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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 August 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).

1. Examine the non-geographical factors that determine location and presence of industries and industrial corridors in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the non-geographical factors in the location of industries.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context that Industrial locations are complex in nature and are influenced by the availability of many factors.

Body:

First, write about the non-geographical factors in detail – Capital investment, Availability of loans, Investment climate, Government policies/regulations, Influence of pressure groups etc.  Cite relevant examples from India to justify the answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Many important geographical factors involved in the location of individual industries are of relative significance. But besides such purely geographical factors influencing industrial location, there are factors of historical, human, political and economic nature which are now tending to surpass the force of geographical advantages. Consequently, the factors influencing the location of industry can be divided into two broad categories – Geographical and Non- Geographical factors.

Non- Geographical factors:

  • Capital:
    • Modem industries are capital-intensive and require huge investments.
    • Capitalists are available in urban centers.
    • Big cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, and Chennai are big industrial centers, because the big capitalists live in these cities.
  • Government Policies:
    • Government activity in planning the future distribution of industries, for reducing regional disparities, elimination of pollution of air and water and for avoiding their heavy clustering in big cities, has become no less an important locational factor.
  • Industrial Inertia:
    • Industries tend to develop at the place of their original establishment, though the original cause may have disappeared.
    • This phenomenon is referred to as inertia, sometimes as geographical inertia and sometimes industrial inertia.
    • The lock industry at Aligarh is such an example.
  • Efficient Organization:
    • Efficient and enterprising organization and management is essential for running modem industry successfully.
    • Bad management sometimes squanders away the capital and puts the industry in financial trouble leading to industrial ruin.
  • Banking Facilities:
    • Establishment of industries involves daily exchange of crores of rupees which is possible through banking facilities only.
    • So the areas with better banking facilities are better suited to the establishment of industries.
  • Insurance:
    • There is a constant fear of damage to machine and man in industries for which insurance facilities are badly needed.
  • Political and economic situation:
    • Political harmony and peace in a particular region encourage the establishment of industrial units.
    • On the other hand, disturbed political and economic set up discourages the growth of industries in the region.
    • On account of Naxalites movement in West Bengal, Industries started moving out of West Bengal.
    • Similarly, is the case in certain other states where, on account of political disturbances, manufacturers have started thinking to settle elsewhere and further industrial expansion has been greatly affected.
  • Availability of research facilities:
    • The main aim of any industrial undertaking is to have maximum production with minimum cost.
    • Constant research and experimentation is undertaken to develop products and improved methods of production.
  • Possibilities of future expansion:
    • The area for location should be such as to provide all possible opportunities for future development and expansion of the industrial unit without involving extra cost.
    • Every industrial undertaking is established with the aim to expand in future.

Conclusion

Thus, the location of industries is dependent on a combination of geographical and non-geographical factors.

 

Value addition

Industrial Corridors Projects are being taken up for development with 32 Projects to be developed in 04 phases up to 2024-25:

 

 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent);

2. Rare earth elements (REEs) are non-renewable resources. The demand for REEs increases daily as demand increases for technology. Discuss their importance. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of REEs.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining Rare earth elements (REEs) and why are they called rare.

Body:

Write significance of Rare Earth Elements (REE. Discuss its utility in terms of – defense, strategy environment etc. Global Uses and Production of Rare Earth Elements. Cite examples.

Next, write about the difficulties in extracting REE and recycling them.

Conclusion:

Conclude by Summarising.

 

Introduction

The rare earth minerals (REM) are a set of seventeen metallic elements. These include the fifteen lanthanides on the periodic table in addition to scandium and yttrium that show similar physical and chemical properties to the lanthanides. The REMs have unique catalytic, metallurgical, nuclear, electrical, magnetic and luminescent properties. While named ‘rare earth’, they are in fact not that rare and are relatively abundant in the Earth’s crust

Body

Strategic importance of REMs:

