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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. Empowering CCI for negotiated case settlements

2. Inner-party democracy


GS Paper 3:

1. Explained: What Rs 80 to a dollar means

2. Amendment of EIA rules


GS Paper 4:

1. Indian Police and Ethics


Content for main enrichment

1. Use of powerful words for Mass struggle or Protest


Facts for Prelims:

1. Pythagoras theorem in Vedic-era texts

2. Chin refugees

3. Hattis community

4. Giving up citizenship

5. Remittance in India

6. National Statistical Office data on employment

7. National Standards for Civil Service Training Institutions

8. NAMASTE Scheme


10. SPRINT challenges

11. Impact Investment

12. Marburg virus



Inner-party democracy

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Comparision between the constitution of India and other countries


Source: The Hindu


The ousting of Boris Johnson as leader of the British Conservative Party by the party’s MPs to get rid of a leader who has become an electoral or political liability highlighted the issue of Inner Party democracy in India.

Unlike their counterparts in the U.K., MPs in India have no autonomy to question and challenge their party leadership.

Differences between the Parliamentary system of government in India and the UK

India UK
The Head of the State in India (that is, the President) is elected- Republic The Head of the State in Britain (that is, the King or Queen) enjoys a hereditary position- Monarchy
Parliament is not supreme in India and enjoys limited and restricted powers due to a written Constitution, the federal system, judicial review and fundamental rights. The doctrine of the sovereignty of Parliament.
In India, the prime minister may be a member of any of the two Houses of Parliament. In Britain, the prime minister should be a member of the Lower House (House of Commons) of the Parliament.
India has no such system Britain has the system of legal responsibility of the minister
There is no such institution in India.


‘Shadow cabinet’ is a unique institution of the British cabinet system. It is formed by the opposition party to balance the ruling cabinet and to prepare its members for future ministerial office.
In India, anyone can hold the position of Minister at the pleasure of the president, with due qualification as per law, even if he is not a member of both the houses. But he has to get elected within six months to either of the houses. Ministers of Britain are invariably selected among the members of the parliament
In India President can ask the Prime Minister to place a subject before the council of ministers if it is not discussed and decided by the Cabinet. In the United, Kingdom cabinet serves as a unit before the Parliament and Sovereign. Its views are placed by the cabinet as a single whole before the Parliament and Sovereign as if they are views of one man.
Federalism: Quasi-federal and works on competitive federalism   Distribution of powers between centre and states Unitary in character – All powers of the government are vested in the British Parliament, which is a sovereign body


Reforms needed:

Empowering elected representatives: It will ensure accountability for party leadership.

  • MPs in the U.K. are able to act boldly because they do not owe their nomination to the party leader, but are selected by the local constituency party.
  • In India, however, it is the party leadership that decides candidates, with an informal consultation with the local party.

Changes in the anti-defection law: Neither do MPs in the U.K. stand a risk of disqualification if they speak out against the leader, a threat perpetuated in India through the anti-defection law.

Inner-party democracy: Despite provisions and internal constitution, most parties don’t follow the inner-party rules.

Insta Links



Practice Questions

Q. Discuss the need for reforms in the electoral politics of India. (10M)

Empowering CCI for negotiated case settlements

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Statutory and non-statutory bodies


Source: Live Mint

Context: Government has introduced the CCI bill which will allow it to settle cases with businesses accused of anti-competitive practices, including abuse of their dominant positions.

At present, the CCI is empowered to show leniency and give full exemption from penalty to a member of a cartel who makes vital disclosures about the existence of the cartel and cooperates with investigations, but negotiated settlements are not part of the rule book.

Previously, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi) and the income tax department has offered settlements under different schemes.

  • International practices: Negotiated ‘settlements and commitments’, are allowed in the EU, Japan and the US, to quickly resolve cases through financial or non-monetary provisions to reduce litigation.
  • Benefits: Settlements and commitments will help to avoid extensive procedures, cut down litigation, and make enforcement more effective while improving the investment climate for businesses by reducing uncertainty.


Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2022: – It has been introduced to improve regulatory setup by increasing the CCI’s accountability, giving it flexibility and enforcement efficiency.

