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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 02 August 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. Explain the mechanism behind the formation of tides. With a special emphasis on marine ecosystem, explain the importance of tides. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining a tide.

Body:

First, explain the various factors which are gravitational forces exerted by the sun, the moon and the rotation of the earth. Explain why gravitational pull of moon has a predominant effect

In the next part, write about the importance of tide for marine ecosystem, navigation, fishing, power generation etc.

Conclusion:

Mention about general importance of tides.

 

Introduction

Tides are one of the most reliable phenomena in the world. As the sun rises in the east and the stars come out at night, we are confident that the ocean waters will regularly rise and fall along our shores.

Tides are very long-period waves that move through the ocean in response to the forces exerted by the moon and sun. Tides originate in the ocean and progress toward the coastlines where they appear as the regular rise and fall of the sea surface.

High tides swept away six houses of Podempeta village in Ganjam block, Odisha recently. No causalities have been reported as these were vacant houses.

 

 

Body

Formation of Tides:

  • The moon’s gravitational pull on the Earth and the Earth’s rotational force are the two main factors that cause high and low tides.
  • The side of the Earth closest to the Moon experiences the Moon’s pull the strongest, and this causes the seas to rise, creating high tides.
  • On the side facing away from the Moon, the rotational force of the Earth is stronger than the Moon’s gravitational pull.
  • The rotational force causes water to pile up as the water tries to resist that force, so high tides form on this side, too.
  • Elsewhere on the Earth, the ocean recedes, producing low tides.
  • The gravitational attraction of the Sun also plays a small role in the formation of tides.
  • Tides move around the Earth as bulges in the ocean.

Importance of tides for marine ecosystem

  • Tides affect marine ecosystems by influencing the kinds of plants and animals that thrive in what is known as the intertidal zone—the area between high and low tide.
  • Because the area is alternately covered and uncovered by the ocean throughout the day, plants and animals must be able to survive both underwater and out in the air and sunlight. They must also be able to withstand crashing waves.
  • For example, plants and animals that can anchor themselves to the rocks along a shoreline can survive the lashing from waves and the less violent movement of the changing tides.
  • Sand crabs not only burrow to survive, they actually follow the tides to maintain just the right depth in the wet sand.
  • Along many shorelines, tides form tide pools. These small pools of water are often left behind among the rocks at low tide. They can include a diverse population of tiny plants and animals that may serve as food for larger species.

Conclusion

Tides produce some interesting features in the ocean.  Tides generally help in making some of the rivers navigable for ocean-going vessels. Tides also clear away the sediments brought by the rivers and, thus, retard the process of delta formation.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2. What are the factors that determine the salinity of the ocean? How does salinity differ across the width and depth of the ocean? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about to factors which determine the salinity of the oceans and horizontal, vertical regional distributions of Salinity.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain what is ocean salinity.

Body:

First, write about the various factors that determine the salinity of the oceans – Evaporation, Freshwater flow influx, temperature, density, Ocean Currents, Precipitation, Atmospheric pressure and Wind direction. Give examples from across the world.

Next, write about the horizontal distributions of Salinity – salinity decreases from equator towards the poles, highest salinity is observed between 20° N and 40° N etc and the reasons for it.

Next, write about vertical distributions of Salinity – increases with increasing depth, draw a small diagram to show the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the above.

 

Introduction

Salinity refers to the total content of dissolved salts in sea water. It is calculated as the amount of salt (in gm) dissolved in 1,000 gm (1 kg) of seawater. The salinity of ocean water is usually around 35 parts per thousand on an average at zero degrees Celsius. This implies that in the total weight of ocean water, dissolved salts amount to 3.5 percent. Sodium chloride or the common salt is the most common among all the dissolved salts in the sea.

Body

Factors influencing salinity are: Factors affecting the amount of salt in different oceans and seas are called as controlling factors of oceanic salinity.

