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Use of technology to make efficient auto vehicles

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Science and Technology


Source: Indian Express

Context: Nudged by tough BS6 emission norms, automakers are offering mild and strong hybrid options in their vehicles and using technology to make vehicles efficient

(Just remember a few names to be written in the mains answer and some basic terminology of engine for prelims, no need to get into details unless you are an auto-enthusiast)

Diesel’s Engine

      • Working: In a compression-ignited system, the diesel fuel is injected into the combustion chamber of the engine and ignited by the high temperatures achieved when the gas is compressed by the engine piston.
          • Because they use compressed air with no spark plug for the ignition process, diesel engines use 15%-20% per cent less fuel compared to a petrol engine vehicle.
      • Higher cost: Diesel engines entailed higher upfront costs, and their servicing and maintenance costs tended to be more.
      • It produces much more toxic gases and so shifts towards petrol variants.


Fig: working of Petrol Engine (Left) and Diesel Engine (right)


Petrol tech innovations

      • TWO FUEL INJECTORS PER CYLINDER:In Maruti Suzuki’s new DualJet technology, two injectors are placed close to the engine inlet valves, which enables finer atomisation of fuel, resulting in more complete combustion and higher efficiency.
      • GASOLINE DIRECT INJECTION:GDI is a sophisticated engine that injects fuel precisely and at very high pressure directly into the combustion chamber of the engine. This leads to higher fuel efficiency, higher power output, and significantly lower emissions.
      • TURBOCHARGED PETROL ENGINES: Turbocharger — a turbine that is powered by the engine’s exhaust fuel to subsequently power that additional compressed air into the combustion chamber, resulting in extra combustion of the air-fuel mix. The result: these smaller turbocharged engines produce more energy than a bigger engine while guzzling less petrol.
      • STRONG HYBRID TECH:A hybrid system sometimes includes a petrol engine that’s paired with an electric motor and a Lithium-ion or Nickel-metal Hydride (NiMH) battery pack that allows the automobile to be pushed in a purely electrical mode for short distances. The battery pack is recharged by the engine, or by way of regenerative braking.

Insta Links

Fuel in 6th Gear

Practice Questions

Q. Consider the following statements:

    1. Maize can be used for the production of starch.
    2. Oil extracted from maize can be a feedstock for biodiesel.
    3. Alcoholic beverages can be produced by using maize.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only.

(b) 1 and 2 only

© 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D


Q. Lead, ingested or inhaled, is a health hazard. After the addition of lead to petrol has been banned, what still are the sources of lead poisoning?

    1. Smelting units
    2. Pens pencils
    3. Paints
    4. Hair oils and cosmetics

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: B

Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, but the human activity — mining, burning fossil fuels and manufacturing — has caused it to become more widespread. Lead was also once a key ingredient in paint and gasoline and is still used in batteries, solder, pipes, pottery, and roofing materials.