Key changes made in the bill

  • Increasing transparency and strengthening accountability:
  • A board with part-time membersto supervise CCI activities.
  • CCI to mandatorily issue penalty guidelinesand give reasons in case of any divergence.
  • Enforcement efficiency
    • CCI could engage in structured negotiations with parties and arrive at mutually-workable solutions without having to go through lengthy formal proceedings.
  • Changes in the governing structure of CCI
    • The regulator at present has two members in addition to chairperson Ashok Kumar Gupta, though the law allows up to six members.
  • Provisions for regulation of the digital economy


The Competition Commission of India (CCI) is a statutory and quasi-judicial body working under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. It was established under the Competition Act, 2002 for the administration, implementation and enforcement of the Act, and was duly constituted in March 2009.


Insta Links:

Competition Commission of India


Practice Questions:

Q. The role of the Competition Commission of India has been very important to regulate the process and achieve the public policy goal of competition in India. Comment (10M)

Explained: What Rs 80 to a dollar means

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Economy


Source: Indian Express

Context:  The Indian rupee breached the exchange rate level of 80 to a US dollar recently for the 1st time.

What is the rupee exchange rate?

  • The rupee’s exchange rate vis-à-vis the dollar is essentially the number of rupees one needs to buy for $1. This is an important metric to buy not just US goods but also other goods and services (say crude oil) trade which happens in US dollars.

Rupee depreciation impact: when the rupee depreciates, importing goods and services becomes costlier. But the export of goods and services to other countries, become cheaper.

Why are the rupee-dollar exchange rate and forex reserves falling?

  • As investors are pulling money out of the Indian market, there is a fall in forex reserve and also less dollar in the Indian market would mean, the value of the dollar against the rupee would increase. Thereby depreciating the rupee.
  • India has a capital account surplus but a current account deficit: The net effect of BOP in India had been a surplus of $47.5 billion last year.
  • The RBI keeps monitoring the BoP every week and keeps intervening in such a manner which ensures that the rupee’s exchange rate does not fluctuate too much.


What will be the effect on the economy?

Under normal circumstances, rupee depreciation is good for the current account deficit because it leads to higher exports. But at present, India is already facing high inflation and continued depreciation may be making matters worse. Costlier imports (because of a weaker rupee) add to the cost-push inflation and bump up the domestic inflationary process.

  • A weakening rupee hurts foreign investors, who came looking for a good return, as well as Indians, who have loans abroad.


Higher Inflation: Should the INR depreciate by 5 per cent from the baseline (76 per dollar), inflation could edge up by around 20 bps while GDP growth could be higher by around 15 bps through increased net exports, according to the RBI April Monetary Policy Report.


Should policymakers prevent the fall?

Experts say it is neither wise nor possible for the RBI to prevent the rupee from falling indefinitely.

  • Defending the rupee will simply result in India exhausting its forex reserves over time because global investors have much bigger financial clout.
  • Most analysts believe that the better strategy is to let the rupee depreciate and act as a natural shock absorber to the adverse terms of trade.

What should policymakers do?

  • RBI (which is in charge of monetary policy) should focus on containing inflation, as it is legally mandated to do, and the government (which is in charge of the fiscal policy) should contain its borrowings”


Insta Links

Free fall of Rupee


Practice Questions

Q. What is the depreciation of the Indian rupee? Examine the factors behind its recent depreciation and its impact on the economy in general.


Q . With reference to the Indian economy, consider the following statements: (UPSC CSE 2022)

    1. If the inflation is too high, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is likely to buy government securities.
    2. If the rupee is rapidly depreciating, RBI is likely to sell dollars in the market.
    3. If interest rates in the USA or European Union were to fall, that is likely to induce RBI to buy dollars.

Which of the statements given below is/are correct?

    1. 1 and 2 only
    2. 2 and 3 only
    3. 1 and 3 only
    4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b)


Statement 1 is incorrect: To control inflation, the RBI sells the securities in the money market which sucks out excess liquidity from the market. As the number of liquid cash decreases, demand goes down. This part of monetary policy is called the open market operation.

