Print Friendly, PDF & Email



InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Recalling the ‘Quit India Movement’


GS Paper 2:

1. India, democracy and the promised republic

2. Launch a national tribal health mission

3. The coming battle for Taiwan


GS Paper 3:

1. Water Management in India


Content for Mains Enrichment (Essay/Ethics)

1. Tetrapod based Sea wall


Facts for Prelims:

1. Culture Ministry-Google ‘India ki Udaan’ initiative

2. PARVAZ Market Linkage scheme

3. Indian Virtual Herbarium

4. SC: Unmarried women can avail abortion services

5. World Tribal Day 2022

6. Great Barrier Reef

7. Portulaca oleracea

Recalling ‘Quit India Movement’

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.


Source: The Indian Express


On August 9, 1942, the biggest mass movement of the Indian freedom struggle i.e Quit India Movement was launched. This year marks 80 years of the Quit India Movement or Bharat Chhodo Aandolan.

Direction: Quit India Movement forms one of the most important parts of both the Preliminary and the Mains, specifically the Indian National Struggle for Freedom. Try to remember a few reasons which led to this, its success and failures.

The causes:

  • Involvement of India in World War II without prior consultation with the leaders
  • Failure of Cripps Mission
    • The British sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to gain the cooperation of India, which failed because the Cripps Mission offered India not complete freedom but the Dominion Status to India, along with the partition.
  • Shortage of essential commodities
    • There was widespread discontent due to the shortage of essential commodities and rising prices of salt, rice, etc., and commandeering of boats in Bengal and Orissa.
  • Prevalence of anti-British sentiment
    • The sentiments were widely anti-British, and the masses were demanding complete independence from the British Government.
  • Centralisation of many small movements


Phases of Quit India Movement

  • First phase:The first phase of the movement had no violence. It began with civil disobedience, boycotts, and strikes that the British Government quickly suppressed. Almost all members of the Congress Committee, including Gandhiji, were arrested and kept in Jail till 1945 without any trial.
  • Second phase:In its second phase, the movement shifted to the countryside. The second phase of the movement took a violent and aggressive turn. Any building or offices which were the symbol of the colonial authority was attacked and distracted. Communication systems, railway stations & tracks, telegraph poles and wires were also targeted.
  • Third and last phase: In the last phase of the movement, there was the formation of many independent national or parallel governments in the isolated pockets of the country, such as Ballia, Satara, Tamluk, etc.


Successes of the Quit India Movement

  • Women empowerment
    • This movement had the active participation of women of the country.
    • Aruna Asif Ali hoisted the national flag on the Gowalia tank maidan; Usha Mehta, on the other hand, helped set up the underground radio station to spread awareness about the movement.
  • Rise of future leaders
    • This movement also gave some future prominent leaders such as Biju Patnaik, Aruna Asif Ali, Ram Manohar Lohia, Sucheta Kriplani, J.P. Narayan, etc. These leaders were helping the movement through underground activities.
  • Rise of nationalism
    • A greater sense of unity and brotherhood emerged due to the Quit India Movement.

Failure of the Quit India Movement

  • Britishers were supported by the Princely States, British Indian Army, Indian Civil Services, Viceroy’s Council (which had Indians in the majority), All India Muslim League, Indian Imperial Police
  • The Hindu Mahasabha, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) & Muslim League also opposed the Quit India Movement.

Insta Link

Quit India Movement

Mains Link

Q. Quit India movement was a revolution in itself in the long process of India’s national movement. Comment on the nature of the Quit India movement. (10M)


Prelims Link

With reference to the Indian freedom struggle, consider the following events: (UPSC 2017)

  1. Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy
  2. Quit India Movement launched
  3. Second Round Table Conference

What is the correct chronological sequence of the above events?

(a) 1-2-3

(b) 2-1-3

(c) 3-2-1

(d) 3-1-2

Solution: C

India, democracy and the promised republic

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors

Source: The Hindu

Context: India will soon celebrate its 75th anniversary. The article evaluates how successful Indian democracy has been till now.

Direction: Just go through the article. No need to make notes.

How India should be judged on its 75th anniversary?

  • On basis of Human Development: India must be judged by the extent to which it has advanced human development and not just on its economic development.
    • Currently, India is in the 131st position (out of 189 countries) in Human Development Report 2020, even though the Indian Economy is slated to become the 5th largest in the world.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru in his message to the nation on August 15, 1947, mentions the aim of India:
    • To bring freedom and opportunity;
    • To fight and end poverty and ignorance and disease;
    • To build up a prosperous, democratic and progressive nation, and
    • To create social, economic and political institutions that will ensure justice and fullness of life for every man and woman

What is the status of women on the 75th anniversary?