  • Evaporation: The salinity of water in the surface layer of oceans depend mainly on evaporation. Where the evaporation is greater, the salinity is higher, for example, Mediterranean sea.
  • Freshwater flow influx: Surface salinity is greatly influenced in coastal regions by the freshwater flow from rivers, and in polar regions by the processes of freezing and thawing of ice.
    • Where the freshwater flow into the oceans is greater, the salinity is lower.
    • For instance, at the mouths of rivers such as Amazon, Congo, Ganga etc., the ocean surface salinity is found to be lower than the average surface salinity.
  • Temperature and density: Salinity, temperature and density of water are interrelated. Hence, any change in the temperature or density influences the salinity of an area.
    • In general, regions with high temperatures are also, regions with high salinity.
  • Ocean Currents: They play an important role in the spatial distribution of dissolved salts in ocean waters.
    • The warm currents near the equatorial region push away the salts from the eastern margins of the oceans and accumulate them near the western margins.
    • Similarly, ocean currents in the temperate regions increase the salinity of ocean waters near the eastern margins. For instance, Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic Ocean increases the salinity of ocean waters along the western margins of the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Precipitation: Precipitation and salinity share an inverse relationship.
    • In general, regions with higher levels of precipitation have lower levels of salinity. This is the reason why though the equatorial region is as hot as the sub-tropics; it records lower salinity than the sub-tropics since the former receives heavy precipitation in a day.
  • Atmospheric pressure and Wind direction: anti-cyclonic conditions with stable air and high temperature increase salinity of the surface water of oceans
    • winds help is redistribution of salinity, as they drive away saline waters to fewer saline areas resulting into decrease of salinity in the former and increase in the latter

Variation in salinity:

  • Horizontal distribution :
    • On an average, salinity decreases from equator towards the poles. However, it is important to note that the highest salinity is seldom recorded near the equator though this zone records high temperature and evaporation but high rainfall reduces the relative proportion of salt. Thus, the equator accounts for only 35‰ salinity
    • The highest salinity is observed between 20° N and 40° N (36‰) because this zone is characterized by high temperature, high evaporation but relatively low rainfall
    • The average salinity of 35‰ is recorded between 100 -300 latitudes in the southern hemisphere
    • The zone between 40 deg -60 deg latitudes in both the hemispheres records low salinity where it is 31‰ and 33‰ in the northern and the southern hemispheres respectively.
    • Salinity further decreases in the polar zones because of influx of Glacial melt-water. On an average, the northern and the southern hemispheres record average salinity of 35‰ and 34‰ respectively

 

  • Vertical distribution of salinity:
    • Salinity changes with depth, but the way it changes depends upon the location of the sea.
    • Salinity at the surface increases by the loss of water to ice or evaporation, or decreased by the input of fresh waters, such as from the rivers.
    • Salinity at depth is very much fixed, because there is no way that water is ‘lost’, or the salt is ‘added.’ There is a marked difference in the salinity between the surface zones and the deep zones of the oceans.
    • The lower salinity water rests above the higher salinity dense water.
    • Salinity, generally, increases with depth and there is a distinct zone called the halocline (compare this with thermocline), where salinity increases sharply.
    • Other factors being constant, increasing salinity of seawater causes its density to increase. High salinity seawater, generally, sinks below the lower salinity water. This leads to stratification by salinity.

 

 

Conclusion

However, the effect is greater if the salty water gets cold, as temperature has a greater effect on density than salinity does. A combination of high salinity and low temperature makes seawater so dense that it sinks to the bottom of the ocean and flows across ocean basins as deep, slow currents.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

3. Discuss the role of the Enforcement Directorate (ED) in enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India. Why is the Enforcement Directorate increasingly being seen as a political weapon? (250 words).

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Expressbusiness-standard.com

Why the question:

ED’s rising prominence points to a shift that the Central agencies have grown more powerful, state and city police are pale shadows of themselves

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the function of ED and why it is seen a political weapon.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by stating the aims and objectives of ED and its mandate.

Body:

In the first part, write about the functions of ED in fighting economic crimes. Substantiate with facts and examples.

Next, write about reasons as to why ED is being seen a political weapon against political rival to settle scores. Mention the impact of the same.

Next, write about the measures that are needed to make it neutral and accountable.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The Enforcement Directorate (ED) was established in 1956. ED is responsible for enforcement of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA) and certain provisions under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), 2002. The ED Headquarters is situated at New Delhi.

