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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 09 August 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. How was quit India movement different from earlier mass movements for India’s struggle for independence? Evaluate its role in India achieving Independence. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express , Insights on India

Why the question:

80 years ago — on August 9, 1942 — the people of India launched the decisive final phase of the struggle for independence. It was a mass upsurge against colonial rule on a scale not seen earlier, and it sent out the unmistakable message that the sun was about to set on the British Empire in India.

Key Demand of the question:

To write how Quit India movement was different from the previous mass movements and its role in India’s independence.

Directive word: 

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give the context of political scene of the country that led to the launch of Quit India movement

Body:

Write about the factors that made the movement stand apart from other struggles or movements against the Imperial rule, on lines of, Gandhi’s strategy, emergence of new leaders, Violence, Princely States, new developments and mass involvement etc and the way it aligned the local interest with that of national interest.

Next, write about to what extent the quit India movement influenced Indian independence.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a balanced opinion the role of quit India in Indian independence.

 

Introduction

The failure of the Cripps Mission in April 1942 made it clear that Britain was unwilling to offer an honourable settlement and a real constitutional advance during the War. Consequently, Gandhiji drafted a resolution for the Congress Working Committee calling for Britain’s withdrawal and nation edged towards Quit India Movement or August Kranti. Mahatma Gandhi’s clarion call of ‘Do or Die’ inspired thousands of party workers but also created frenzy among the British who rushed to imprison the entire Congress leadership.

Body

Quit India Movement stands apart:

  • Social radicalism of Gandhi:
    • In a sharp contrast to Non-cooperation movement, where Gandhi withdrew after Chauri Chaura incident, in Quit India movement he not only refused to condemn the people’s resort to violence but unequivocally held government responsible for it.
    • Though the need for non-violence was always reiterated, Gandhi’s mantra of Do or Die represents the militant mood of Gandhi.
    • Gandhi also gave a call to all sections of the people, the princes, the Jagirdars, the Zamindars, the propertied and moneyed classes, who derive their wealth and property from the workers in the fields and factories and elsewhere, to whom eventually power and authority belong.
    • This  indicates Gandhi’s social radicalism and shift in the philosophy of the Congress, by now people with the goals of socialism and communism have become a part of the broad-based Congress organization.
  • Violent at some places:
    • The Quit India Movement was mainly a non-violent movement. However, it became violent at some places.Rails were uprooted, post offices were set on fire and offices were destroyed.
  • Leaderless movement:
    • Even before the formal launching of the movement, the government in a single sweep arrested all the top leaders of the Congress. This led to spontaneous outburst of mass anger against the arrest of leaders. 
    • The spontaneous participation of the massesin the Quit India movement made it one of the most popular mass movements.
  • Demand for independence:
    • This historic movement placed the demand for independence on the immediate agendaof the national movement.
    • The spirit unleashed was carried further by Indian National Army of Subhas Chandra Bose. After ‘Quit India’ there could be no retreat. Independence was no longer a matter of bargain.
    • It accelerated and sustained the urge for freedom and enabled India to achieve freedom in 1947.
  • Establishment of Parallel Governments:
    • Parallel governments were established at many places.
    • Balliaunder Chittu Pandey, got many Congress leaders released.
    • In Tamluk and Contai subdivisions of Midnaporein West Bengal, the local populace were successful in establishing Jatiya Sarkar, which undertook cyclone relief work, sanctioned grants to schools, supplied paddy from the rich to the poor, organised Vidyut Vahinis, etc.
    • In Satara (Maharashtra)“Prati Sarkar”,was organised under leaders like Y.B. Chavan, Nana Patil, etc. Village libraries and Nyayadan Mandals were organised
  • Underground Activity:
    • Many nationalists went underground and took to subversive activities.
    • The participants in these activities were the Socialists, Forward Bloc members, Gandhi ashramites, revolutionary nationalists and local organisations in Bombay, Poona, Satara, Baroda and other parts of Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra, United Provinces, Bihar and Delhi.
    • The main personalities taking up underground activity were Rammanohar Lohia, Jayaprakash Narayan, Aruna Asaf Ali, Usha Mehta, Biju Patnaik, Chhotubhai Puranik, Achyut Patwardhan, Sucheta Kripalani and R.P. Goenka.
    • Usha Mehtastarted an underground radio in Bombay.
    • This phase of underground activity was meant to keep up popular morale by continuing to provide a line of command and guidance to distribute arms and ammunition
  • Strong women participation:
    • Quit India movement was unique in the sense that it saw women participation where they not only participated as equals but also led the movement.
    • Women, especially school and college girls, actively participated, and included Aruna Asaf Ali, Sucheta Kripalani and Usha Mehta.
    • There was Matangini Hazra, who lead a procession of 6,000 people, mostly women, to ransack a local police station.
  • Extent of Mass Participation
    • The participation was on many levels.
    • Youth, especially the students of schools and colleges, remained in the forefront.
    • Workerswent on strikes and faced repression.
    • Peasantsof all strata were at the heart of the movement.
    • Even some zamindars
    • Government officials, especially those belonging to lower levels in police and administration, participated resulting in erosion of government loyalty.
    • Muslimshelped by giving shelter to underground activists. There were no communal clashes during the movement.

