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[Mission 2023] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 18 July 2022

 

InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

 

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Forest fires 

 

GS Paper 2:

1. Hasty arrests, near-impossible bail show need for overhaul: CJI

2. Centre amends the Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities) Rules 2011

3. How the Vice President of India is elected

 

GS Paper 3:

1. Explained: Is there a crisis in rice?

 

Facts for Prelims:

1. Anayoottu

2. Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy

3. Rise in unvaccinated children

4. Grey water management

5. Data Localization

6. Jagriti

7. Directorate of Forensic Science Laboratory (DFSL)

8. Natural Resource Accounting (NRA)

9. Project 17A Frigate

10. Kilo class submarine

 


Forest fires

General Studies  1

Syllabus: Geography

Source: The Hindu

Context:

In France, Greece, Portugal and Spain, wildfire destroys thousands of hectares of land, forces thousands from their homes and kills several emergency personnel.

  • A wildfire is a major fire that breaks out unpredictably in combustible environments such as dry forests or bush and often burns uncontrollably over a large area and length of time. A forest fire can be triggered by natural factors such as prolonged hot, dry weather or lightning strikes, or human carelessness.

Heatwaves have become more frequent, more intense, and last longer because of human-induced climate change. The world has already warmed by about 1.1C since the industrial era began and temperatures will keep rising unless governments around the world make steep cuts to carbon emissions.

Status: As per the Global Forest Watch, forest fires in India have increased by 125% (between 2015 and 2017). At a global level as well, the world is undergoing through wildfire crisis, with reports of wildfires in Siberia, the Amazon basin, Pantanal wetland (South America), Australia, and the rainforest of Indonesia.

 

The reason behind the global wildfires:

  • Natural Causes: Environmental causes are largely related to climatic conditions such as
    • Extreme climatic conditions: g. high wind speed and direction, temperature, low level of moisture in soil and atmosphere, and duration of dry spells.
    • Lightning strike:g. in Australia, most bushfires are caused by lightning
    • The friction of bamboos swaying due to high wind velocity: e.g. in deciduous forests of northeast India Rolling stones that result in sparks: In the mountainous forested e.g. Uttrakhand
    • Role of El Nino and La Nina:g. Indonesian in 2019 experienced high forest fire incidents due to el Nino’s impact
    • Role of sudden stratospheric warming in Antarctica: 2020 bush fires in Australia was further strengthened
  • Human related causes
    • Intentional fires:
      • Economical reasons: e.g. Human-caused fires are also a major issue in Indonesia, where large areas of peatland were burned during last year’s fires to be converted into tree plantations.
        • In Pantanal (South America): Soy and cattle farmers set fires on their land during the summer, but drought and strong winds caused these fires to rage out of control and surpass traditional barriers such as roads and streams.
      • Graziers and gatherers start small fires to get good grazing grass for their cattle and to gathering minor forest produce such as Madhuca Indica flowers and leaves of Diospyros elanoxylon.
      • Shifting cultivation practice: North-Eastern region of India and in parts of the States of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh).
      • Forest fires by villagers to ward off wild animals.
    • Unintentional fires: logging activity-related fires, campfires in forests for recreation, E.g. through discards cigarette butts
  • Climate change: It is increasing the fire season and the size of areas affected by the fire. Droughts, which might be exacerbated by climate change, also make wildfires more likely.
    • g. Australia has been experiencing such a drought over the past few years, which contributed to the widespread of wildfires in 2020.
  • Climate change is changing the nature and intensity of the fires: There are more pyro-cumulonimbus clouds – clouds formed on top of heat sources – that can bring lightning-intensive storms and increase the spread of fire.
  • In Siberia and Russia, climate change is causing winters to become shorter and weather to become drier and windier, leading to more intense fires occurring across larger areas.