Statement 2 is correct: If the rupee is depreciating, RBI pumps the dollar into the market, this results in an increase in foreign currency supply and a decrease in Rupee supply, thus appreciating its value.

Statement 3 is correct: If interest rates in US and EU fall, investors would like to park more money in emerging markets such as India for better returns, thus Indian market would be flooded with foreign currency. To stabilize it, RBI would likely buy excess dollars.

/ 20 Jul CA, BOP, economy, Today's Article

Amendment of EIA rules

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Environment: Environmental impact assessment


Source: Indian Express

Context:  The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change has notified amendment to the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Rules

Changes notified:

  • Exempted highway projects of strategic and defence importance: Any project which is 100 km from the Line of Control, among other locations, will be exempted from an environmental clearance before construction.
    • Impact: It will do away with the need for green clearance for the construction of the controversial Char Dham project, ( connectivity to Kedarnath, Badrinath, Yamunotri, and Gangotri shrines)
  • Exemption to the thermal power plant: Thermal power plants up to 15 MW based on biomass or non-hazardous municipal solid waste using auxiliary fuel such as coal, lignite or petroleum products up to 15 per cent have also been exempted.
  • Ports which exclusively deal in fish handling, and cater to small fishermen, will be exempted from environmental clearance.
  • Other projects exempted are Toll plazas that need more width for the installation of toll collection booths, and expansion activities in existing airports without an increase in the airport’s existing area.



Significance of EIA for Developmental Projects in India:

  • Make all the stakeholders aware of the environmental and socio-economic impact of the project
  • Facilitates a basis for policy decisions: EIA provides the impact assessment well before the project is implemented.
  • Helps to eliminate or minimize the adverse impact of developmental projects
  • EIA encourages the adaptation of mitigation strategies in the developmental plan
  • Protects the biodiversity of the environment by suggesting alternative safe project designs and methods.
  • Simplifies the technical issues: EIA produces an environmental management plan and summary for the non-tech general public.


Environment Impact Assement

EIA notification 2020 and its impact:

  • Public Consultation: Reduced to max 40 days and only 20 days (from 30days) for submitting a response
    • This will help speed up the process of EIA. However, it may give very little time for Tribal and forest dwellers who are not aware of technical details or have means to access it.
  • More Discretionary power for Government: Power to declare ‘economically sensitive areas’ without a public hearing as well as give any project ‘strategic tag’ (so no EIA obligation)
    • This is important for the clearance of strategic projects related to defence and national security as well as projects deemed too important for the nation.
    • However, there is fear of misuse of this clause for political or economic reasons to circumvent EIA
  •   Post-Facto-project clearance:
    • This will enable ease of doing business and reduce bureaucratic delays. But it is a violation of the fundamental principles of environmental jurisprudence and is contrary to both the precautionary principle as well as the need for sustainable development.
  • An extended period of Environmental clearance: From 30years to 50 years
    • However, it raises the risk of irreversible environmental, health, and social consequence.
  • Baseline data: No need to cover all the seasons in a year.
    • This may make EIA less reliable and not reveal the full impact of EIA
  • Report Issues: reduced from once every six months to once every year.
    • This will dilute the scrutiny and it may be late before any mitigation measures could be taken for highlighted project impact.

EIA needs to provide the balance between ‘ease of doing businesses and maintaining environmental sustainability. In this context, an Independent EIA Authority can be set up for fair and objective decisions. Also, a centralized data bank for storing information and providing access to local communities and the general public to all the aspects of projects.


Related News:

Karnataka government has opposed the draft notification of Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) in western Ghats.

  • ESA in the Western Ghats was proposed by Madhav Gadgil and Kasturirangan Report.
  • Karnataka has only 20% forest cover (against a national target of 33%)


Insta Links



Practice Questions

Q. Environmental Impact Assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before a project is cleared by the Government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at coal pitheads. ( UPSC 2014)

Indian Police and Ethics

GS Paper 4

Syllabus: Application of Ethics


Policing is essential for maintaining law and order and the smooth functioning of society. The absence of a professional code of ethics creates a scenario where it is easy to be a moral opportunist and use unethical conduct as a means of career advancement.