The Directorate of Enforcement, with its Headquarters at New Delhi is headed by the Director of Enforcement. There are five Regional offices at Mumbai, Chennai, Chandigarh, Kolkata and Delhi headed by Special Directors of Enforcement. Zonal Offices of the Directorate are headed by a Joint Director. The officers are appointed from Indian Revenue Service, Indian Corporate Law Service, Indian Police Service and Administrative Services.

Body

Background

  • The Enforcement Directorate recently searched a dozen locations, including the main office of the Congress-owned National Heraldnewspaper in Delhi, as part of its investigation into a money-laundering case,
  • The fresh ED raids come days after interim Congress chief Sonia Gandhi was grilled by the central agency for three days in connection with the National Herald House alleged money laundering case.
  • The Gandhis are being investigated in what is called the “National Herald case” involving the Young Indian’s takeover of Associated Journals Limited (AJL), the company that runs the National Herald newspaper founded by India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.

Role of ED

  • ED investigates suspected violations of the provisions of the FEMA. Suspected violations includes, non-realization of export proceeds, “hawala transactions”, purchase of assets abroad, possession of foreign currency in huge amount, non-repatriation of foreign exchange, foreign exchange violations and other forms of violations under FEMA.
  • ED collects, develops and disseminates intelligence information related to violations of FEMA, 1999. The ED receives the intelligence inputs from Central and State Intelligence agencies, complaints etc.
  • ED has the power to attach the asset of the culprits found guilty of violation of FEMA. “Attachment of the assets” means prohibition of transfer, conversion, disposition or movement of property by an order issued under Chapter III of the Money Laundering Act [Section 2(1) (d)].
  • To undertake, search, seizure, arrest, prosecution action and survey etc. against offender of PMLA offence.
  • To provide and seek mutual legal assistance to/from respective states in respect of attachment/confiscation of proceeds of crime and handed over the transfer of accused persons under Money Laundering Act.
  • To settle cases of violations of the erstwhile FERA, 1973 and FEMA, 1999 and to decide penalties imposed on conclusion of settlement proceedings.
  • ED is playing a very crucial role in fighting the menace of corruption in the country.

ED as a political weapon

  • Tool for Political Vendetta: The governments of the day have been accused of brazenly using agencies like the ED, CBI to settle their own political scores.
    • There are concerns of Enforcement Directorate’s powers being misused to harass political opponents and intimidating them.
    • It is said that “Cases and probe agencies spring out of cold storage before elections, and turn cold soon after”.
    • Many have held the agencies’ moves as motivated, aimed at tilting the scales in favor of the incumbent government, done also through selective leaks by the agencies to browbeat political opponents.
  • The Investigation by ED is bound within the territory of India, while several high profile offenders have fled the country.
  • There is also a problem of manpower and intelligence gathering in Enforcement Directorate, that leads to delay in timely identification and prosecution of offenders.

Solution to address the issues:

  • Dedicated Fund and Grant for the agency to ensure its independent functioning.
  • Separate Recruitment for Enforcement Directorate on the lines of Civil Services.
  • A separate Academy for training the manpower and to instill the right values and virtues in the functioning is needed.
    • To Act without malice, prejudice or bias, and not allow the abuse of power.
  • More powers to ED: Under the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, ED can now confiscate properties of offenders outside India, which may not be ‘proceeds of crime’.
  • Separate wings within ED for intelligence, surveillance and investigation can bring more efficiency.
  • Standard Training from time to time, to sharpen the investigative skills, and learning from global best practices.

Conclusion

As a premier financial investigation agency of the Government of India, the Enforcement Directorate must function in strict compliance with the Constitution and Laws of India. It must endeavour to establish and maintain high professional standards and credibility.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. Education in the mother tongue is a key factor for inclusion and quality learning, and it also improves learning outcomes and academic performance. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

The call by Home Minister Amit Shah last week for engineering, law and medicine to be taught in Indian languages is a well-intentioned one. His stand is in sync with one of the focal points of the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, i.e., the promotion of Indian languages in higher education.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain in detail how multi-lingual approach especially Mother tongue is critically important for cognitive, psychological and personality development, education and learning.

Structure of the answer:

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with importance of language in general.

Body:

Discuss the significance of mother tongue in personality development. Present the issues due to lack of emphasis on mother tongue such as – Difficult learning: Incomplete first language skills often make learning other languages more difficult. Cognitive conflict: when a child finds a discrepancy between what he thinks the world should be and what he finds it as, emanating from forced situation of learning in a second language etc. Mention about NEP 2020 stand in this regard.