  • High Gender-based inequality: It is rampant in India; within every social group, women are worse off than their men. Women are less nourished, less educated and have a representation in the institutions of governance far lower than their share of the population.
    • Women have very low female labour force participation in India compared to the rest of the world.
    • It reinforces their secondary position in society by adding economic deprivation to the social restriction that discourages them from working outside the home

However, there has been some progress– female literacy has jumped, more women participated in the parliamentary election than men, their representation in local governance has increased tremendously, and MMR and instances of female infanticide have decreased.

What is the status of regional differentiation on the 75th anniversary?

  • Comparison with China: China does far better than India on development indicators pertaining to health and education, not to mention poverty. However, some of the Indian states have done relatively well on human development indicators in comparison to China.
    • The south (e.g., Kerela and Tamil Nadu) and the west of India show greater development because they have witnessed greater social transformation.
  • Regional differentiation in human development is high: For instance, data released by NITI Aayog in 2021 show multi-dimensional poverty in Bihar to be over 50% while it is only a little more than 1% in Kerala.


In the current scenario where freedom of expression of individuals is threatened, civil liberties are at stake and there is distress in agriculture, it is necessary for India to create “social, economic and political” institutions that can facilitate social transformation.


Insta Links

Democracy Report 2022

Dystopia in India’s Democracy


Mains Link

Q. Critically analyse the working of democracy in India since independence. (15M)


Prelims Link

Which one of the following factors constitutes the best safeguard of liberty in a liberal democracy?

(a)    A committed judiciary

(b)    Centralization of powers

(c)    Elected government

(d)   Separation of powers

Answer: D

SOP minimizes the possibility of arbitrary excesses by the government since the sanction of all three branches is required for the making, executing, and administering of laws.

Launch a national tribal health mission

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Vulnerable section of society


Source: The Hindu

Context: The Hindu editorial section

Direction: Make note of important few stats and 1-2 recommendations.

Issues concerning Tribals (health-related):

  • As per ‘The Lancet: ‘Indigenous and Tribal Peoples’ Health’ (2016)’: India has the second highest infant mortality rate for the tribal people, next only to Pakistan.
  • Child malnutrition is 50% higher in tribal children: 42% compared to 28% in others
  • Nearly five and a half crores live outside the Scheduled Areas, as a scattered and marginalized minority. They are the most powerless.
  • Malaria and tuberculosis are three to 11 times more common among the tribal people.
  • Poor health Infrastructure: There is a 27% to 40% deficit in the number of Primary health facilities, and a 33% to 84% deficit in medical doctors in tribal areas.
  • Low participation: Seventh, there is hardly any participation of the tribal people – locally or at the State or national level – in designing, planning or delivering health care to them.
  • Financial outlay under the Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP), equal to the percentage of the ST population in the State, has been completely flouted by all States.


  • Launch a National Tribal Health Action Plan to bring the status of health and healthcare at par with the respective State averages in the next 10 years.
  • Address 10 priority health problems, the health care gap, the human resource gap and the governance problems.
  • Allocation of additional money so that the per capita government health expenditure on tribal people becomes equal to the stated goal of the National Health Policy (2017), i.e., 2.5% of the per capita GDP.
  • Mission mode implementation: The Health Minister and the 10 States with a sizable tribal population should take the initiative.


The tribal healthcare system is sick, and tribal people need more substantive solutions. We need to move from symbolic gestures to substantive promises, from promises to a comprehensive action plan, and from an action plan to realising the goal of a healthy tribal people. If actualised, the Tribal Health Mission can be the path to a peaceful health revolution for the 11 crore tribal people.


Insta Links

Issues related to SC/ST


Mains Link

Q. Tribal groups are at different stages of social, economic and educational development; hence one size fits all approach will not work. Evaluate the various policies aimed at the development of tribal communities in India. (15M)


Prelims Link

If a particular area is brought under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which one of the following statements best reflects its consequence of it? (UPSC 2022)

(a) This would prevent the transfer of land of tribal people to non-tribal people.

(b) This would create a local self-governing body in that area.

(c) This would convert that area into a Union Territory.

(d) The State having such areas would be declared a Special Category State.

Answer – A 

Fifth Schedule of the Indian Constitution deals with the control and administration of the Scheduled Areas and Schedule tribes in different states except for the states coming under the Sixth Schedule (Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura).

Governor is empowered under it, to prohibit or restrict the transfer of land by or among the member of ST, regulate the business of money-lending in relation to ST, and regulate the allotment of the land to the members of ST.