  • They have distinctive electrical, metallurgical, catalytic, nuclear, magnetic and luminescent properties.
  • They are strategically very important due to their use of emerging and diverse technologies which cater to the needs of current society.
  • Its usage range from daily use (e.g., lighter flints, glass polishing mediums, car alternators) to high-end technology (lasers, magnets, batteries, fibre-optic telecommunication cables).
  • Even futuristic technologies need these REMs (For example high-temperature superconductivity, safe storage and transport of hydrogen for a post-hydrocarbon economy, environmental global warming and energy efficiency issues).
  • The global demand for REMs has increased significantly in line with their expansion into high-end technology, environment, and economic areas.
  • They are extremely important for many modern technologies, including consumer electronics, computers, and networks, communications, clean energy, advanced transportation, health care, environmental mitigation, national defense etc.
  • Due to their unique magnetic, luminescent, and electrochemical properties, they help in technologies perform with reduced weight, reduced emissions, and energy consumption; therefore give them greater efficiency, performance, miniaturization, speed, durability, and thermal stability.

Importance of REMs in various fields:

  • Electronics: Television screens, computers, cell phones, silicon chips, monitor displays, long-life rechargeable batteries, camera lenses, light emitting diodes (LEDs), compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), baggage scanners, marine propulsion systems.
  • Defence Sector: Rare earth elements play an essential role in our national defence. The military uses night-vision goggles, precision-guided weapons, communications equipment, GPS equipment, batteries and other defence electronics. These give the United States military an enormous advantage. Rare earth metals are key ingredients for making the very hard alloys used in armoured vehicles and projectiles that shatter upon impact.
  • Renewable Energy: Solar panels, Hybrid automobiles, wind turbines, next generation rechargeable batteries, bio-fuel catalysts.
  • Manufacturing: High strength magnets, metal alloys, stress gauges, ceramic pigments, colorants in glassware, chemical oxidizing agent, polishing powders, plastics creation, as additives for strengthening other metals, automotive catalytic converters
  • Medical Science: Portable x-ray machines, x-ray tubes, magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) contrast agents, nuclear medicine imaging, cancer treatment applications, and for genetic screening tests, medical and dental lasers.
  • Technology: Lasers, optical glass, fibre optics, masers, radar detection devices, nuclear fuel rods, mercury-vapour lamps, highly reflective glass, computer memory, nuclear batteries, high temperature superconductors.

However, the extraction of REMs is one of the most environmentally negative and toxic generating of all mining practices. Disproportionate rare earth mining has resulted into landslides, clogged rivers, environmental pollution emergencies and even major accidents and disasters, causing great damage to people’s safety and health and the ecological environment.

Conclusion

The ‘Make in India’ program whose goal is to make India a manufacturing economy will need REMs in huge amount. Although India is among the top five nations with reserves of rare-earth minerals, there is no required technology to extract in environmentally sustainable way. Thus, India will need to firm up diplomatic trade channels and long-term supply contracts. There is also a need to develop suitable technologies, promote Research and Development to tap the REM.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government

3. What do you understand by ‘trial by media’? Critically examine its implications on the justice system of the country. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Recently, the Chief Justice of India objected to the lack of media accountability in the media’s coverage of legal issues.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about trial by media’ and its implications on justice.

Directive word: 

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining ‘trial by media’ and explaining it.

Body:

First, write about the importance of media to promote transparency and accountability in the country.

Next, write about the various negative implications of trial by media – subverting rule of law, negative perception, sensualisation, undermining the maxim of innocent until proven guilty etc.

Next, write about the measures that can be take against trial by media.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Trial by media may defined as a process in which media investigate any legal case by its own way and put their verdict among society before or after the court verdict.

The Chief Justice of India has highlighted concerns that “ill-informed and agenda-driven debates” and “biased views” are weakening democracy. Recently, he objected to the lack of media accountability in the media’s coverage of legal issues.