Next, write about the limitations of multi-lingual approach – lack of proficiency in English, opportunity costs, competition etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

At the foundational stage, ensuring the understanding of literacy and numeracy by the learners is by far more important than thrusting the language of commerce. In a 1953 report entitled “The use of vernacular languages in Education”, by the UN, two aspects stood out. One, its iteration that “every child of school age should attend school, and the best medium of teaching is the mother tongue of the pupil.” And two, its emphasis that “all languages, even the so-called primitive ones, are capable of becoming media for school teaching; some perhaps merely as a bridge to a second language, while others maybe used at all levels of education”.

Another report of the UN of 2004, entitled “The importance of mother tongue-based schooling for educational quality talks about ‘submersion’ or “instruction through a language that learners do not speak because it is analogous to holding learners under water without teaching them how to swim.” This report specifically recommends “bilingual teaching”.

Body

Education in mother tongue for inclusion and quality learning

  • The use of mother tongue in schools in the early years is the cornerstone for enabling access, retention, transition and preventing drop-out.
  • According to the Census of 2011, in India there are 121 mother tongues, of which 22 languages are included in the eighth schedule of our Constitution, and account for the mother tongue of 96.72% Indians.
  • An analysis of the UDISE+ data of 2019-20 shows that states/UTs have up to seven languages of instruction (for example, Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Hindi, English, Manipuri & Garo in Assam) to up to two mediums of instruction, one of which is the state’s predominantly spoken language and the other either English/Hindi.
  • More than 25 languages are prevalent as the first medium of instruction in schools.
  • 95% of students, who receive primary education in their mother tongue, should not be left out in their pursuit of higher studies. Hence ensuring technical education also in mother tongue is important, atleast for more commonly spoken ones.
  • Every language spoken in the world represents a special culture, melody, colour and is an asset.
  • Several psychological, social and educational experiments proved that learning through the mother tongue is deeper, faster and more effective.
  • Much of a child’s future social and intellectual development hinges on the milestone of mother tongue.
  • Incomplete first language skills often make learning other languages more difficult.
  • Children of migrant families are finding themselves at crossroads, being unable to master either the first or the second language they are forced to study in.
  • Gandhiji warned: “If the English educated neglect as they have done and even now continue, as some do, to be ignorant of mother tongue, linguistic starvation will abide.”

 

Challenges in implementation

  • The National Education Policy, 2020 has advocated, that “wherever possible, the medium of instruction until at least Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond, will be the home language/mother tongue/local language/regional language” for both public and private schools. There are a few challenges in realising the NEP tenets.
  • A given class may have learners from more than one mother tongue, teachers are not recruited on the basis of languages understood, spoken and written by them, and often resources are not available in the languages understood by the child.
  • While there is no need for haste in making educational materials available in Indian languages, the approach and methodology should be discussed threadbare by policymakers and educationists, without political pressure or interference.
    • In Tamil Nadu, for instance, the bid to impart engineering education through the Tamil medium has not created any impact despite the principal political players using language as a political too
  • What should be made obvious is that the use of English, wherever desirable, should be retained, with no aversion shown on the ground that it is a “foreign” language.

Conclusion

There is enough research and evidence now to prove that if children are taught in their mother tongue, particularly in the foundational years (ages 3 to 8), then higher retention, higher proficiencies, lesser repetition of grades, and improved test scores are seen. To create a student-centric environment, we cannot allow the “sink or swim’ approach of submersion. Given the available resources, bilingual teaching, with the aid of bilingual textbooks and e-content, etc. can be a great beginning to secure the future of our learners and their abilities.