Why Police Ethics are different?

Life and liberty are fundamental moral values. While making any moral decisions, the police have to consider a complex array of conditions. For any action taken by a person, they have to see the motivation and intentions of the action and its consequences. They have to do their jobs in accordance with the laws that are in place at that time,

Police may be required to face danger or hostility in order to do their duty; police officers are likely to experience a range of emotions including fear, anger, suspicion, excitement, and boredom largely than people in other occupations. To act effectively as police, they must be able to respond to these emotions in the right way, which requires them to be emotionally intelligent.


Issues with Ethical Policing in India:

  • Corruption
  • Politicization of the police
  • Custodial death
  • Using harmful methods like coercion and deception.
  • Lack of a proper tenure policy for the posting of officers at different levels and arbitrary transfers.


Various suggestions given for Ethical Policing

The National Human Rights Commission (1998)

  • The police must be “low in authority and high in accountability.” the protection of human rights is a core police function.
  • Police practice must comply with carefully worked out ethical principles that appropriately balance the moral rights of victims with those of suspects constrained by the ethical principles of necessity and proportionality.

Community Policing: It helps in reducing the trust deficit between police and the public as it requires the police to work with the community

  • Community Policing Programme ‘Ummeed’ (Delhi)
  • Friends of Police (Tamil Nadu)
  • Janamaithri Suraksha Project (Kerala)
  • Joint Patrolling Committees (Rajasthan)
  • Meira Paibi (Manipur)
  • Community Policing Project (West Bengal)
  • Maithri (Andhra Pradesh)
  • Mohalla Committees ( Maharashtra)


Practice Questions

Q. Discuss some of the ethical issues surrounding a modern police job. (250 words)

Content for main enrichment

Use of powerful words for Mass struggle or Protest

From the very beginning, powerful words or sentences have a huge impact on the mass struggle.
During Indian National Movement – “ Inqualab Zindabad, Bharat Mata Ki Jay, Angrezo Bharat Chhoro (Quit India), etc were used to galvanise people to participate in mass movements. This would keep their morale high and would make them want to fight for their cause.

Recently during the Sri Lankan protest too, a word like Aragalaya: Sinhalese for ‘struggle’ gained popularity.

In its essential meaning, Aragalaya also captures the struggle of individual Sri Lankans to find food, fuel and medicines on a daily basis, bringing them all together in a “janatha aragalaya” — a people’s struggle. It has been mostly leaderless, though some individuals have spoken for the group on occasion. It also used social media to relay its messages.

Other examples of powerful words: Hong Kong (“Liberate Hong Kong”); US (“Black Lives Matter”), etc.

Facts For Prelims:

Pythagoras theorem in Vedic-era texts

Baudhayana Sulbasutra contains a statement of what is called the Pythagoras theorem. The yajna rituals involved the construction of altars (Vedi) and fireplaces (Agni) in a variety of shapes such as isosceles triangles, symmetric trapezia, and rectangles. The sulbasutras describe steps towards the construction of these figures with prescribed sizes.

The Pythagoras theorem describes the relationship connecting the three sides of a right triangle (one in which one of the angles is 90°):

a² + b² = c²

where a and b are the two perpendicular sides, and c is the length of the diagonal side.

If any two sides of a right triangle are known, the theorem allows you to calculate the third side. Extended to the sides of squares and rectangles and their diagonals, the equation is of immense importance in construction, navigation and astronomy.

Chin refugees

Context: Persecution by Myanmar’s Tatmadaw, a junta regime has led to the exodus of half a million of Myanmar’s people ( including 50,000 ethnic Chin) from Myanmar.


  • Central Government on china refugees: The Chin refugees are not ‘refugees’ but are rebels who continue to extend support to rebel groups in Myanmar.
    • So, MHA advised the state government to take appropriate action to prevent a possible influx into Indian territory.
    • The Centre directed the North-eastern states bordering Myanmar that they do not have powers to grant “refugee status to any foreigner”.
  • State Government perspective:
    • The Mizoram government has defied the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) orders to “detect and deport the refugees”.