The coming battle for Taiwan

GS Paper 2 

Syllabus: International Relations


Source: Live Mint

Context: Given the recent visit of US leader Nancy Pelosi to Taiwan, the geopolitics in the region have become intense.

Direction: Those preparing for Mains this year, make a separate note on the related topics: The present crisis (for GS2), the new cold war (GS2) and the Chinese revolution (1949) (for world History). Others can just go through it once.

Background of the issue:

Taiwan, a tiny island off the east coast of China, is where Chinese republicans of the Kuomintang government retreated after the 1949 victory of the communists — and it has since continued as the Republic of China (RoC).

People’s Republic of China (PRC or China) maintains that “there is only one China in the world” and “Taiwan is an inalienable part of China“.

However, self-ruled Taiwan sees itself as no less than an independent nation, and its leaders have vowed to defend its sovereignty against the Chinese goal of “reunification”. Currently, Taiwan is entirely dependent on the US for its defence against possible Chinese aggression.

Why does China want to reunify the country?

  • To recover from two centuries of perceived ‘humiliation’ by Western powers
  • To finish the civil war that started nearly a hundred years ago.
  • China believes that if it recovers Taiwan, then it will retake its rightful place as a global power.


Recent evolution of Chinese doctrine:

  • First Act: China has adopted Deng Xiaoping’s ‘hide and bide’ strategyand Hu Jintao’s ‘peaceful rise’. Thus, it remained peaceful, until it was powerful enough to move to the next stage.
  • Second Act: By 2010 China was powerful enough to challenge world powers, therefore, it started forcefully taking control of disputed territories, both land, and sea, on its own terms.
    • g., change the status quo along the Ryukyus, Spratlys, Paracels, the nine-dashed lines in the South China Sea, and, the Himalayan frontiers with Bhutan, Nepal, and India.
  • Third act:Hong Kong virtually reunited (2020). China destroyed its limited autonomy under “one country, two systems”. Macao had already been taken. Thus, the only remaining Chinese target is Taiwan.
  • The Fourth act: It will take place when China has reunified ‘Taiwan’. It will then challenge and upstage the US as the world’s dominant power.

Issues with the Chinese policy:

  • Internal Weakness of China: China has been suffering from one century of civil war and revolutionary excesses. For example, recent attacks on the private sector, the tech economy, the current zero-covid policy, etc. have damaged the Chinese economy.
    • People in Hong Kong are still protesting the Chinese takeover.
  • External resistance: India’s resistance has added friction to the Chinese ambition in the Himalayas. QUAD and AUKUS have emerged. Nancy Pelosi’s visit is a manifestation of a bipartisan consensus in Washington that Beijing must be challenged.
  • The danger of world war/Nuclear war: UN chief has already warned that recent geopolitical events may cause nuclear wars.

Indo- Taiwan relations:

  • India doesn’t have formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan, but both sides have trade and people-to-people ties.
  • India has refused to endorse the “one-China” policy since 2010.

 What India should do?

  • Take sides: Late K. Subrahmanyam pithily stated that India is better off on the side of the West in its contest with China because China’s desire and thy manner of pursuing its desire is wrong
  • Use Taiwan to challenge China: Taiwan is not a major strategic concern for India. However, because it is the single most important factor that can consume Beijing’s energies and delay its play for global power, it is in our interest that Taiwan keep China occupied. Therefore, to some extent, our interests converge with those of the US, Japan, Australia, and the Taiwanese people.
  • Material and moral support: Quad partners can extend material support, and India’s moral support for Taiwan can be very important.


International leaders should pursue good diplomacy, which involves buying time and sustaining peace. What is needed is countries should try to come to a win-win solution that takes care of the wishes of people rather than just perceived national pride.


Insta Links

India-Taiwan Relation


Mains Link

Q. What is the ‘One China Policy’? Examine as to how the Taiwan issue exemplifies the volatile cocktail of geopolitical contestations between the U.S and China. (250 Words)

Water Management in India

GS Paper 3

Syllabus:  Environmental Conservation/ Agriculture


Context: Based on an article published in Business Standards.

Direction: ‘Water’ is always a very important topic in the UPSC exam. Have a note prepared for various dimensions of water- its management, the gender divide in water, groundwater, surface water, river-interlinking, measures to conserve water etc. 1-2 points can be noted from this article.