Body:

Issues relating to Trial by Media on democracy:

  • Trust of Citizens being misused by Media: people trust on media blindly, people accept and assume true whatever the media says. This fact is often abused by media.
    • For E.g.: Recent reaction of Bombay High Court to the media’s reportage in the case of actor Sushant Singh Rajput’s death, instructing media to stay in limits.
  • Compromised Integrity of Media: Superficially it seems Media provides a platform for anyone to express their thoughts, but the same information is used to create biased perceptions among masses
    • For Eg: essence of writing “Clickbait Headlines” is rooted in sensationalization of news.
  • Media takes their Freedom in wrong way: media should be independent by government or any political power, but sometime media take their independency in a wrong way.
    • For Eg: Supreme Court’s barring of Sudarshan News from telecasting a controversial programme on the entry of Muslims into the country’s civil services, named “UPSC Jihad”.
  • Media Verdict violates Rule of Law: verdict of media on any legal case before the court verdict is the contempt of the court, because verdict of media before court verdict is not correct. Media has no right to say anything about court verdict, so media should understand it and do their work properly in society.
    • For Eg: Media reporting of murder of Aarushi Talwar, when it pre-empted the court and reported that her own father Dr. Rajesh Talwar, and possibly her mother Nupur Talwar were involved in her murder, misguided the investigation process.
  • Media incarnation into Janata Adalat violates values of Ethical Public sentiments:It completely overlooks the vital gap between an accused and a convict keeping at stake the golden principles of ‘presumption of innocence until proven guilty’ and ‘guilt beyond reasonable doubt’.
  • Sensationalised Media Investigation affects value of Professionalism: Media itself does a separate investigation, builds a public opinion against the accused even before the court takes cognizance of the case.
  • This prejudices the public and sometimes even judges and as a result the accused, that should be assumed innocent, is presumed as a criminal leaving all his rights and liberty unrepressed.
  • This leads to undue interference with the “administration of justice.
  • Promotion of Fake Trials Promotes Irresponsible Leadership:For selfish interests, media do their work under political power to promote biased trials
    • For Eg: Extortion of money to protect the reputation of Jindal Brothers in Jindal Coalgate scam by zee news by spreading of fake news.

However, Media’s trial is not always wrong but many times their trials appreciated, for example the media trial on 2002 ‘Gujarat Riots’ was really appreciated. The trail of media helped the police to caught the real accused persons like ‘Bajrangi’ who was the one of the accused person, this was even considered by the supreme court during its verdict.

Way forward

  • The media’s immense power to shape narratives regarding public conceptions of justice makes it a close associate of the justice system, bringing with it a responsibility to uphold the basic principles of our justice system.
  • The media should feel subject to the obligation to do its part in aiding mechanisms that aim to preserve these principles.
  • On the other hand, a structured and well-designed media policy with training and enforcement mechanisms is the need of the hour for the police.

Conclusion:

Media’s trial is true if it is done by honest feeling otherwise it is false. No doubt that media is an integral part of a democratic county but media should work independently of selfish interests, political biases, greediness to improve TRPs, in essence media trial should not violate corporate ethics.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Highlighting the contributions of Indian technology industry, discuss the role played by India as an innovation powerhouse of the world. What are limiting factors to innovation in India? Suggest measures to overcome it.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

The Indian technology industry today has a presence in over 100 countries and draws on employees of over 150 nationalities. As per the Global Innovation Index 2021 ranking, India is the top innovative country in central and south Asia and holds the record for over-performing on innovation relative to its level of development for the 11th year in a row.

Key Demand of the question: 

To write about the Indian innovation scenario especially with regard to tech sector, limitations to Indian innovation and measures needed.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

First, write about the factors that have contributed to spread of innovation and achievements of India in it. Highlight the special achievements of Indian technology industry in this.

Next, write about the factors which limit the growth of innovation in the country.

Next, write about measures that can be taken in order to further boost spread of innovation in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

The Indian technology industry today has a presence in over 100 countries and draws on employees of over 150 nationalities. As per the Global Innovation Index 2021 ranking, India is the top innovative country in central and south Asia and holds the record for over-performing on innovation relative to its level of development for the 11th year in a row.