 

Measures to control:

  • Policy measures:
    • National Policy on Forest Fire: finalized by the government
    • National Plan for forest fire management: National Forest Fire Danger Rating System, Fire fighting tools and machinery (e.g. Fire Beaters, Pulaskis Tools, Forest Fire Showel, etc.)
    • Forest Fire Prevention & Management Scheme (FFPMS, 2017): a revised version of the Forest Management Scheme
  • Community participation: by the involvement of NGOs, Voluntary Organisations, Village Forest Committees (VFCs), etc.
    • Institutionalize the partnership with forest fringe communities
    • Devise a forest fire forecasting system at the local level
  • Forest Fire Monitoring: FSI uses NASA’s  MODIS  (Moderate Resolution  Imaging  Spectro-radiometer)  and  VIIRS (Visible  Infrared  Imaging  Radiometer  Suite)  satellites for its Forest fires alert system 2.0
  • Use of technology (such as Remote Sensing, GPS, and GIS) in planning, developing and operationalizing Fire management systems.

 

Insta Links

Forest Fires

Practice Questions

Enumerate the causes for the rising instances of forest fires in India. What measures are needed to mitigate the adverse impacts of forest fires? (250 Words)

Hasty arrests, near-impossible bail show need for overhaul: CJI

General Studies  2

Syllabus: Structure, organization and functioning of executive and judiciary, CJI etc

Source: The Hindu

Context:

  • Chief Justice of India said aimless and hasty arrests, locking up undertrial prisoners in jail for long spells and making it almost impossible for them to get bail is proof that the system is in dire need of an overhaul.
  • The CJI said it is a “grave issue” that 80% of the 6.10 lakh prisoners across the country are undertrials.
  • He was speaking later at the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly on the 75 years of parliamentary democracy.
  • He said, the “space for Opposition is diminishing” in the country, the quality of legislative performance is in decline, Intended benefits of laws do not reach the people.
  • The Supreme Court judges have raised the alarm about indiscriminate arrests and the near-impossible chances of getting bail for undertrial prisoners on two separate fronts in a matter of a week.

 

Article Highlights:

  • More than Two-third of jail inmates constitute undertrial prisoners: The statistics placed before the court indicate that more than two-thirds of the inmates of the prisons constitute undertrial prisoners. Of this category of prisoners, the majority may not even be required to be arrested…” Justice Sundresh observed.
  • A police state cannot exist within a democracy: The judgment underscored that a police state cannot exist within a democracy.
    • In a democracy, there can never be an impression that it is a police state. Both are conceptually opposite to each other,” the top court observed.

 

How has the Supreme Court ruled on Reforms?

  • Separate Law for Bail: The court underlined that the CrPC, despite amendments since Independence, largely retains its original structure as drafted by a colonial power over its subjects.
  • Uniformity and certainty in the decisions: courts are the foundations of judicial dispensation, persons accused of the same offence shall never be treated differently by the same court.
  • Indiscriminate Arrests: The court noted that the culture of too many arrests, especially for non-cognisable offences, is unwarranted.
    • It emphasized that even for cognisable offences, the arrest is not mandatory and must be “necessitated”.
  • Bail Application: There need not be any insistence on a bail application while considering the application under Sections 88, 170, 204 and 209 of the Code.
    • These sections relate to various stages of a trial where a magistrate can decide on the release of an accused.
  • Direction to States: The SC also directed all state governments and Union Territories to facilitate standing orders to comply with the orders and avoid indiscriminate arrests.
What is India’s Law on Bail?
  • The CrPC does not define the word bail but only categories offences under the Indian Penal Code as ‘bailable’ and ‘non-bailable’.
  • The CrPC empowers magistrates to grant bail for bailable offences as a matter of right.
    • This would involve release on furnishing a bail bond, without or without security.
  • In the case of Non-bailable offences, a magistrate would determine if the accused is fit to be released on bail.
  • Non-bailable offences are cognisable, which enables the police officer to arrest without a warrant.
  • Section 436 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down that a person accused of a bailable offence under I.P.C. can be granted bail.
  • Section 437 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 lays down that the accused does not have the right to bail in non-bailable offences.
    • It is the discretion of the court to grant bail in case of non-bailable offences.
Insta Links:

CJI

Practice Questions:

Q.Judicial legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of the large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities. (UPSC 2020)

 

With reference to the Chief Justice of India(CJI), consider the following statements:

  1. The procedure to appoint the next CJI is laid out in the constitution.
  2. The President administers the oath of office to the new CJI.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

    1. 1 only
    2. 2 only
    3. Both 1 and 2
    4. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (b)

Justification:

  • The procedure to appoint the next CJI is laid out in the Memorandum of Procedure (MoP) between the government and the judiciary:
  • The procedure is initiated by the Law Minister seeking the recommendation of the outgoing CJI at the ‘appropriate time’, which is near to the date of retirement of the incumbent CJI.
  • The CJI sends his recommendation to the Law Ministry; and in the case of any qualms, the CJI can consult the collegium regarding the fitness of an SC judge to be elevated to the post.
  • After receiving a recommendation from the CJI, the law minister forwards it to the Prime Minister who then advises the President on the same.
  • The President administers the oath of office to the new CJI.