Value Addition

Linguistic diversity in India

  • The rich demographic mixture of India can be gauged from the fact that it has 28 states and 9 union territories.
  • Each State has its own commonly spoken language, and the spoken dialect of the language can change every hundred kilometers.
  • Multilingualism is the way of life in India as people in different parts of the country speak more than one language from their birth and learns additional languages during their life time.
  • According to the Census of India (2011), there are 121 languages spoken across India.
  • Out of these, 22 are scheduled languages, which can be given official status by respective states or be used to conduct administrative work or used in the state legislature; the remaining 99 languages have the status of non-scheduled languages.
  • The two official languages of India (federal government) are Hindi and English, while the states have the authority to designate their own official language.
  • Though officially there are 122 languages, Peoples Linguistic Survey of India has identified 780 languages, of which 50 are extinct in past five decades.
  • The twenty-two languages that are recognised by the Constitution are: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kashmiri, Kannada, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu are included in the Eighth Schedule of the constitution.
  • 14 of these scheduled languages have more than 10 million speakers each. To put this figure into perspective, the population of some countries, e.g. Norway is much less than 10 million.
  • There are around 528 million Hindi speakers, while there are 3 million speakers of Odiya and 1.4 million speakers of Bodo.
  • Tamil (declared in 2004), Sanskrit (2005), Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013), and Odia (2014) have been recognised as classical languages with special status and recognition by Government of India.
  • The classical languages have written and oral history of more than 1000 years. In comparison to these, English is very young as it has the history of only 300 years.
  • Rabindranath Tagore once said “If God had so wished, he could have made all the Indians speak one language, the unity of India has been and shall always be a unity in diversity.”
  • There are many more languages that are spoken in India, and astonishingly all these languages further have numerous dialects.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment

5. Examine the various ways in which India could take advantage of global geopolitical developments to promote trade and gain better status for the rupee vis-à-vis global currencies. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The HinduIndian Express

Why the question:

Over the last several days, one has come across headlines about the rupee weakening. For the unaware, these headlines would convince them about the decline in the value of the rupee even as the rupee has strengthened against the Euro, UK Pound and Japan’s Yen.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the ways India can improve the status of rupee over global currencies.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of global volatility in the currencies.

Body:

In the first part, write about the various geopolitical developments that have contributed to this volatility.

Next, write about the potential advantages that India can harness to improve the status of rupee globally. Write about the steps that are needed in this regard and its advantages.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

A number of countries, including India, are now considering the use of other currencies to avoid the U.S. dollar and its hegemonic role in settling international transactions. The current situation relates, in addition, to geopolitical developments, the Russia-Ukraine war in the forefront followed by the sanctions imposed on Russia by the West.

Body

Ways in which India can take advantage of current geopolitical developments to promote trade

  • Using rupee for transactions: In recent times, India has been taking an active interest in having the rupee used for trade and the settlement of payments with other countries, which include Russia, now facing sanctions.
  • Mineral and Fuel trade: Settling payments with Russia by India, especially for mineral fuels and oil imports as well as for the S-400 Triumf air defence system has been continuing on a semi-informal basis through rupee payments by using the Vostro accounts maintained by Russian banks in India.
    • Buying oil with a depreciated ruble, and at discounts, is not only cost-saving but also saves transport time with the use of multi-modal routes using land, sea and air routes.
  • Reducing trade deficit: With India having a trade deficit with Russia, which has been around $3.52 billion on average over the last two financial years, India’s opportunities include the possible use, by Russia, of the surpluses in the Vostro rupee account in Russian banks for additional purchases from India.
    • Such purchases could include not only pharmaceutical products and electrical machinery (which are currently the major items of India’s exports to Russia) but also a range of products that Russia might need, particularly to redress the hardship faced with the sanctions.

Issues in use of Indian currency for global trade

  • There are quite a few problems that may prevail in implementing the desired rupee payments and avoiding dollar transactions. Apart from issues that concern an agreed exchange rate between the rupee and the ruble (R-R), two volatile currencies, there is also the question of the willingness of private parties (companies, banks) to accept the rupee for trade and settlements.
  • Finally, there are official concerns for reactions, particularly from the U.S., to deals, especially for purchase of the S-400 defence equipment.
  • And the fear continues even after the recent Congressional approval of those purchases as a special case in the backdrop of Chinese aggression.
  • Moreover, the deals between India and Russia, especially on oil, can be considered by the West as ‘indirect back door support’ — as India is processing at refineries in Gujarat which include Reliance, and then importing Russian crude at 30% discount, exporting those to the West

Conclusion

The market economies in most parts of the world today negate the possibility of having the state or the public sector at centre-stage. But still, the India-Soviet agreements of the past may provide a clue on how the current ‘R-R’ trade and the problems can be managed by initiating a push for Indian exports to Russia and, of course, avoiding all deals in dollars — benefiting both trade partners and countering, globally, the on-going currency hierarchy.