India has not ratified the 1951 UN Convention on the Status of Refugees. However, not being a party to the Convention does not prevent any state from granting asylum to the asylum seeker (under the principle of non-refoulment).

 About Chin:

Chin, a group of tribes of Mongol origin, occupy the southernmost part of the mountain ranges separating Myanmar (Burma) from India.

  • Both Mizo and Chin communities (predominantly Christian) share a common history. Both come from the same larger Zo tribe, therefore share a strong ethnic bond predating India’s Independence.
  • There is a Free Movement Regime (FMR)2018 between India and Myanmar that allows both communities on either side to go up to 16 km on the other side and stay up to 14 days.


Hattis Community

Context: The demand for ‘tribal’ status for Himachal’s Trans-Giri and its Hatti community

The Hattis are a close-knit community that takes their name from their traditional occupation of selling home-grown crops, vegetables, meat, and wool at small-town markets known as ‘haats’. Hatti men traditionally don distinctive white headgear on ceremonial occasions.



Giving up citizenship

Context: Over 1.6 lakh Indians renounced their citizenship in 2021, the highest in the past five years, according to information provided by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).

  • Over 78,000 Indians acquired U.S. citizenship, the highest among all other countries.
  • India does not allow dual citizenship.

The citizenship act, of 1955 prescribes three ways of losing citizenship:

  • By renunciation: Any citizen of India of full age and capacity can make a declaration renouncing Indian citizenship. Such declaration may not be accepted during the war. Even the minor children of the person who renounces citizenship stand to lose their Indian citizenship. However, when their children attain the age of eighteen, they may resume Indian citizenship
  • By termination: If a citizen of India voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another country, then he loses the citizenship of India
  • By deprivation: Compulsory termination of Indian citizenship by the Central government, if the person obtained the citizenship by fraud or shown disloyalty to the Constitution of India or imprisoned for a term of two years (in the last 5 years after naturalization) or citizen has been ordinarily resident out of India for a period of 7 years




Remittance in India

Context: As per RBI, the US has become the top remittance source after UAE (in 2020-21) for India.

    • Reasons: Economic recovery in the US is one of the important drivers of India’s remittances growth as it accounts for 23% of total remittances received in India.
    • India received about $87bn in remittances in FY21 (the world’s highest).
    • Decline in remittances from GCC (Gulf): The share of remittances from the GCC region in India’s inward remittances is estimated to have declined from more than 50 per cent in 2016-17 (last surveyed period) to about 30 per cent in 2020- 21.
      • Remittances have exceeded foreign direct inflows in several countries, including India.
    • Among states: The share of the traditional remittance recipient states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka has almost halved in 2020-21.
      • Maharashtra has emerged as the top recipient state surpassing Kerala.



National Statistical Office data on employment

Context: NSO has released its Working Paper on Compilation of Labor Indicators of Minimum Set of Gender Indicators.


  • Childcare affects the employment of women: The employment rate of females (25-49 years) with at least one child under 3 years of age is less than those with no child. However, for males, it doesn’t make any difference.
  • More females work part-time than males across all age groups in both rural and urban areas.
  • More part-time retirees: In both rural and urban areas, part-timers as a proportion of total employed are more in the 60+ age group among males and urban females.

About NSO:

  • It is an overarching body formed by merging the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), Computer Centre and Central Statistical Office (CSO).
  • NSO was first envisaged by Rangarajan Commission to implement and maintain statistical standards and coordinate statistical activities of Central and State agencies as laid down by the National Statistical Commission (NSC).
  • Ministry: It is the statistical wing of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).



National Standards for Civil Service Training Institutions

Context: Launching the “National Standards for Civil Service Training Institutions” (NSCSTI) by Capacity Building Commission (CBC), India became the first country in the world to come out with a unique model to create standards for civil service training institutions at national level

It is part of Mission Karmyogi– which is aimed at building future-ready civil service.



