caring mothers, loving daughters, and capable colleagues.
  • The best part is that they fit the bill perfectly in every role. Nonetheless, they’ve also stood as a neglected bunch of society in different parts of the world.
  • In turn, it has resulted in women surviving the brunt of unevenness, financial trustworthiness, oppression, and distinct social evils.
  • Women have been residing under the shackles of enslavement for centuries now that impedes them from attaining professional as well as personal highs.
  • Women’s empowerment is valuable for the development and advancement of the family, community as well as the nation.
  • Women empowerment in India is one of the principal terms for society’s overall development.
  • There is nothing erroneous in participating in the development of society. In the world of corporates, women are playing numerous roles in meadows such as medical, engineering, and so on.
  • Apart from taking part in the sphere of technology, they are energetically partaking in security services such as police, navy, military, etc. All these before-mentioned services are taking the community to another level.

New ideas that are needed as part of the post-modern world for women empowerment

  • Giving education to women means giving education to the whole family.Education plays an important role in building self-confidence among women.
  • It is important to assert a feeling of oneness or unity, the foundation for which must be laid in the homes of the common people.
  • Every household must treat its sons and daughters equally.
  • Such a household, particularly in the joint family system, is our cultural heritage.
  • It is this culture that is “cultivated by the daughter and sisters” and holds within it “Nar” and “Narayani”.
  • The rich cultural values of our civilisation, which assert equality through the lens of “divinity” in both male and female forms should be upheld.
  • The mass media performs a crucial role in repairing the attitude and way of conversation of husband and other family members towards women.
  • Women should empower themselves by becoming to be aware of their oppression, indicating initiative, and confiscating chances to bring a shift in their status. Empowerment must come from within the soul.
  • Women need to empower themselves by bringing a major change in their attitude.
  • There is a need to devise, support and promote projects at the lowest level of governance, to bring more inclusivity in governance and improve the status of women in India.

Conclusion

Women should be reimagined as architects of India’s progress and development, rather than being passive recipients of the fruits of development. The ripple effects of Women Led Development are undeniable as an educated and empowered woman will ensure education and empowerment for future generations.

 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure

3. India’s far-sighted Right to Education Act is making slow progress in mainstreaming equity, in the absence of a strong political commitment in several States. Time has come to extend its scope to younger children through early childhood education and care. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the progress of RTE and importance of having right to education for younger children.

Directive:

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving aims behind Right to Education Act.

Body:

First, in detail, write about the progress of Right to Education Act in India since its inception. Write its successes and limitations. Substantiate with facts.

Next, write about the need for early childhood education and care for children. Mention advantages behind it and scope of the stat to do so.

Next, write about the steps that are needed to functionalise it as right.

Conclusion:

Conclude by giving a balanced opinion.

Introduction

According to UNICEF, early childhood is defined as the period from conception through eight years of age. Early childhood care and education (ECCE) is more than preparation for primary school. It aims at the holistic development of a child’s social, emotional, cognitive and physical needs in order to build a solid and broad foundation for lifelong learning and wellbeing. Target 4.2 of SDG 4 aims that by 2030, to ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education.

Body

Progress of the Right to education act

  • According to section 12of the Right to Education Act, 2009, the private unaided schools are obligated to reserve 25% of the seats for the disadvantaged students, because of this the trend of Migration from public to private schools has increased. This is because unfortunately our government schools are not having good facilities and teacher and because of this every parent wants to send their child to private schools.
  • The increase in the enrolment ratio is because of the introduction of Mid Day meal schemes by the governments. Many parents send their children to the schools in order to have lunch so that it will cut their costs. As a result, the students are not very much motivated towards the knowledge gaining and the learning process. The learning outcome is zero.
  • Inadequacy of teachers affects the pupil-teacher ratio mentioned by RTE. Because this, in turn, affects the quality of teaching.
  • According to section 19of the RTE Act, 2009, public schools are not necessarily required to fulfil the infrastructure requirements and as a result only 6.4% of the public schools actually fulfil the norms.
  • Section 6of the Right to Education Act, 2009, obligates the state government to establish more of such public schools in the neighbourhood, which again lead to the expenditure by the government on inefficient schools, empty buildings highly paid teachers.
  • How can the government expect a better infrastructure in urban cities having small area? This forces the poor kids to stay from the schools.