Centre amends the Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities) Rules 2011

General Studies  2

Syllabus: Laws and notifications for social sector development, issues related to social sector development, Legal Metrology rules 2011 etc

 

Source: PIB

Context:

  • The Department of Consumer Affairs vides the Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities), (Second Amendment) Rules 2022 has allowed electronic products to declare certain mandatory declarations through the QR Code for a period of one year, if not declared in the package itself.

 

Key Amendments:

  • Elaborated information through QR Code: This amendment will allow the industry to declare the elaborated information in digital form through the QR Code.
  • Important declarations to be declared effectively: It will allow important declarations to be declared effective on the label in the package while the other descriptive information can be conveyed to the Consumer through the QR Code.
  • Greater use of technology: The Department to enable greater use of technology in this digital era to declare the mandatory declaration through the QR Code which can be scanned to view the declarations like the address of the manufacturer or packer or importer, the common or generic name of the commodity, the size and dimension of the commodity and customer care details except for the telephone number & email address.
  • Mandatory declaration: Earlier, all the prepackaged commodities including the electronic products were required to declare all the mandatory declarations as per the Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities), Rules 2011 on the package.

 

Insta Links:

Legal Metrology Rules, 2011

 

Practice Questions:

Q. All the prepackaged commodities including the electronic products are required to declare all the mandatory declarations as per the Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities), Rules 2011. Critically analyze.

 

With reference to Legal Metrology Rules, consider the following statements:

  1. The Department of Consumer Affairs administers the Legal Metrology laws.
  2. The Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities), Rules 2011 are primarily intended to ensure that the consumers are able to make informed choices by being informed of essential declarations on the pre-packed commodities.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

    1. 1 only
    2. 2 only
    3. Both 1 and 2
    4. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (c

Justification:

  • The Department of Consumer Affairs administers the Legal Metrology Rules.
  • The Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities), Rules 2011 are primarily intended to ensure that the consumers are able to make informed choices by being informed of essential declarations on the pre-packed commodities.

How the Vice President of India is elected, what the Constitution says about the post

General Studies  2

Syllabus: Parliament-Structure, functioning and conduct of businesses, the role of vice-President, powers and privileges etc

 

Source: Indian Express

Context:

  • The opposition on Sunday named former Governor and former union minister Margaret Alva as its candidate for Vice President.
  • The ruling NDA has announced West Bengal Governor Jagdeep Dhankhar will be its candidate for the post.
  • The term of office of Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu, Vice-President of India, is ending on 10 August 2022.
  • As per Article 68 of the Constitution of India, an election to fill the vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of the outgoing Vice-President is required to be completed before the expiration of the term.

 

Office of the Vice President:

  • Article 63: It states that “there shall be a Vice-President of India”.
  • Article 64: The Vice-President “shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of the States” (Rajya Sabha).
  • Article 65: It says that “in the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the date on which a new President…enters upon his office”.
  • The Vice-President shall also discharge the functions of the President when the latter is unable to do so “owing to absence, illness or any other cause.

 

Election of Vice-President:

  • Article 324 of the Constitution read with the Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act, 1952 and the Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Rules, 1974, vests the superintendence, direction and control of the conduct of election to the office of the Vice-President of India in the Election Commission of India.
  • The notification for election shall be issued on or after the sixtieth day before the expiration of term of office of the outgoing Vice-President.
  • As per Article 66 of the Constitution of India, the Vice-President is elected by the members of the Electoral College.
  • Electoral College consists of:
  1. Elected members of Rajya Sabha.
  2. Nominated members of Rajya Sabha.
  3. Elected members of Lok Sabha.