Role of QIM in India achieving Independence

  • The movement was carried forward without the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, or any other leader, all of whom were jailed on its commencement.
  • All sections of people participated in huge numbers.
  • Decentralized command was the prime significance of this movement.
  • The British began to seriously think about the issue of Indian independence after seeing the upsurge among the masses.
  • It changed the nature of political negotiations with British Empire in 1940s which ultimately paved the way of India’s independence.
  • The Quit India movement for the first time saw the active engagement of women and students.
  • The movement showed the British that their hold on India was weakening and they began to explore options to quit the country.
  • The slogan of ‘Do or Die’ remains the most Kranti Kari slogan to this day.

Conclusion

Despite its failure, the Quit India movement is considered significant as it made the British Government realize that India was ungovernable in the long run. Post the Second World War, the question that was most prominent for the British was on how to exit India peacefully.

 

 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent);

2. Examine the role of livestock in India farmers’ economy. How can this be further improved to ensure better returns for farmers? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To examine the role of livestock in India farmers’ economy and ways to further augment it.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the statistic related to livestock as part of agriculture in India.

Body:

First, explain the contributions of livestock in ensuring better returns to Farmers, additional income, giving choice and security in the period of distress.

In the next part, write about the various measures taken by promote livestock in the country and further measures that are required so that it yield maximum returns.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

India’s livestock sector is one of the largest in the world. About 20.5 million people depend upon livestock for their livelihood. Livestock contributed 16% to the income of small farm households as against an average of 14% for all rural households. Livestock provides livelihood to two-third of rural community. It also provides employment to about 8.8 % of the population in India. India has vast livestock resources. Livestock sector contributes 4.11% GDP and 25.6% of total Agriculture GDP.

Body

Trends in livestock population: (Source: 20th Livestock Census)

  • Total Livestock population is 535.78 million- an increase of 4.6% over Livestock Census-2012.
  • Total Bovine population (Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun and Yak)-79 Million in 2019- an increase of about 1% over the previous census.
  • decline of 6 % in the total Indigenous/ Non-descript cattle population over the previous census.
  • The population of cows in the country has risen by 18 per cent in the last seven years, while that of oxen dipped by 30 per cent, according to the latest census of livestock.
  • there was a spectacular 16.8 per cent increase in the poultry population in the country to 851.81 million, mainly on account of a 46 per cent rise in backyard poultry birds, whose numbers have gone up to 317 million.
  • The number of female cattle is 145.12 million, which is 18 per cent over the 122.98 million in 2012. The number of male cattle, on the other hand, dropped to 47.4 million as against 67.92 million in 2012.
  • While cattle accounted for 35.94 per cent of total livestock in the country, goats accounted for 27.80 per cent, buffaloes: 20.45 per cent, sheep: 13.87 per cent and pigs: 1.69 per cent.

Role of livestock in socio-economic life of India:

The livestock plays an important role in the economy of farmers. The farmers in India maintain mixed farming system i.e. a combination of crop and livestock where the output of one enterprise becomes the input of another enterprise thereby realize the resource efficiency. The livestock serve the farmers in different ways.