Need for ECCE

  • Early childhood is a time of remarkable growth with brain development at its peak.
  • It is crucial to the overall development of children, with impacts on their learning and even earning capabilities throughout their lifetimes.
  • Over 85% of a child’s cumulative brain development occurs prior to the age of 6, indicating the critical importance of appropriate care and stimulation of the brain in a child’s early years for healthy brain development and growth.
  • In a recent study by the Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy, 45% of the 650+ households surveyed in urban Maharashtra reported that they prioritise their older child’s education over ECE.
  • Studies have foundthat the act of making conversation with your child in the early years has significant gains on language skills they develop.
  • It is, therefore of the utmost importance that every child has access to quality early childhood care and education (ECCE).

Benefits of ECCE

  • The overall aim of ECCE will be to attain optimal outcomes in the domains of physical and motor development, cognitive development, socio-emotional-ethical development, cultural/artistic development, and the development of communication and early language, literacy, and numeracy.
  • It also includes a focus on developing social capacities, sensitivity, good behaviour, courtesy, ethics, personal and public cleanliness, teamwork and cooperation.
  • These years lay the foundations for her/ his learning and holistic development.
  • Children will be better prepared for primary school and will reach better education outcomes.
  • Quality ECCE also helps reduce repetition and drop-out rates.
  • Positive outcomes are even more pronounced among children from vulnerable groups.
  • It helps promote human resource development, gender equality and social cohesion, and to reduce the costs for later remedial programmes.
  • An overview of 56 studies across 23 countries found impacts on health, education, cognitive ability, and emotional development.

Way forward

  • For universal access to Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE), the Anganwadi Centres will be strengthened with high quality infrastructure, play equipment and well-trained Anganwadi workers/teachers.
  • Every Anganwadi must have a well-ventilated, well-designed, child-friendly and   well-constructed   building   with   an enriched   learning   Funds for this programme will be provided by the Central and State governments.
  • ECCE teacher trainingshould be added as a skill gap in the list of National Skill Development Corporation to ensure that easy investment is available to produce efficient ECCE teachers.
  • Universal access to quality early childhood educationis perhaps the best investment that India can make for our children’s and our nation’s future.
  • ECCE can also be introduced in Ashrams shalas in tribal-dominated areas in a phased manner. 

 

 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure

4. In absence of a data protection framework, any encroachment of the fundamental right to privacy of citizens is sans accountability. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about need and significance of protection of personal data of the people in India.

Directive:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about fundamental right to privacy, especially in the light of recent events.

Body:

First, write about the evolution towards data protection law since SC judgement of 2027 – Just srikirshna committee, JPC on the draft law etc, Withdrawal of personal data protection bill.

Next, write about why protecting personal data is important? – Data protection regulations ensure the security of individuals’ personal data and regulate the collection, usage, transfer, and disclosure of the said data and how without a law it renders fundamental right to privacy ineffective.

Conclusion:

Conclude writing a way forward.

Introduction

Data protection is the process of protecting data and involves the relationship between the collection and dissemination of data and technology. It aims to strike a balance between individual privacy rights while still allowing data to be used for myriad purposes. The sheer volume of people’s data on the internet and the advancements in technologies such as Artificial intelligence, Data mining and machine learning poses a threat of abuse and misuse of data.

Body

Data protection in India

  • Several countries have dedicated law for data protection like Japan’s Act on Protection of Personal Information. European Union has also adopted General Data Protection Regulation 2018.
  • India does not have any dedicated legal framework for data protection. Presently some acts cover the data protection in general.
    • Sec 43A of Information Technology Act 2000 protects user data from misuse but it is applicable to only corporate entities and not on government agency. Also, the rules are restricted to sensitive personal data only — medical history, biometric information among other things.
    • Other acts like Consumer Protection Act 2015, Copyrights Act 1957 among others also attempt to protect the personal information.
  • The need for a more robust data protection legislation came to the fore in 2017 post the Supreme Court’s landmark judgment in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd) v. Union of India that established the right to privacy as a fundamental right.
  • In 2018, a draft version of the bill was prepared by a committee headed by retired Justice B N Srikrishna. Recently, the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 was introduced in Lok Sabha by the Minister of Electronics and Information Technology.