 

  • Since, all the electors are members of both Houses of Parliament, the value of the vote of each Member of Parliament would be the same i.e.1 (one).
  • The Election Commission, in consultation with the Central Government, appoints the Secretary General of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, by rotation, as the Returning Officer.
  • Accordingly, the Secretary-General, Lok Sabha will be appointed as the Returning Officer for the present election to the Office of the Vice-President of India.
  • The Commission has also decided to appoint Assistant Returning Officers in Parliament House (Lok Sabha) to assist Returning Officers.
  • As per Rule 8 of the Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Rules, 1974, polls for the election will be taken in the Parliament House.

 

Manner of Election:

Eligibility and term of office:

  • Article 66(3): It says “No person shall be eligible for election as Vice-President unless he:
    • Is a citizen of India
    • Has completed the age of thirty-five years
    • Is qualified for election as a member of the Council of States”.
  • Article 66(4): “A person shall not be eligible for election as Vice-President if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.”
  • Article 67: It lays down that the “Vice-President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office”.
    • However, the Vice-President “shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office”.
  • The Vice-President may leave office before the end of his term by resigning to the President, or he “may be removed…by a resolution of the Council of States passed by a majority of all the then members of the Council and agreed to by the House of the People”.

 

What if the election is disputed?

  • Article 71: It says that “all doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision shall be final”.
  • Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President”.

 

Insta Links:

Vice-President

 

Practice Questions:

Q. Individual parliamentarian’s role as the national lawmaker is on a decline, which in turn, has adversely impacted the quality of debates and their outcome. Discuss( UPSC 2019)

 

Consider the following statements:

  1. All doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a Vice-President are inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision is final.
  2. The Electoral college of Vice-President does not include nominated members of Rajya Sabha.

Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?

    1. 1 only
    2. 2 only
    3. Both 1 and 2
    4. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (b)

Justification:

  • Article 71: It says that “all doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision shall be final”.
  • Electoral College of Vice-President consists of:
    • Elected members of Rajya Sabha.
    • Nominated members of Rajya Sabha.
    • Elected members of Lok Sabha.

Explained: Is there a crisis in rice?

General Studies  3

Syllabus: Agriculture: Major cropping patterns in various parts of the country

 

Source: Indian Express

Context: India has witnessed a shortfall in rice acreage while the overall crop coverage has risen.

Status:

  • Storage: Government godowns had over 47.2 million tonnes (mt) of rice ( nearly three-and-a-half times the minimum level of stocks, to meet both “operational” (public distribution system) and “strategic reserve” (exigency) requirements for the quarter.
  • Wheat: Public stocks have plunged from all-time highs to 14-year lows within the space of a year.

 

Data about Rice:

  • It is India’s largest agricultural crop (accounting for over 40% of the total foodgrain output)
  • India is the world’s biggest exporter (around 40% of the world’s export)
  • India is 2nd largest rice producer in the world after China.

 

Process of planting rice: Farmers first sow paddy seeds in nurseries. These seedlings are then uprooted and replanted 25-35 days later in the main field. Nursery sowing generally happens before the monsoon rains. For the first three weeks or so after transplanting, the water depth has to be maintained at 4-5 cm, in order to control weed growth in the early stage of the crop.

Why is the acreage less?

  • Low rainfall in paddy areas: Areas such as Uttar Pradesh to West Bengal have had very little rain.
  • Drying up of nurseries: Most farmers with limited irrigation facilities have seen even their nurseries drying up”

Paddy cultivation takes place across a wider geography, unlike wheat which is grown only in a few states north of the Vindhyas. Also, rice is both a Kharif (monsoon) and rabi (winter-spring) season crop. So, the losses in one area or season can potentially be recouped from the other.

 

Insta Links:

Direct seeding of Rice

 

Practice Questions:

Q. What is/are the advantage/advantages of zero tillage in agriculture? (UPSC 2020)

 

Sowing of wheat is possible without burning the residue of the previous crops.

  1. Without the need for a nursery of rice saplings, direct planting of paddy seeds in the wet soil is possible.
  2. Carbon sequestration in the soil is possible.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

No-till farming is an agricultural technique for growing crops or pasture without disturbing the soil through tillage. No-till farming decreases the amount of soil erosion tillage causes in certain soils, especially in sandy and dry soils on sloping terrain.