  • Income:
    • Livestock is a source of subsidiary income for many families in India especially the resource poor who maintain few heads of animals.
    • Cows and buffaloes if in milk will provide regular income to the livestock farmers through sale of milk.
    • Animals like sheep and goat serve as sources of income during emergencies to meet exigencies like marriages, treatment of sick persons, children education, repair of houses etc.
    • The animals also serve as moving banks and assets which provide economic security to the owners.
  • Employment:
    • A large number of people in India being less literate and unskilled depend upon agriculture for their livelihoods.
    • But agriculture being seasonal in nature could provide employment for a maximum of 180 days in a year.
    • The land less and less land people depend upon livestock for utilizing their labour during lean agricultural season.
  • Food:
    • The livestock products such as milk, meat and eggs are an important source of animal protein to the members of the livestock owners.
    • The per capita availability of milk is around 355 g / day; eggs is 69 / annum;
  • Social security:
    • The animals offer social security to the owners in terms of their status in the society.
    • The families especially the landless which own animals are better placed than those who do not.
    • Gifting of animals during marriages is a very common phenomenon in different parts of the country.
    • Rearing of animals is a part of the Indian culture. Animals are used for various socio religious functions.
    • Cows for house warming ceremonies; rams, bucks and chicken for sacrifice during festive seasons;
    • Bulls and Cows are worshipped during various religious functions. Many owners develop attachment to their animals.
  • Gender equity:
    • Animal husbandry promotes gender equity.
    • More than three-fourth of the labour demand in livestock production is met by women.
    • The share of women employment in livestock sector is around 90% in Punjab and Haryana where dairying is a prominent activity and animals are stall-fed.
  • Draft:
    • The bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture.
    • The farmers especially the marginal and small depend upon bullocks for ploughing, carting and transport of both inputs and outputs.
  • Dung:
    • In rural areas dung is used for several purposes which include fuel (dung cakes), fertilizer (farm yard manure), and plastering material (poor man’s cement).

Measures to strengthen Livestock sector

  • Increase in the market share depends on how dairy firms’ capabilities and their resources are utilised given the opportunities and threats emanating from emerging markets economies.
  • Contract/corporate dairying and emerging global dairy trade are required to rope in dairy supply chains stakeholders in order to expand their outreach and “on-the-go” product positioning into the target segment.
  • Digital technology-enabled dairy firms need to identify their compatible partners and competitors for co-creation through product-process innovation via relationship/value-based marketing.
  • Freshness in milk, and convenience to store milk or milk products can be a technology innovation brought in by large dairy firms in association start-ups.
  • Education and Training at Panchayat level for small and medium size farmers
  • Subsidizing cattle production and encouraging cattle markets
  • Facility of logistics for produced milk
  • Improved Veterinary facility specially in artificial insemination of cattle
  • Encouraging private sector firm to procure dairy produced at rural level
  • Low interest loans for small and medium scale farmers for cattle purchase
  • Encouraging rural women to take up animal husbandry
  • Insurance of cattle against diseases like Anthrax, Foot and Mouth, Peste des Ruminantes, etc.
  • Nurture dairy entrepreneurs through effective training of youth at the village level coupled with dedicated leadership and professional management of farmers’ institutions.
  • Agricultural practices, sanitation, quality of drinking water & fodder, type and quality of pipelines – all of these need to be aligned to the goal of healthy milk

Conclusion

With increasing population, persistent rise in food inflation, unfortunate rise in farmer’s suicide and majority of the Indian population having agriculture as the primary occupation, the practice of animal husbandry is no more a choice, but a need in contemporary scenario. Its successful, sustainable and skilful implementation will go a long way in ameliorating the socio-economic condition of lower strata of our society.  Linking the animal husbandry with food processing industry, agriculture, researches & patents has all the possible potential to make India a nutritional power house of the world. Animal husbandry is the imperative hope, definite desire and urgent panacea for India as well as the world.

 

 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent);

3. India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral resources due to its varied geological structure. Discuss the distribution of major metallic and non-metallic minerals in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about to diversity of minerals in India and distribution of major metallic and non-metallic minerals.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by mentioning about minerals profile of India and their importance.

Body:

First, with a neat illustrative map, highlight the distribution of major non-metallic minerals such as coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite and copper etc

Next, with a neat illustrative map, highlight the distribution of major non-metallic minerals such as Mica, Limestone, Dolomite, Asbestos, Magnesite, Gypsum and Kyanite etc.

Next, write about vertical distributions of Salinity – increases with increasing depth, draw a small diagram to show the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the importance of the above.

 

Introduction

               Metals are material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Non-metals are minerals (Non-metallic minerals) which, as a rule, do not serve as raw material for the extraction of metal. The group of non-metals, which is widespread amongst the variety of minerals, is of great economic significance.