Body

contributions of Indian technology industry

  • Indian tech companies have become an integral part of the global economy.
  • According to our recent study with S&P Global, Indian IT contributed not only $80 billion to the US gross domestic product in 2021 and employed over 600,000 people.
  • It also strengthened the talent foundation with a strong focus on bridging the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) gap.
  • As per data published by the US Department of State, nearly 200,000 Indian students in the country contribute $7.7 billion annually to the US economy.
  • From the value chain through to end customers, Indian technology firms invest in American talent and technology that they augment with their global resources to develop cutting-edge innovations.
  • Our research indicates that since 2017, Indian IT has generated $103 billion of revenue and directly employed 207,000 people in the US.
  • By the third quarter of 2020, when the world was tackling the ripple effects of covid

Role played by India

  • Fertile ground: India is a fertile ground to be a technology-led innovation garage.
  • The Indian technology industry today has a presence in over 100 countries and draws on employees of over 150 nationalities.
  • As per the Global Innovation Index 2021 ranking, India is the top innovative country in central and south Asia and holds the record for over-performing on innovation relative to its level of development for the 11th year in a row.
  • This trend is also reflected in the number of patents filed by Indian domiciled companies in the West, mostly in the field of emerging technologies.
  • From the listing of Freshworks to Indian start-ups such as Meesho and Innov8 making their way to Silicon Valley, the Indian startup story has become real.

Limiting factors to innovation in India

  • Brain-Drain:India’s failures are linked to its inability to make use of the market-driven growth opportunities consequently leading the talented people out to countries like the U.S. for job opportunities.
    • As of 2019, there were 7 million Indian immigrants in the U.Swho are among the most educated and professionally accomplished communities in that country.
  • Gradual Decline in R&D Spending:In 1991, when India embraced markets and globalisation, it should have redoubled efforts to strengthen its technological capabilities.
    • However, the spending on research & development as a proportion of GDP declined in India(0.85% in 1990-91 to 0.65% in 2018).
    • In contrast, this proportion increased over the years in China and South Korea to reach 2.1% and 4.5%, respectively, by 2018.
  • Lesser Public Spending for Tertiary Education:An overwhelming proportion of tertiary students in India are enrolled in private institutions.
    • According to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), It was 60%for those enrolled for a bachelor’s degree in 2017, while the average for G20 countries was 33%.
  • High Import of Electronic Items:India is a large market for all kinds of new technologies. However, the domestic industry has not yet managed to derive the benefits.
    • The country is operating far below its potential in electronic manufacturing; electronic goods and components are the second largest item in India’s import billafter oil.
    • As of 2020-21, India’s imports are almost five times its exportsin this technology sector

Way forward

  • Role of Government:The government has a crucial role to play in positioning India as the Tech Garage of the World. It should act as a catalyst, and bring together the synergies of the private sector with the aim of innovating for India and the world.
    • The product development should ideally be undertaken through private entrepreneurship, with the government acting as a facilitator.
  • More Public Spending on Education:The ‘Make in India’ initiative will have to go beyond increasing the ‘ease of business’ for private industry. Indian industry needs to deepen and broaden its technological capabilities.
    • This will happen only if universities and public institutions in the country are strengthenedand emboldened to enter areas of technology development for which the private sector may have neither the resources nor the patience.
  • Strengthening the Public Sector:A strengthened public sector will create more opportunities for private businesses and widen the entrepreneurial base.
    • Small and medium entrepreneurs will flourish when there are mechanisms for the diffusion of publicly created technologies, along with greater availability of bank credit and other forms of assistance.
  • Utilising the ‘Techade’ up to its Maximum Potential:The “techade” is a portmanteau of technology and decade. Technology is going to be the key driver of the global economy in the next 20 years.
    • To take full advantage of the techade, India will need to play a constructive role in joining and shaping global standards that are currently in evolution – around privacy, data localisation, tax laws, the definition of monopolies, cyber security, immigration and predictability of regulations.
  • Role of the Indian Diaspora:The Indian diaspora who has mostly settled in Silicon Valley has played a very significant role by acting as the bridge between the Indian skills, human resources and the American technology requirements.
    • Indian diaspora, IIT, BITS or NIT alumni in particular, can play a very crucial role in acting as a mentor to the young talentsas they already have the experience and know what the advanced technologies and other developed countries want.
  • India-US Technology Partnership:The US companies want access to India’s data, talent, and consumers. India should also make efforts for an Indo-US technology partnership decade.
    • India and the US can collaborate in making the next generation of quantum computers, achieving breakthroughs in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI), making genome sequencingand analysis affordable etc.
    • A technology partnership can ignite rapid growth and set India up well for the future. Besides, India’s good bilateral relations with other technologically developed countries like Japan and Israel can also be leveraged.