Need for Data Protection in India

India has around 40 cr internet users and 25cr social media users who spend significant time online. The average cost for data breach in India has gone up to Rs. 11.9 crore, an increase of 7.9% from 2017. Moreover, in the KS Puttaswamy case, the Supreme Court has declared Data Privacy as a fundamental right under Article 21. Hence it becomes all the more significant to ensure data protection. The reasons are as follows:

  • Data Export: Most of the data storage companies are based abroad. Especially the e-commerce companies that have exabytes of data on Indians. They also export data to other jurisdiction making it difficult to apply Indian laws.
  • Data Localization: Enforcing data localization has faced backlash from many private entities and their home governments. There hundreds of private players are involved in data dynamics which makes it difficult to apply uniform data protection framework.
  • User Consent: Generally, the application using pre-ticked boxes on consent while asking users regarding the acceptance to the terms and conditions.
  • Privacy Breach: It is usually difficult to trace the perpetrator invading the data privacy.
  • Privacy laws: Currently, the usage and transfer of personal data of citizens is regulated by the Information Technology (IT) Rules, 2011, under the IT Act, 2000. However, this are applicable only to private entities and not on government agency.
  • Data ownership: As per TRAI guidelines, individuals own the data, while the collectors and data processors are mere custodians of data who are subject to regulations.

Conclusion

Considering the data privacy as the fundamental right of a citizen and economic downturns of the potential breaches in data, government need to reconsider the above pending issues. A robust Personal data protection law is the need of the hour. Due importance needs to be given on public awareness, better implementation and regulation and efficient grievance redressal as well.

 

 

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

5. For multilateralism to remain relevant and effective in today’s world, multilateral institutions must adapt and reform to reflect contemporary geo-political realities. Analyse the above statement in the context of need for reforms in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

India has called for countries to respect each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity and respect international agreements. Speaking at a United Nations Security Council (UNSC) meeting, ‘Promote Common Security Through Dialogue and Cooperation’.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the need for UNSC reforms and steps to do so.

Directive:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing the role of UNSC in global multilateral order.

Body:

First, write about the various issues present within the UNSC which renders it ineffective and undemocratic.

Next, write the potential of reforms in the UNSC – with respect to archaic membership structure of the UNSC, expansion of the UNSC’s permanent membership, structural inequality in the security grouping etc

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward to achieve reforms.

Introduction

India has criticised the slow pace of UN Security Council reform process and opaque methodologies, non-attribution of assertions and obfuscation of references by the member states which are blocking the early reform of the UN. What is ironical is, the permanent member of Security Council, Russia itself has waged a war on Ukraine while it is being given the responsibility to maintain world peace.

Body

India and UNSC

  • India has adopted a multi-layered strategy to assume the long-awaited permanent seat in the Security Council consisting of two components:
    • Maximising support in the UN General Assembly and Minimising resistance in the UN Security Council.
  • India hopes that its continued engagement at various Global South forums such as G 77 and NAM, African Union would garner much needed numbers in the UNGAThis is reflected in India’s strong defence of the principle of sovereignty and the constant voluble criticism of the “Responsibility to Protect.”
  • India’s growing strategic partnerships with the P5, growing economic strength, including the nuclear deals with US, Russia paints a favourable picture for Indian Explicit public declarations supporting India’s candidature as a permanent member in the Council are reiterated by countries like France, UK.
  • India has also formed the G4 with Brazil, Germany, and Japan, its “coalition of the willing”, and a “collaborative strategy” to negotiate reforms of the Council. The four nations support each other’s bids for permanent seats on an expanded Security Council.

Need for UNSC reforms

  • Membership: The current membership of UNSC reflect post-WWII structure. It doesn’t actually reflect the changes that have occurred in the international system after the end of the cold war.
    • Emerging nations like India, Brazil, South Africa etc needs representation in the UNSC as permanent members.
    • The existing membership reflects a regional imbalance, with no representation from Africa or Latin America and Europe being over-represented in the council.
  • Changed Geopolitics: The Security Council’s membership and working methods reflect a bygone era. Though geopolitics have changed drastically, the Council has changed relatively little since 1945, when wartime victors crafted a Charter in their interest and awarded “permanent” veto-wielding Council seats for themselves.
  • Reforms Long Overdue: It was expanded only once in 1963 to add 4 non-permanent members.
    • Although the overall membership of the UN has increased from 113 to 193 but no change in the composition of the UNSC happened.
  • Inequitable economic and geographical representation: While Europe is over represented, Asia is under represented. Africa and South America have no representation at al
  • Crisis of legitimacy and credibility: Stalled reform agenda and various issues including its Interventions in Libya and Syria in the name of responsibility have put the credibility of the institution in jeopardy.
  • North South Divide: The permanent UNSC membership of portrays the big North-South divide in the decision making of security measures.
    • For instance, there is no permanent member from Africa, despite the fact that 75% of its work is focused on Africa.
  • Emerging issues: Issues such as transnational threats, deepening economic interdependence, worsening environmental degradation also call for effective multilateral negotiations based on consensus yet all critical decisions are still being taken by the veto-wielding permanent members of the Security Council.