Body

Distribution of major metallic minerals in India

  • Iron Ore
    • It is a metal of universal use, and backbone of modern civilization
    • Haematite has around 70% of metallic content
      • Found in Dharwad and Cuddapah rock systems of peninsular India
      • Most of it is found in states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh
      • In western section, major concentration is in Karnataka, Maharashtra and Goa
    • Magnetite is the second best ore, with metallic content varying from 60-70%
      • These have magnetic quality, and occur in Dharwad and Cuddapah systems
      • Most reserves are found in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu and Kerala
    • Limonite are inferior ores, which contain 40-60% iron metal
      • These are found in Raniganj coal field, Garhal in Uttarakhand, Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh and Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh
    • Siderite contain concentration less than 40%. It contains many impurities and hence mining not economically viable
  • Manganese
    • It is an important mineral for making iron and steel; and it acts as a basic raw material for manufacturing alloys
    • The total Manganese ores are distributed in Odisha(44%), Karnataka(22%), Madhya Pradesh(13%), Maharashtra(8%), Andhra Pradesh(4%) and Jharkhand & goa(3% each),
  • Copper
    • Copper ore is found in ancient as well as in younger rock formations and occurs as veins, as dissemination and as bedded deposits
    • Rajasthan has around 50% of total copper ore in the country; followed by Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand
    • The rest are accounted for by Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamilnadu, Uttarakhand and West Bengal
  • Nickel
    • It doesn’t occur free in nature and is found in association with copper
    • The important occurrences of Nickiliferous limonite are found in Jajapur district of Odisha
    • Nickel is found in Sulphide form in Jharkhand
    • Other important occurrences of Nickel are in Karnataka, Kerala and Rajasthan
  • Lead and Zinc
    • Lead is a widely used metal due to its malleability, softness, heaviness and bad heat conductivity
    • Rajasthan is endowed with the largest resources of lead-zinc ore, followed by Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Maharashtra
    • Resources are also established in Gujarat, Meghalaya, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand and West Bengal
  • Bauxite
    • This is an important ore for making Aluminium
    • Among states, Odisha accounts for 52% of country’s resources of bauxite followed by Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, Madhya pradesh and Jharkhand
    • When it comes to production, Odisha is the largest producer followed by Chattisgarh
  • Gold
    • It is a valuable metal, used for making ornaments and is an international currency due to universal use
    • In term of metal content, Karnataka has the highest reserves followed by Rajasthan, reserves followed by Rajasthan, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand
  • Silver
    • The chief ore mineral of silver are agentine, stephanite, pyargyrite
    • The main production comes from Zawar mines in Udaipur district of Rajasthan
    • Some silver is produced in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh as well

Distribution of major non-metallic minerals in India

 

  • Mica
    • India is one of the foremost suppliers of mica to the world.
    • Andhra Pradesh (41 per cent), Rajasthan (21 per cent), Odisha (20 per cent), Maharashtra (15 per cent), Bihar (2 per cent), Jharkhand (Less than 1 per cent)
  • Limestone
    • Limestone deposits are of sedimentary origin and exist in all the geological sequences from Pre-Cambrian to Recent except in Gondwana.
    • Over three-fourths of the total limestone of India is produced by Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and Tamil Nadu.
  • Asbestos
    • Two states of Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh produce almost the whole of asbestos of India.
  • Magnesite
    • Major deposits of magnesite are found in Uttaranchal, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan.
    • Tamil Nadu is the largest producer [three-fourth] of magnesite in India.
    • The largest in India are found at Chalk Hills near Salem town.
  • Salt
    • Rock salt is taken out in Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh and in Gujarat. It is less than 1 per cent of the total salt produced in India.
    • Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan produces about 10 per cent of our annual production.
    • Sea brine is the source of salt in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
    • Gujarat coast produces nearly half of our salt.

Conclusion

Mineral resources of a country and the extent of its utilization are important determinants of growth and prosperity of a nation and its people. Though the actual value of mineral production accounts for only a small percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country, it plays a vital role in world economy, as it has a direct bearing to the industrial growth and developments in the frontiers of science and technology.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government;

4. Explain the roles and responsibilities of the Vice-President of India. How can the Vice-President play a role forging better ties between the opposition and the executive?  (250 words).