Conclusion

India has the potential to occupy the upper echelons of the global technology ladder. What is required is that the PSUs in India should be valued for their potential long-term contributions to economic growth, the technologies they can create, and the strategic and knowledge assets they can build.

 

Topic: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

5. Indian Armed Forces require not just restructuring to theatre concept and greater integration but a common understanding on the need for cutting-edge technology. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate.

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The number of seminars, webinars and knowledge programmes on the theme ‘Securing India at 75’ have led to a latent interest in national security as a theme for further study.

 Key Demand of the question: 

To write about the reforms needed in the armed forces of India.

Directive word:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the importance of armed forces in safeguarding India’s sovereignty.

Body:

First, write about the various threats to India’s security and sovereignty in present day.

Next, write about the reforms that are needed in the armed forces to enable them that are able to withstand any challenges – integrate command, theatre concept, investment in technology, atmanirbhar in defence etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

The state of India’s national security and defence is getting worse than before and are in a dire need of reform. An integrated theatre command envisages a unified command of the three Services, under a single commander, for geographical theatres (areas) that are of strategic and security concern.

Body

Need for reforms in Armed forces of India

  • Centralisation – There are concerns that appointing NSA to SPG would lead to further centralisation of decision making.
  • The post of the NSA is also not a legally-mandated one and he has no parliamentary accountability.
  • LOC– Overall violence in Jammu and Kashmir and ceasefire violations on the Line of Control reached a 14-year high in 2017, and did not subside in 2018.
  • There are far more attacks on security forces and security installations in J&K, and militant recruitments and violence against civilians in the State are rising at an alarming rate.
  • Strategic Challenges in South Asia such as:
    • Conflict in Afghanistan and the Af-Pak border
    • Boundary disputes between India and China
    • Cross border terrorism and boundary dispute with Pakistan
    • The rising tide of Left-Wing Extremism (LWE).
    • Nuclear threat from hostile neighbours.
  • Defence preparedness – India spends close to $50 billion annually on defence and yet might still be ill-equipped to fight the wars of the modern age, especially in the neighbourhood.
  • India also suffers from almost non-functional higher defence organisation and the defence policy doesn’t hold any political oversight or vision.
  • Defence management– There is little conversation between the armed forces and the political class, and even lesser conversation among the various arms of the forces.
  • Our doctrines, command structures, force deployments and defence acquisition continue as though each arm is going to fight a future war on its own.
  • Modernisation– The state of modernisation and domestic defence industry in the country are in a sorry state.
  • Under the present system, where the ratio of revenue to capital expenditure in defence is roughly 65:35%, any serious attempt at modernisation would be impossible.
  • Military capacity: Low teeth-tail ratio, unfulfilled vacancies, etc. deters the credible military capacity. The tooth-to-tail ratio refers to the amount of supply and support personnel (termed as tail) for each combat soldier (tooth).
  • Budgetary allocations: Defence Budget stands at around 1.5% of GDP. There has been a persistent demand that defence expenditure be increased to three per cent of GDP.
  • War Equipment: Indian Army has stated that 68% of its war fighting equipment is obsolete which severely erodes Indian defence forces capabilities to fight a war.
  • Gender gap: The reforms, so far, have not addressed the monumental difference in the number of men and women in the Indian Army. A report noted that 96.2% of the Indian army is male
  • Cyber warfare: While cyber continues to be accorded a fair focus, it is information or cognitive warfare which needs a grand review, including the induction of civilian content into this domain as is the practice the world over

Way forward

  • Theatre commands: To have a CDS with operational powers who will after due legislative changes have theatre commanders report to him while the Service Chiefs will look after the raise, train and sustain functions of respective Services.
  • Holistic Approach:The reforms must include the entire national security architecture with a view to building an overarching organisation that can cohesively address the challenge of hybrid and unconventional wars such as cyber and space based wars.
  • The reforms approved by the Defence Ministry is a step in the right direction. However, reforms must be holistic and homogenous.
  • Aatmanirbharta in the defence sector strives for self-reliance in defence manufacturing and is the best way forward.
  • Prudent financial and resource management and a balance between local acquisitions and imports may have to be established for some time to ensure that cutting-edge technologies in the armed forces do not regress.
  • In this connection, the cyber and information domains need priority along with infusion of artificial intelligence.
  • A national body too may be needed separately to provide guidance and supervise the development of guidelines, concepts and doctrines for information warfare.

