GS2/GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Governance/ S&T
Context: Given emerging technologies such as 5G, IoT, etc., the Ministry of Communication has underscored the need to have a legal framework for these technologies.
Direction: Just go through it once. This is just a draft framework and may change in the future.
Proposals of the New Law:
- Recognition of exclusive privilege of the government over telecommunication
- Simplification of regulatory framework related to spectrum allocations.
- Effective policy for the Right of Way (RoW): Right of way is the legal right, established by a grant from a landowner or long usage, to pass along a specific route through property belonging to another.
CAG on Spectrum allocation:
- CAG criticized that Spectrum allocation in India is conducted on an ad hoc basis (2012-2021); the spectrum allocated to the government is not optimally used.
What is a spectrum?
Energy travels in the form of waves known as electromagnetic waves. These waves differ from each other in terms of frequencies. This whole range of frequencies is called the spectrum. In telecommunication like TV, radio and GPRS, radio waves of different wavelengths are used.
Mobile phones use two technologies based on different parts of the radio spectrum— GSM (global system for mobile communications) and CDMA (code division multiple access). Most of the radio spectrum is reserved in countries for defence. The rest is available for public use. But following an increase in the number of phone users and new services, countries started auctioning the frequencies to telecom companies.
Q. Discuss the advantages that 5G technology holds as compared to previous mobile technology. (10M)