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

Jagdeep Dhankhar will take oath as the 14th Vice-President of the country on Thursday, a day after the term of the incumbent Vice-President, M. Venkaiah Naidu, ends.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the function of Vice-President of India and how he can play a role in forging better ties with opposition and the executive.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning about Article 63.

Body:

In the first part, write about the functions of the VP of India in detail – ex-officio chairman of RS, stepping in for president, second highest constitutional office.

Next, write about the ways how the VP can act as a bridge between ensuring smooth relations between the opposition and the executive.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the importance of VP for the parliamentary democracy.

Introduction

Article 63 of the Indian Constitution states that “there shall be a Vice-President of India”. Jagdeep Dhankhar will take oath as the 14th Vice-President of the country on August 10, 2022, a day after the term of the incumbent Vice-President, M. Venkaiah Naidu, ends. Article 68 of the Constitution of India states that an election to fill the vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of the outgoing Vice-President is required to be completed before the expiration of the term.

Body

Roles & Responsibilities of Vice president of India

  • Under Article 64, the Vice-President “shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of the States” (Rajya Sabha).
  • Article 65 says that “in the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the date on which a new President…enters upon his office”.
  • The Vice-President shall also discharge the functions of the President when the latter is unable to do so “owing to absence, illness or any other cause”.
  • During this period, the Vice-President shall “have all the powers and immunities of the President and be entitled to emoluments, allowances and privileges” that are due to the President.
  • The office of the Vice-President of India is the second-highest constitutional office after that of the President, and ranks second in the order of precedence.
  • The election of a person as Vice-President cannot be challenged on the ground that the electoral college was incomplete (i.e., existence of any vacancy among the members of the electoral college).
  • If the election of a person as Vice-President is declared void by the Supreme Court, acts done by him before the date of such declaration of the Supreme Court are not invalidated (i.e., they continue to remain in force).
  • The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States. He may cast his vote when there is a tie.
  • He represents the Council of States on ceremonial occasions.
  • He protects the rights and privileges of the members of the Council of States.
  • He visits foreign countries on goodwill missions.

Role of Vice President in forging better ties between the opposition and the executive

  • Vice- President should ensure that Parliamentary proceedings are not continuously stalled, Members of Parliament are not suspended randomly and there is no complete breakdown of communication between the ruling dispensation and the Opposition parties.
  • Vice- President should ensure that Government doesn’t repeatedly bypass the Rajya Sabha in the making of critical laws by arbitrarily classifying pieces of legislation as money Bills.
  • His role as Chairman should be more to protect the Opposition’s space, debates and ensure accountability of the executive.
  • The inauguration of the new Vice-President should renew hopes for parliamentary democracy.

Conclusion

However, the post of Vice-President is not superfluous. His position is one of honor, dignity, as well as of influence. He presides over the meetings of the Rajya Sabha. While acting as the President, the Vice-President has the same powers, privileges, and immunities as the President. As suchhe is the ‘No.2 Citizen’ of the country. But he has potential to be promoted to the position of No.1 Citizen of India.

 

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential;

5. Analyse the role of good governance and pragmatic policy making in sustaining high growth, create jobs and make Atmanirbhar Bharat a success. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Live MintIndian Express

Why the question:

India’s policy focus needs to be two-fold. We must increase gross domestic product (GDP) as well as sustainable employment.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the role of good governance and pragmatic policy making in ensuring the success of Atmanirbhar bharat.

Structure of the answer:

Directive:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with defining good governance.

Body:

First, discuss the importance of good governance in achieving India’s developmental aspirations like Atmanirbhar – ensuring proper utilisation of funds, better allocation, timely completion, accountability etc.

Next, discuss the importance of pragmatic policy making in achieving India’s developmental aspirations like Atmanirbhar – avoiding freebies, taking bold reforms, ensuring sustainable development etc.

Next, write about the ways to achieve the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

Governance comprises all of the processes of governing – whether undertaken by the government of a state, by a market or by a network – over a social system (Family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power, or language of an organized society. Good governance is a means to serve the people, by fulfilling their aspirations within the constitutional framework.

Body

In this context, 2nd ARC suggested various measures to improve governance, therefore the word ‘good governance’ implies:

  • Responsive, accountable, sustainable and efficient administration at all levels.
  • Further, transparency, accountability, rule of law, principle of subsidiarity and citizen first form basics of good governance.
  • For ex.- delivery of services like PDS shall be quick, devoid of middlemen, reach even the most marginalised at minimum cost.