  • India has just 4% of the world’s water resource, supporting 17.1% of its population.
  • It is a key determinant of health security and economic growth in India.
  • Over 50% of agriculture was still rain-fed

Evolution of water management in India:

  • Till the 1980s:  Water management was confined to the issue of irrigation projects. Therefore, the focus was on building large dams and canals. However, the drought of the late 1980s, proved that these big projects were insufficient.
  • Post-1980s Period: Focus was on decentralization:g., rainwater harvesting (building ponds, digging tanks, and setting up check-dams on streams); slogans like “Rain is decentralized, so is the demand for water. So, capture the rain when and where it falls”.
  • The mid-2000s: Focus remain on rainwater harvesting and ‘ground water’ was given importance. Therefore, MGNREGA was linked with the augmentation of groundwater, and rainwater harvesting efforts.
  • Post-2010s: A series of urban droughts brought in focus the issues related to distribution bottleneck and lack of reuse and treatment of sewage water. So, the focus came on Piped drinking water (Jal Jeevan Mission) and treatment of used water (Swachh Bharath Mission).

What should be done?

  • Reengineering of on-site local treatment systems: It means waste to be collected from each household, transported, and treated in that area.
  • Focus on Reuse: The urban-industrial wastewater and sewage must be treated, recycled, and reused. If it is treated for reuse, then it will prevent water loss and pollution of our rivers. E.g., in Singapore, almost all the water is treated and reused.
  • Minimize wastages: E.g., investing in water-efficient irrigation (‘per drop more crop’), household appliances, and changes in our diets.
  • Focus on traditional water storing structures:g., Baolis (Rajasthan, Gujarat), tanks, Ponds (Talabs), Check dams (called Bandha in the Mewar region), etc.
    • Paar system (western Rajasthan): It is a common place where the rainwater flows from the agar (catchment) and in the process percolates into the sandy soil.
    • Pat System (Bundelkhand region): This system was devised according to the peculiarities of the terrain to divert water from swift-flowing hill streams into irrigation channels called pats.
  • Sponge cities: The treated sewage and wastewater must be diverted to sponges (wetlands, ponds, rain gardens) to recharge the groundwater in the cities and make us water-secure. E.g., done in Beijing (China)

Jal Jeevan Mission success story

Each of the 5,644 residents of Pimpalghar-Ranjnoli village, situated in the industrial belt of Thane (Maharashtra) has to access to 55 litres of water every day. The villagers used funds under the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) to ensure that all 842 families in the village get tap water connections. The village has effectively ensured that residents pay the user charges for tap water.

Maharashtra is one of the leading states in the country in implementing the JJM (71 per cent of households in Maharashtra have access to a tap connection; the national average is just under 52 per cent)


Insta Links

Water management needs a hydro-social approach

Mains Link

Q. Examine the new challenges and strategies on water and its management on account of climate change. (15M)

Prelims Link

Consider the following statements: (UPSC 2015)

  1. The Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme was launched during 1996-97 to provide loan assistance to poor farmers.
  2. The Command Area Development Programme was launched in 1974-75 for the development of water-use efficiency,

Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: B

The Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP) was launched in 1996 as a central assistance programme, with the aim to accelerate creation of irrigation potential.

The Command Area Development (CAD) programme was initiated in 1974-75 with a view to bridging the gap between the potential created and its utilisation and optimising agricultural productivity through better management of land and water use in the command areas served by selected major and medium irrigation projects.


Content for Mains Enrichment (Essay/Ethics)

Tetrapod-based Sea wall for reducing Coastal Erosion

Context: Under the government’s Coastal conservation project, a tetrapod-based seawall has been implemented in Kerela’s Ernakulam district.

Benefits: The conventional seawall of Chellanam failed to check sea ingress which resulted in massive ruin and destruction. Now, due to the tetrapod-based seawall, stretches that were most vulnerable to sea erosion have remained by and large safe.

Other solution: Beach nourishment (reducing the depth of the sea along the shore) offers a permanent solution.


Facts for Prelims

Portulaca oleracea

Context: Scientists integrated two metabolic pathways to produce a novel type of photosynthesis that enables the weed to withstand drought while remaining highly productive.

A common weed and succulent— Portulaca oleracea, commonly known as purslane, offers important clues about creating drought-tolerant crops in a world beset by climate change.

Purslane has the evolutionary adaptations that help it to be both highly productive and drought tolerant, an unlikely combination for a plant.

Other uses: Portulaca oleracea has been used as a folk medicine in many countries, acting as a febrifuge, antiseptic, and vermifuge.




Culture Ministry-Google ‘India ki Udaan’ initiative

This initiative seeks to celebrate the unwavering & undying spirit of India and its achievements in the last 75 years. It aims to take citizens to the rich culture & heritage of India, by means of its rich archives and featuring artistic illustrations.

It is being implemented by Google Arts and Culture, in association with the Ministry of Culture.