Way forward

  • The imbalances in power relationships among P5 and the rest of the world needs to be corrected urgently.
  • Also, it is needed to reform the Security Council through an expansion in permanent and non-permanent seats to enable the UN organ to better deal with the “ever-complex and evolving challenges” to the maintenance of international peace and security.
  • India as the current one of the non-permanent members of the UNSC can start by drafting a resolution containing a comprehensive set of proposals for reforming the UNSC.

Value Addition

India’s stature to get permanent membership

  • Founding member of UN.
  • World’s largest democracy and both demographically and geographically holds a significant position.
  • One of the fastest growing large economies in the world.
  • One of the largest contributors to UN peace keeping missions and India suffered highest number of fatalities over the years, which is acknowledged time and again.
  • India is seen as a responsible power, which adheres to rule of law, global norms. India’s elevation will make UNSC more credible, representative.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

6. The debate regarding the relationship between socioeconomic development and natural disasters remains at the fore of global discussions, as the potential risk from climate extremes and uncertainty pose an increasing threat to developmental prospects. Critically examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Monsoon rainfall over India is 8% more than what is usual for this time of the year. While this might bode well for agriculture in some regions, it also means floods and concentrated downpours with devastating consequences. At least 25 people were killed over the weekend as torrential rains triggered flash floods and landslips in Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Key Demand of the question:

To write the contradictory relationship between socioeconomic development and disasters and ways to reconcile them.

Directive word: 

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of the debate in the light of recent developments.

Body:

First, write about the economic losses and developmental setbacks that the country has been suffering year after year, it makes good economic sense to spend a little extra today in a planned way on steps and components that can help in prevention and mitigation of disasters, then be forced

Next, write about the concepts of disasters and sustainable economic development as they are applied around the world Sheds light on how communities can boost their ability to respond to and recover from disasters Provides guidelines that are broadly applicable to a variety of circumstances

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way ahead.

 

Introduction

India is more vulnerable to natural disasters because of its unique geo-climatic condition, having recurrent floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes, and landslides. As India is a very large country, different regions are vulnerable to different natural disasters. Monsoon rain patterns are being disrupted leading to a rise in cloudburst-like events as well as a rise in the frequency of high-energy cyclones and droughts.

Body

Background

  • Monsoon rainfall over India is 8% more than what is usual for this time of the year.
  • While this might bode well for agriculture in some regions, it also means floods and concentrated downpours with devastating consequences.
  • At least 25 people were killed over the weekend as torrential rains triggered flash floods and landslips in Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
  • A recent report released by Himachal Pradesh’s Department of Environment, Science and Technology underlines that mountain areas are highly vulnerable to natural disasters, where development over the years has compounded the problem by upsetting the ecological balance of various physical processes.

Impact of Natural disaster on Socioeconomic development

  • Primary ramifications is in the form of death and damage to property.
  • Secondary effects with long-term downstream impact include Schools and transport facilities, for instance, are immediately put out of action, leading to loss of productive hours.
  • Cattle and saplings are left to perish, which in turn destroys livelihoods, debilitates family finances and strains the finances of the state exchequer.

Development prospects vis-à-vis climate vagaries

  • While the inherent risks of infrastructure development in hills and unstable terrain is well understood, these are often elided by authorities in the name of balancing the demands of the people for better infrastructure and services.
  • The increased risk and cost to such projects and infrastructure should be factored in when they are tendered out by the government, and scientific advice regarding development ought to be strictly adhered to.
  • The India Meteorological Department now provides fortnightly, weekly and even three-hourly weather forecasts to districts. Within these are integrated warnings about flash floods and lightning.

Way forward

  • Frame good macroeconomic policies before and after shocks.
  • Provision in the budget for emergency spending helps crisis mitigation and resolution, insurance coverage and low public debt bolster government spending flexibility if reconstruction needs arise.
  • Public investment in risk reduction.
  • Improvement in government policy frameworks to better manage risk and mitigate economic and social costs.
  • Estimate the probability of shocks and identify local vulnerabilities and integrate into plans for contingencies, investing in risk reduction, insurance, self-insurance, and disaster response.
  • Tax and spending policies need to be flexible, to allow rapid redeployment of spending when needed.
  • Coordination with foreign partners before disaster strikes could mobilize external assistance for risk reduction, which is likely to earn.
  • NDRF needs to be better equipped with technical equipment and personnel training and emphasis should be laid on deploying young men in the response force.
  • Need to have better coordination between NDMA and MHA for achieving an international standard response mechanism in India.
  • Emergency medical response & preparedness for mass casualty management should acquire priority in the education curricula of medical nursing.
  • The need and importance of priority attention to be accorded to training of personnel and procurement of modern equipment’s.
  • The government should create an online software for the management of the onsite data which could be updated without getting in to protocols.