 

Topic: Investment models.

6. Public private partnership (PPP) model in healthcare system will pool in the expertise and finances of the private sector with the access and subsidies of the public sector. Is PPP in healthcare the panacea for India’s healthcare woes? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Live MintInsights on India

Why the question:

The covid pandemic has reminded us of the private sector’s disruptive potential for serving public health goals. However, in the past, central and state governments have strived to engage with the private sector in different disease areas. There are also several examples in maternal health; the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme in Gujarat, for instance, which was envisioned to increase institutional deliveries by working with private providers, reduced maternal mortality rates by more than half.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the benefits that a PPP model in health can offer for improving health outcomes in the country.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of growth of PPP model for health.

Body:

In the first part, write about the features and working of the PPP model in health. Cite examples to substantiate.

Next, write about the potential advantages that the PPP model can offer in this regard.

Next, write about the shortcomings of the above model in health and hindrances towards adopting it.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward to make the best use of PPP model.

 

Introduction

India takes pride in the fact that it is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. But our heads will hang in shame if we look at India’s health system.

Body:

Public healthcare scenario in India:

  • The government spends 1.02% of the GDP on health compared to the global spending of 6%.
  • There is a shortfall of 20% sub-centres, 22% public health centres and 32% community health centres.
  • The average population served by one public sector allopathic doctor is 11 times higher than the World Health Organization’s recommendations.
  • High out of pocket expenditure to the tunes of 60%. The excessive reliance on OOP payments leads to financial barriers for the poorest, thereby perpetuating inequalities in health care.
  • Clearly, India is struggling to serve its population amid the rising burden of diseases along with poor coverage by public health on the other.
  • In addition to these challenges, the private sector is poorly regulated when it comes to quality and pricing.

Potential of PPP model for providing universal healthcare in India:

  • Enhancing affordability: There has been a steady increase in the number of drugs under price control, to make medicines affordable.
  • Enhances Inclusivity: It’s difficult for government alone to meet the healthcare infrastructure and capacity gaps in Tier II and Tier III cities as well as rural areas. To provide Health insurance- Karnataka’s Yeshasvini Cooperative Farmer’s Healthcare Scheme and Andhra Pradesh’s Arogya Raksha Scheme can be cited as successful examples.
  • Financing Mechanism: The partnership between the public and the private sectors in healthcare is important for several reasons including equity and for promoting economic development.
  • Infrastructure: NITI Aayog has sought to infuse fresh life into PPP in healthcare delivery through a new model focused on district hospitals and new norms on pricing of procedures. The provisions for making available infrastructure of district hospitals to private providers for 30 years along with viability gap funding appears that we have got the design right for the PPP model.
  • Quality of Service: Private healthcare in India usually offers quality service but is often expensive and largely unregulated. The Delhi government’s new scheme is a novelty for the common man but has a precedent in several government schemes for employees which use public funds to provide private healthcare. e.g the Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) has existed for decades and has been emulated by several states.
  • Capacity building and training: private players can play a key role in capacity building and training through PPP modes by  working  with  the  public  sector  to  better  utilize  the  infrastructure  of  government

Issues in public private partnership

  • There lack of inbuilt mechanism to decide how the government and the private sector share revenue and risks.
  • Aim of Private sector is to maximize profit, which is inconsonance with governments aim of providing universal quality services to all
  • Lack of a proper regulatory framework to regulate the health sector and partnership.
  • Some PPP projects attempted earlier have failed, so there is apprehension about success of large scale PPP in health sector.

Measures needed:

  • Staunch and well-defined governance: An institutional structure should be set up to foster, monitor and evaluate the PPPs. This needs to be established at the state-level under the leadership of the state health ministry.
  • Equitable representation of partners in the institutional framework: Institutional structure is a cornerstone for development of a sustainable PPP project. It will help to meet consensus on shared responsibilities and roles and will facilitate communication among the partners leading to a strong sense of ownership and trust.
  • Evidence-based PPP: Systematic research initiatives and mechanisms must be established to constantly understand the evolving needs and benefits to end users.
  • Regulate user fee: One of the hurdles of engaging the private providers for public health service delivery is OOP expenditure. Therefore, it is important to regulate user fees of this sector under partnership.
  • Effective risk allocation and sharing: Risks shall be allocated to the party best able to control and manage them so that value for money is maximised.