Context: Govt. has formulated the NAMASTE scheme (national action for mechanized sanitation ecosystem) for cleaning sewers, and septic tanks (to be implemented from 2022 to 2026)

  • Aim: It aims to achieve outcomes like zero fatalities in sanitation work in India, no sanitation workers come in direct contact with human faecal matter and all Sewer and Septic tank sanitation workers have access to alternative livelihoods.
  • Nodal Ministries: Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment and the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
  • It will replace the previous scheme: Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers.
  • Skill Development and training of Safai Mitras are being taken up with the support of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment through the National Safai Karamchari Finance Development Corporation.

*Note: There is also NAMASTE Portal (under the Ministry of Ayush) to standardize the various terms and technologies used in alternative medicines.


ICRA (Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India Limited)

Context: As per ICRA, the road connectivity project under Bharatmala Pariyojana Programme (BMP) is only 23% completed, 60% awarded and is projected to be completed by 2028 (late by 6 years)

Reasons for the delay: Mainly due to delay in land acquisition, rise in projected cost, Covid19-related disruptions etc.

About ICRA:

ICRA (est. 1991) is an independent credit rating agency. It is a joint-venture between Moody’s ( about 51% stake) and various Indian commercial banks and financial services companies.


About Bharat Mala Project

The Government of India launched “Bharatmala Pariyojana”, in 2017, as a new umbrella program for the highways sector that focuses on optimizing the efficiency of road traffic movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps.

SPRINT challenges

Context: PM unveiled ‘SPRINT challenges’, an initiative aimed at boosting the usage of indigenous technology in the Indian Navy.

Naval Innovation and Indigenisation Organisation (NIIO) in cooperation with the Defence Innovation Organisation (DIO), aims to induct at least 75 new indigenous technologies/products into the Indian Navy.

The collaborative project is named SPRINT — Supporting Pole-Vaulting in R&D through iDEX (Innovations for Defence Excellence), NIIO and TDAC (Technology Development Acceleration Cell).

Reduced Import: The expenditure on defence procurement from foreign sources has reduced from 46% to 36%, thereby reducing the import burden, in the last 3 (three) years i.e. from 2018-19 to 2020-21.

Other initiatives for indigenization of Defence:

  • Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020: Prioritized capital investment from domestic manufacturers.
  • New FDI Policy: Preference to ‘Buy (Indian)’, ‘Buy & Make (Indian)’ & ‘Make’ categories of acquisition over ‘Buy (Global)’
    • FDI through automatic approval is increased from 49% to 74%.
  • E- Biz Portal: A one-stop shop for providing G2B services to investors and business communities.
  • Mission Raksha Gyanshakti: with the objective of creating greater Intellectual Property in the Defence Production Ecosystem.
  • Artificial Intelligence in Defence: Creation of Defence Artificial Intelligence Project Agency (DAIPA) in, 2019 for greater thrust on Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Defence.
  • Strategic Partnership Policy.
    • This is to promote Joint Ventures (JV) between global defence majors and the indigenous private sector.


Impact Investment

Context: In recent years, returns from impact investments have witnessed a good growth trajectory.

Impact investments are investments made with the intention to generate positive, measurable social and environmental impact alongside a financial return.


    • Waste management company: It provides end-to-end waste management services for corporates, apartment complexes, etc. Therefore, it keeps the environment clean while generating profit.
    • A Mumbai-based courier company: It employs hearing impaired youth, and in the process not only creates employment opportunities for capable individuals but also leverages opportunities in the logistics industry to generate profits.

Regulation: Impact funds (similar to Venture Capital funds) are registered and regulated by Sebi as category I Alternative Investment Fund (AIF)

  • AIF-I are funds that intend to invest in early-stage ventures or social ventures or SMEs or areas that the government or regulators consider as socially or economically desirable.



Marburg virus


Marburg virus, the Ebola-like outbreak now confirmed in Ghana

  • Marburg virus disease (MVD), earlier known as Marburg haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal hemorrhagic fever.
  • It is a filovirus (like ebola), -both diseases are clinically similar.
  • Rousettus fruit bats are considered the natural hosts for the Marburg virus.
  • It was first detected in 1967 after simultaneous outbreaks in Marburg and Frankfurt in Germany; and in Belgrade, Serbia.


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