Conclusion

The meaning of networked warfare has changed from equipping armed forces with data networks to reorganizing the forces themselves into networked units. Instead of forever playing catch-up, India has a unique opportunity to leapfrog into building not only integrated, but networked forces.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“No man ever steps in the same river twice, for it’s not the same river and he’s not the same man.” ― Heraclitus

Difficulty level: Tough

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about the how change is the only constant in life and its part and parcel of life. Write as to how values, beliefs, ethics all keep changing over a period of time and so do human beings understanding of it. Cite examples to substantiate.

Next, write about how certain values and ethics are universal and eternal.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

 

Introduction

“Life is flux,” said the philosopher Heraclitus. The Greek philosopher pointed out in 500 BC that everything is constantly shifting, and becoming something other to what it was before. Like a river, life flows ever onwards, and while we may step from the riverbank into the river, the waters flowing over our feet will never be the same waters that flowed even one moment before. Heraclitus concluded that since the very nature of life is change, to resist this natural flow was to resist the very essence of our existence. “There is nothing permanent except change,” he said.

Body

We are all affected by the change. ‘Change’ has always been an unwelcoming guest in our diaries. It makes us rigid, uncomfortable and surrounding us with fear for losing. But we need to have a healthy attitude towards the idea of change, if we want to live our lives to the fullest. We need to be non-judgmental, keep focusing on the present situation and accept the things as they are and do change the things which are in our control without any fear.

This might be because the outcome of events and result scars us. However, if we go ahead and accept ‘change’ bravely, it will bless us with one more interesting and memorable chapter in life. We often take wrong decisions in life and because of this lose our courage to take risks. We start hating everything that brings ‘the so-called change to our lazy lives. We try to keep us chained in a safe zone instead of sailing through wild winds. Remember, taking wrong decisions are better than no decisions at all. Change is inevitable and this needs to be accepted.

Disruptive change brings new behaviors and creates new values. The biggest change that is required is the change of mentality which everybody knows is not easy to achieve.

Conclusion

“Life is a series of natural and spontaneous changes. Don’t resist them- that only creates sorrow. Let reality be reality. Let the things flow forward in a natural way.” – Lao Tzu

Perhaps the best thing we can do is not be afraid to embrace change in our life to achieve our goals or for our well being. If we do this, a person can avoid much suffering in his life or in others lives too. Just go with the flow of life. It’s better that way. Again Change is the only constant in life.

 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

​“The wealth required by nature is limited and is easy to procure; but the wealth required by vain ideals extends to infinity.” ― Epicurus

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about the need to understand what is needed and what is excessive and fuelled by greed. Write about the vain ideals like greed, power etc and quest for unlimited wealth and its implication.

Next, write about how contentment and possessing what is required is a good way of life. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

Mahatma Gandhi said, “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need, but not every man’s greed.” What Gandhi meant was that the nature earth has enough resources and means to meet the basic requirements of a man but it can’t serve the endless greed of man. He added that the rich must not only restrict their wants but must also treat their wealth as ‘trust’ for poor and use it for the welfare of poor.

Body

In the present context, this idea is very important as there is an urgent need in the society for being content with what one earns through legitimate means. Greed know no limits. That is why, we see greedy people running after their material urges endlessly, and compromising their core values. This is a sign of moral degradation of the individual as well as the society.

Following Gandhi’s idea, we can construct a harmonious society, marked by peace and cooperation. Whereas, a society, characterized by greedy people can only face conflicts and wars. The world is whirling under the burden of global warming, climate change and resource crunch and all environmental conservation treaties and sustainable development efforts must implement this sustainable philosophy.

Conclusion

Being content with one’s earning is the foundation of cultivating a moral-ethical character. In today’s society it is a necessity to cultivate this value among the people, and more particularly among the public servants, as they are responsible for bringing good to the society.


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