Role of good governance and pragmatic policy making in sustaining high growth, create jobs and make Aatmanirbhar Bharat a success

  • Efficient processes — due to repeatability and consistency of tasks.
  • Visibility of errors — repeatability and consistency quickly highlights nonconformities in the process.
  • Reduced costs — repeatability and consistency eliminates waste from scrap, rework and other non-value added processes.
  • Smoother running operations — ‘fire-fighting’ is eliminated and products follow either a ‘conforming’ or ‘nonconforming’ route.
  • Conforming products in the market — product that reaches the market meets the intended specification and works correctly.
  • good governance delivers good products which in turn lead to good business performance. The reputation of a company can make or break it in the market.
  • Good governance can also help you secure investment by creating formal reporting procedures that clearly lay out everything that investors need to know.
  • good governance reduces the threat of safety, legal, performance and warranty concerns that can severely impact an organisation and its stakeholders/interested parties.
  • Greatness can be achieved when good governance principles and practises are applied throughout the whole organisation and that’s why governance is important.

Way forward

  • Measures to enhance good governance, such as the Right to Information Act, social audits, and public service guarantee actsin various States is necessary.
  • Need for a fresh perspective from the outside–for example, bringing in a consultant who specializes in type of change with your type of organization–to encourage people to see that workable alternatives are possible.
  • Top-Down approach:The bosses at the top should lead by example. Changes will automatically trickle down to the lowest level.
  • An effective multi-generational teamwill work within an environment that doesn’t intimidate and allows for ownership of the vision at all levels.
  • The process of change within a bureaucracy to be slower than you might like. Create a phased implementation that the organization can digest change a little at a time.
  • The changes will encounter some resistance, and it needs to be combated gradually through constant and clear communication at all levels.
  • Make technology employee-friendly, increase their ease of use and educate employees about the advantages and benefits of how technology eases work.
  • Transparent and objective performance assessment system to keep the staff motivated.
  • Accountability towards decision making to be instilled in the organization.
  • Social audits need to be strengthened by educating and make people aware.
  • During policy formation and implementation, civil society members should be consulted so that the measures should be taken properly.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

6. What is tax-GDP ratio? What are the reasons behind India’s low tax-GDP ratio? What implications does it have on the Indian economy? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

One of the stylised beliefs in India, and amongst some leading economic commentators both in India and abroad, is that our tax/GDP ratio is lower than what it “should” be. Many ills are laid at the door of this hypothesised low tax/GDP ratio.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the tax-GDP ratio, reasons for its lower rate and implications of it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining tax-GDP ratio.

Body:

In the first part, write about the various reasons as to why India’s tax-GDP ratio is on the lower side – historical, structural, compliance and policy reasons.

Next, write about the potential implications of India having a low tax-GDP ratio.

Next, write the steps that are needed to improve India’s tax-GDP ratio.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

The tax-to-GDP ratio is the ratio of tax collected compared to national gross domestic product (GDP). The tax-to-GDP ratio gives policymakers and analysts a metric that they can use to compare tax receipts from year to year. The number of taxpayers is a key indicator of fiscal capacity.

Body

Reasons behind India’s low tax-GDP ratio

  • “Generous” government policy.
  • Tax exemption raj that benefited the richer private sector.
  • India has relatively large informal/unorganised sector, and tax evasion is more rampant in informal sector compare to organised sector.
  • Low per capita income, high poverty, keeps tax collections low.
  • Out of 25 crore households in India, 15 crore belong to agricultural sector which are exempted from taxes.
  • A parallel economy of unaccounted incomes and expenditures exists which goes untaxed.
  • India has one of the highest numbers of disputes between tax administration and taxpayers, with lowest proportion of recovery of tax arrears.
  • India’s direct to indirect tax ratio is roughly 35:65. This is in contrast to most OECD economies where the ratio is the exact opposite, 67:33 in favour of direct taxes.