PARVAZ Market Linkage scheme

Context: The government of Jammu & Kashmir launched the “PARVAZ Market Linkage Scheme”. This is an innovative Market Linkage scheme, that has tremendous potential to uplift the economic conditions of farmers across Jammu and Kashmir.

Under the scheme, the government will provide a subsidy of 25% on freight charges, in a bid to carry perishable fruits through Air Cargo. The subsidy will be provided to farmers through the Direct Benefit Transfer mode.


Indian Virtual Herbarium


It is the biggest database of the country’s flora.

Developed by scientists of the Botanical Survey of India (BSI), the Indian Virtual Herbarium was inaugurated by the Union Minister of Environment Forest and Climate Change.

Each record in the digital herbarium includes an image of the preserved plant specimen, scientific name, collection locality, collection date, collector name, and barcode number. The digital herbarium also includes features to extract the data State-wise and users can search plants of their own States which will help them to identify regional plants and in building regional checklists.


SC: Unmarried women can avail abortion services

Context: (The Hindu Editorial section) Last week Supreme court pointed out that the rules mentioned ‘partner’ and not husband, thereby reinterpreting the MTPA and putting unmarried women on equal footing with that of married ones.

Direction: Just glance through it once.

Background: The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 and its Rules, 2003, prohibit unmarried women who are between 20 weeks and 24 weeks pregnant to terminate the pregnancy.

Significance of the Judgement:

  • Fairness: SC set right a rule that was ‘manifestly arbitrary and violative of women’s right to bodily dignity’ fits right into the concept of justice that is free, and without prejudice or favour to any person or group of people.
    • SC recommended the Government have a ‘forward-looking interpretation of the law’.
  • Indian Judiciary as ‘shining’ example: At a time when United States’ Supreme Court’s recent ruling overturning Roe vs Wade has drawn that nation back several decades on the abortion question, India’s court’s move is the surest example of the Court’s willingness to be modern and progressive.
  • Follows the spirit of Article 14 of the Constitution which guarantees all persons equality before the law and equal protection of laws.

Previous case: SC had facilitated the abortion (beyond 20 weeks) of a young unmarried woman whose partner parted ways after realizing she was pregnant.


World Tribal Day 2022

Context: Today (9th August) is celebrated as the International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples.

Aim: To highlight the role of indigenous people and the importance of preserving their rights, communities and knowledge they gathered and passed down over centuries.

Theme: “The Role of Indigenous Women in the Preservation and Transmission of Traditional Knowledge.”

History: In 1994, the UNGA, passed a resolution, declaring August 9 as the International Day of the World’s Indigenous People as it was on 9th August that the UN Working Group on Indigenous Populations held its first meeting.


  • Taking cognisance of the knowledge acquired by indigenous people is vital culturally and also scientifically
  • Understanding and preservation of indigenous languages, their spiritual practices, and philosophies can help in the conservation and upliftment of Tribals without compromising their identity.

Status of Tribes in India: Tribal Population constitutes 8.6%  (or 11 cr) of the total population (the second largest number of tribal people in any country in the world). 89.97% of them live in rural areas and 10.03% in urban areas.

According to Lokur Committee (1965), the essential characteristics to be recognized by Scheduled Tribe are: Indication of Primitive Traits, Distinctive Culture, Shyness of Contact with the Community at Large, Geographical Isolation, Backwardness

Constitution: Constitution of India does not define the term ‘tribe’, however, the term Scheduled Tribe’ was inserted in the Constitution through Article 342 (i).



Great Barrier Reef

Context: According to the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) report, the highest levels of coral cover within the past 36 years have been recorded in the northern and central parts of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR).

GBR:  It is the world’s largest and longest coral reef system. It is located in Australia.  It is a World Heritage Area since 1981 (the world’s first reef ecosystem to be recognised by UNESCO). It is home to 400 types of coral, 1500 species of fish and 4000 types of molluscs.

Definition: Corals are marine invertebrates or animals which do not possess a spine (phylum Cnidaria). They are the largest living structures on the planet.

  • A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of colonies of coral polyps held together by calcium carbonate.
  • Coral Bleaching: Coral bleaching is the process when corals become white due to various stressors, such as changes in temperature, light, or nutrients. Bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel the algae that live inside their tissue, causing the coral to turn white. GBR has faced several mass coral bleaching in the recent past (including the recent one in March 2022)
  • Importance of Corals:Coral reefs support over 25% of marine biodiversity even though corals occupy only 1% of the seafloor. Coral reef systems generate $2.7 trillion in annual economic value through goods and service trade and tourism and other livelihood activities.

Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE

Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE

Follow our Twitter Account HERE

Follow our Instagram ID HERE