Conclusion:

Disaster is a catastrophic situation in which normal pattern of life and or ecosystem has been disrupted and extraordinary emergency interventions are required to save and preserve lives and or environment. The best strategy is to be Proactive rather than reactive in tackling natural disasters and in mitigating the disasters in case of natural or man-made disasters.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker- sections.

7. Nonpartisan service responds to demonstrable objective and external criteria rather than to alignments in the conflict. Discuss. (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

trace the link between non-partisanship in public administration and equality amongst citizens.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by highlighting the importance of neutrality and non-partisanship in public administration.

Body:

Begin by talking about values which are important to the level of justice and continuity in public administration with suitable examples.

Mention about how public servants must be accountable to the government for the effective delivery of its programs.

Then finally talk about responsiveness of the administration to the government of the day within the law and the how constitution is key to the effective implementation of government policies in an equitable manner.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by suggesting ways for neutrality in public administration in an increasingly polarizing world.

Introduction

Non-partisanship is not being specifically owned or affiliated with any group, party or cause. Non-partisanship can be called as political neutrality. Non-partisanship implies that the administrator is to do his/her task without any fear of or favour to any political party.

Body:

A bureaucrat is needed to be politically neutral:

  • Neutrality depicts that public officials are not slaves to either the politicians or any other authority other than the moral authority of the Constitution.
  • It shows that the principle of neutrality implies a measure of independence both from the partisan interests of the government of the day and the exogenous agenda that prompts certain social groups to cow others down to humiliating vulnerability.
  • Bureaucracy should be neutral in terms of ideology and politics. So that there will not be an affinity to a particular class or ideology.
  • For a genuine public official, commitment to constitutional principles is not only a lifelong project but, more importantly, it can be carried out without any political or ideological mediation.
  • If bureaucracy won’t be neutral then it cannot lend its whole-hearted support to the existing political system, and to the economic and political system if any radical changes are introduced.
  • Without neutrality, there can be a close nexus between bureaucracy and large-scale enterprises which could further lead to crony capitalism.
  • By and large, the spirit of neutrality imbedded by civil servants enables them to perform their duties in a detached and impartial manner.

Impartiality and Non-partisanship which determine the foundation of a non-partisan public service. These are:

  • Recruitment, promotions or even terminations should be completely free of any kind of political influence and done purely on merit basis.
  • All public officials should perform their duties in an impartial manner.
  • Kenneth Kernaghan has put forth a model of political neutrality which suggests the following:
  • Politics and policy are completely separate from administration. While politicians take policy decisions, it is the public officials which put them in execution.
  • All public officials are recruited purely on merit basis and not depending on any political inclination or affiliation.
  • Public officials do not engage in any partisan politics.
  • Public officials do not express their personal views on government policies and administration.
  • Public officials give correct and objective advice to their political masters.
  • All policies are implemented with full zeal and enthusiasm keeping all personal biases at a side.
  • The major advantage of this value is that it removes all scope of controversy that a public servant may encounter during his time of service. Neutral nature of work will keep issues away from public fanfare.
    • Ex: If a public servant gives permission for holding rally to a particular political party and denies the same for another, it will create controversy. By maintaining neutrality this can be avoided.
  • In multi religious and multicultural society such as India there are many issues that arise between two groups, which may result in tension. The public official must exercise his duty by maintaining distance from both the parties in order to maintain peace.
    • Ex: Religious procession is one of the many events where different groups show their strength. During this time the public official must be ready to take rational decisions without favouring one party over the other.
  • Government is ruling body that needs to maintain distance from getting involved too closely with public. If that barrier is broken, the value and dignity of the position will be compromised.
    • Ex: Members of UPSC should keep distance from candidates who they know personally. If any links are established, then reputation of the body will be under threat.

Conclusion:

Impartiality and Non-partisanship both form essential foundational values for civil services. While impartiality ensures equality without any bias and prejudices in the general, non-partisanship ensures a neutral approach in politics and a solid commitment to the government.


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