Implications on the Indian economy

  • The imbalance between the number of people who pay income tax on the one hand and the number of people who can vote on the other hand has profound implications for the Indian social contract.
  • It creates political incentives for successive governments to borrow money to buy votes rather than build an effective tax system that will spur economic growth.
  • Citizens are also less likely to put pressure on governments to spend wisely on public goods.
  • The Indian State is incapable of spending for national security, a modern welfare system or public goods from its tax revenue.
  • Because of low tax revenue government has to borrow heavily. The result is apersistent deficit bias in Indian fiscal policy.
  • Successful nation states cannot be built on widespread tax evasion.
  • Most of the tax burden falls on the precisely the high-productivity sectors that need to grow.
  • Lack of adequate tax base create avenues for creation of black money and It hampers governance due to generation of black money and parallel economy
  • Lower revenue collection reduces the Government capacity to incur expenditure for welfare schemes. For ex. Recent cut in the budget of ICDS, shutting down of Nutrition Bureau etc.
  • It will increase government’s dependence on Indirect tax which is regressive.
  • Widen social inequality due to ineffective distribution of economic resources

Way forward

  • Political efforts to bring India’s informal sector into the formal sector, levelling the playing field, and increasing total wealth
  • Reduce tax rate as India has one of the highest tax rates in the world and thereby preventing tax evasion.
  • Focus on widening tax base rather than deepening it
  • Simplification of direct tax laws as suggested by Justice Easwar committee must be looked into.
  • Introduction of GST coupled with robust IT infrastructure (ex. Project SAKSHAM, Project INSIGHT) will bring transparency and accountability in tax payment and collection.
  • “In the long run, if India is to stay “on the line” as its per capita income grows, it will need to build fiscal capacity,” the Survey said.
  • Economic survey has suggested taxing farm sector.

Conclusion

Nobel-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz summarizes that optimal tax system would be “progressive income taxes, complemented by indirect taxation, property taxes and capital taxes that enhance the progressivity that can be achieved by the tax system while limiting the level of distortion. India must work towards achieving this ideal.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: challenges of corruption.

7. Efforts must be intensified to improve governance frameworks and strengthen actions to improve the prevention, detection and sanctioning of corruption. Discuss. (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about improving efforts at combating corruption.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by defining corruption.

Body:

First, write about the major implications of corruption on political and social progress for countries at all levels of development. Write about the steps that are place to check and prevent corruption.

Next, write about the improvements needed in the governance frameworks to eliminate corruption in the country.

Conclusion:

Complete by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Corruption is an important manifestation of the failure of ethics. It is unfortunate that corruption has, for many, become a matter of habit, ranging from grand corruption involving persons in high places to retail corruption touching the everyday life of common people.

As Gladstone has aptly said, The purpose of a government is to make it easy for people to do good and difficult to do evil”.

Body

Various administrative reforms brought by the government recently, to encourage greater

efficiency, to transparency and create corruption free governance:

  • Launch of “Mission Karmayogi”-National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB), a new national architecture for civil services capacity building has been launched.  It is a comprehensive reform of the capacity building apparatus at individual, institutional and process levels for efficient public service delivery;
  • e-Samiksha-real time online system for monitoring and follow up action on the decisions taken by the Government at the Apex level in respect of implementation of important Government programmes / projects;
  • e-Office-e-Office Mission Mode Project (MMP) has been strengthened for enabling Ministries/ Departments to switchover to paperless office and efficient decision making;
  • Self-certification of documents for appointments-From June, 2016, recruiting agencies issue provisional appointment letters based on submission of self-certified documents by the candidates;
  • Discontinuation of interview in recruitment of junior level posts-From January, 2016, interview has been dispensed with for recruitment to all Group ‘C’, Group ‘B’ (Non-Gazetted posts) and other equivalent posts in all Government of India Ministries/ Departments/ Attached Offices/ Subordinate Offices/ Autonomous Bodies/ Public Sector Undertakings to curb malpractices and for bringing objectivity to the selection process;
  • Appointment at senior positions-Multi-source feedback for empanelment for the posts of Joint Secretary and above has been introduced;
  • Citizen Charters-Government has mandated Citizen Charters for all Ministries/Departments which are updated and reviewed on a regular basis.  The Citizen Charters of Central Government Departments are available at the respective web-sites of Ministries/Departments and Government of India charters website
  • Intensive review for weeding out inefficient and Officers of doubtful integrity by premature retirement;
  • Use of Integrated Government Online Training Programme for online module-based training;
  • Good Governance Index 2019– was launched, which assesses the Status of Governance and impact of various interventions taken up by the State Government and Union Territories (UTs). The objectives of GGI are to provide quantifiable data to compare the state of governance in all States and UTs, enable States and UTs to formulate and implement suitable strategies for improving governance and shift to result oriented approaches and administration;
  • Comprehensive restructuring of the Scheme for ‘Prime Minister’s Awards for Excellence in Public Administration’ in 2014 and thereafter in 2020;
  • To promote e-Governance in a holistic manner, various policy initiatives and projects have been undertaken to develop core and support infrastructure;
  • National Conference on e-Governance –provides a platform for government to engage with experts, intellectuals from industry and academic institutions to exchange experiences relating to e-Governance initiatives;
  • National e-Governance Service Delivery Assessment –aims at assessing the States, UTs and Central Ministries on the efficiency of e-Governance service delivery;
  • Centralized Public Grievance Redress and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS)-The Government is undertaking CPGRAMS reforms in the top grievance receiving Ministries/ Departments by enabling questionnaire guided registration process and providing for automatic forwarding of grievances to field level functionaries thereby reducing the redress time;
  • Increasing efficiency in decision making in Central Secretariat by reducing the channel of submission to 4, adoption of e-Office version 7.0, digitization of central registration units, greater delegation of virtual private networks under the Central Secretariat Manual of Office Procedure 2019, and adoption of desk officer system.