 

Conclusion

To provide universal healthcare which is the need of hour given the dismal condition of healthcare sector in India. The key to success of PP partnership is mutual respect and trust with a common goal of providing quality care for all ages at affordable cost. This meaningful engagement may be the next game changer in healthcare for the country.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Citizen’s Charters,

7. Citizen charters would benefit from a more strategic or systematic preparation that incorporates the views and expertise of a wide range of stakeholders before being introduced and for the initiative to become an integral part of the approach to standards of service thereafter. Analyse. (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Key Demand of the question:

trace the link between non-partisanship in public administration and equality amongst citizens.

Directive:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by defining a citizen charter.

Body:

First, write about the various issues in the functioning of citizen charters

Next, write about the importance of consultation with various stakeholders and improving standards of services to solve various issues with citizen charters.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by suggesting ways for effective utilisation of charters.

Introduction

A Citizens’ Charter represents the commitment of the Organisation towards standard, quality and time frame of service delivery, grievance redress mechanism, transparency and accountability. The concept of Citizens Charter enshrines the trust between the service provider and its users.

 Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances in Government of India (DARPG) initiated the task of coordinating, formulating and operationalising Citizen’s Charters.

Body

The basic objective of the Citizens Charter is to empower the citizen in relation to public service delivery.

Importance of Citizen’s charter in the Governance of developing nation like India:

  • To make administration accountable and citizen friendly.
  • To ensure transparency.
  • To take measures to improve customer service.
  • To adopt a stakeholder approach.
  • To save time of both Administration and the citizen

Problems faced in implementation of Citizen’s charter:

  • One size fits all: Tendency to have a uniform CC for all offices under the parent organization. CC have still not been adopted by all Ministries/Departments. This overlooks local issues.
  • Silo operations: Devoid of participative mechanisms in a majority of cases, not formulated through a consultative process with cutting edge staff who will finally implement it.
  • Non-Dynamic: Charters are rarely updated making it a one-time exercise, frozen in time.
  • Poor design and content: lack of meaningful and succinct CC, absence of critical information that end-users need to hold agencies accountable.
  • Lack of public awareness: only a small percentage of end-users are aware of the commitments made in the CC since effective efforts of communicating and educating the public about the standards of delivery promise have not been undertaken.
  • Stakeholders not consulted: End-users, Civil society organizations and NGOs are not consulted when CCs are drafted. Since a CC’s primary purpose is to make public service delivery more citizen-centric, consultation with stakeholders is a must.
  • Measurable standards of delivery are rarely defined: making it difficult to assess whether the desired level of service has been achieved or not.
  • Poor adherence: Little interest shown by the organizations in adhering to their CC. since there is no citizen friendly mechanism to compensate the citizen if the organization defaults.

 

Way forward:

  • Wide consultation process: CC be formulated after extensive consultations within the organization followed by a meaningful dialogue with civil society.
  • Participatory process: Include Civil Society in the process: to assist in improvement in the contents of the Charter, its adherence as well as educating the citizens about the importance of this vital mechanism.
  • Firm commitments to be made: CC must be precise and make firm commitments of service delivery standards to the citizens/consumers in quantifiable terms wherever possible.
  • Redressal mechanism in case of default: clearly lay down the relief which the organization is bound to provide if it has defaulted on the promised standards of delivery.
  • One size does not fit all: formulation of CC should be a decentralized activity with the head office providing only broad guidelines.
  • Periodic updation of CC: preferably through an external agency.
  • Fix responsibility: Hold officers accountable for results: fix specific responsibility in cases where there is a default in adhering to the CC.

Conclusion

Citizen’s Charter is playing a prominent part in ensuring “minimum government & maximum governance”, changing the nature of charters from non-justiciable to justiciable & adopting penalty measures that will make it more efficient & citizen friendly. The Sevottam model proposed by 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission for public Service Delivery can be regarded as a standard model for providing services in citizen centric governance.

 


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