Way forward to curb corruption:

The solution to the problem of corruption has to be more systemic than any other issue of governance. Merely shrinking the economic role of the state by resorting to deregulation, liberalization and privatization is not necessarily the solution to addressing the problem.

  • Adopting effective and coordinated policies against corruption
    • Developing a coherent anti-corruption policy which identifies the causes of corruption and commits to practical, coordinated and effective measures to address these causes is a prerequisite for success.
  • Fair and transparent system of public procurement
    • Establishing a procurement system, built on the principles of objectivity, transparency and competition, is important to both saving public money and to ensuring that the policy and developmental objectives of the government are met.
      • g.: GeM Government E-market Place is a step in the right directions. With this, Public Finance Management System also helps in tracking the real-time usage of funds.
    • Strengthened transparency and public reporting
      • An informed society with free access to information is a strong deterrent to corruption.
      • This underlines the importance of transparency, public reporting and access to information in preventing corruption.
      • Right to Information needs to be strengthened to make the public officials and governments more accountable to the citizens.
      • Citizens must be Vigilant: Otherwise, like Plato said “The punishment suffered by the wise who refuse to take part in government, is to suffer under the government of bad men”
    • Institutional monitoring and legislative reforms
      • Prevalent institutional arrangements have to be reviewed and changes made where those vested with power are made accountable, their functioning made more transparent and subjected to social audit with a view to minimize discretionary decisions.
      • Napoleon who said, ‘Law should be so succinct that it can be carried in the pocket of the coat and it should be so simple that it can be understood by a peasant’.
      • The 2nd ARC recommended that The Prevention of Corruption Act should be amended to ensure that sanctioning authorities are not summoned and instead the documents can be obtained and produced before the courts by the appropriate authority.
    • E-governance
      • The focus should be on e-governance and systemic change. An honest system of governance will displace dishonest persons.
    • Other Reforms
      • All procedures, laws and regulations that breed corruption and come in the way of efficient delivery system will have to be eliminated.
      • The perverse system of incentives in public life, which makes corruption a high return low risk activity, need to be addressed.
      • In this context, public example has to be made out of people convicted on corruption charge

Second ARC guidelines to prevent corruption

  • Vigilance and Corruption:
    • Strengthening pro-active vigilance to eliminate corruption and harassment to honest civil servants including, wherever necessary, limiting executive discretion.
    • Addressing systemic deficiencies manifesting in reluctance to punish the corrupt.
    • Identify procedures, rules and regulations and factors which lead to corruption.
  • Relationship between Political Executive and Permanent Civil Service: Improvements in the institutional arrangements for smooth, efficient and harmonious relationship between civil service and the political executive is needed.
  • Code of Conduct for different organs of Government: This includes Political Executive, Civil Services, etc.

Conclusion

“Rivers do not drink their waters themselves, nor do trees eat their fruit, nor do the clouds eat the grains raised by them. The wealth of the noble is used solely for the benefit of others.” Corruption needs to be rooted out from the very core of our nation, so that there is justiciable distribution of resources in the country leading to inclusive growth and ‘Sabka Vikas.’


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