Wheat can be grown without burning residue e.g. using happy seeders. DRS allows direct seeding of rice without the need for transplantation. Carbon sequestration is also possible (Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide. )

 

The lower Gangetic plain is characterised by humid climate with high temperature throughout the year. Which one among the following pairs of crops is most suitable for this region?

(a) Paddy and Cotton

(b) Wheat and Jute

(c) Paddy and Jute

(d) Wheat and cotton

Answer: C

/ 18_Jul_CA, Today's Article

Facts For Prelims

Anayoottu

An annual ritual at Sree Vadakkunnathan Temple, Thrissur, in which more than 50 elephants are fed special food, is done to propitiate Lord Ganesha, who, according to Hindu belief, removes obstacles in one’s life.

Ritual was started to help elephants paraded at the 1982 Games’ opening ceremony regain health.

 

Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy

Chimeric antigen receptor T cells are T cells that have been genetically engineered to produce an artificial T cell receptor for use in immunotherapy. Chimeric antigen receptors are receptor proteins that have been engineered to give T cells the new ability to target a specific protein

  • It is used to treat certain blood cancers, and it is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.
  • T cells are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. They help protect the body from infection and may help fight cancer.

Under the government programme– An Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) faculty from the Department of Science & Technology (DST) is working on an Alternative Anti-Cancer Therapy (Anti-Angiogenic) using transgenic zebrafish.

 

Rise in unvaccinated children

Context: World recorded the largest sustained decline in childhood vaccinations in approximately 30 years- WHO and UNICEF

Findings:

  • The number of children who were unvaccinated or missed the first dose of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis combined vaccine doubled due to the pandemic
  • Until the pandemic, India steadily improved immunisation coverage from 43% during NFHS -3 (2005-2006), to 62% in the (NFHS) -4 (2015-16).
  • Red Alert: The world is witnessing the largest sustained drop in childhood immunisation in a generation

Mission Indradhanush

‘Mission Indradhanush’ was launched by the Government of India in December 2014. It was aimed to strengthen and re-energize the programme and achieve full immunization coverage for all children and pregnant women.

  • The ultimate goal of Mission Indradhanush is to ensure full immunization with all available vaccines for children up to two years of age and pregnant women.
  • India started the fourth round of IMI in February 2022.

 

Grey water management

Greywater refers to domestic wastewater generated in households or office buildings from streams without faecal contamination, i.e., all streams except for the wastewater from toilets. Sources of greywater include sinks, showers, baths, washing machines or dishwashers

Its recycling can help reduce the demand for water and help agriculture (grey water has high nitrogen and phosphorus content). ‘Water+’ status demands greywater recycling.

 

 

Data Localization

Context: Many Indian start-ups have complained that the provision of the personal data protection Bill is too “compliance intensive” and could hamper the ease of doing business.

Data localisation is the practice of storing data on any device that is physically present within the borders of the country where the data is generated. As of now, most of these data are stored, in a cloud, outside India.

  • Draft National E-Commerce Policy Framework: The framework recommended data localisation and also gave a two-year sunset period for the industry to adjust before localization rules become mandatory.
  • The Srikrishna Committeewants to localise data for law enforcement to have easy access to data, prevent foreign surveillance, and build an artificial intelligence ecosystem in India.
  • As per the committee– At least one copy of personal data will need to be stored within India, any transfer outside the country will need to comply with the rules, and critical personal data will only be stored and processed in India.
  • International practices: China, United States, Brazil, Indonesia, EU (data protection regime) and Russia has such law

 

Jagriti

Context: it is a mascot for empowering consumers and generating awareness of their rights. It will spread awareness about consumer rights, the consumer protection act 2019, Hallmarking, the provision of weights and measures act etc.

  • Other initiative: “Jago Grahak Jago” campaign, National Consumer Helpline (NCH), Consumer welfare fund
  • Launched by the Department of Consumer Affairs (DoCA)

 

 Directorate of Forensic Science Laboratory (DFSL)

Context: Recently a Mumbai court used the report of DFSL for ‘gait analysis’ (1st time in India), to sentence a man for rape and murder.

  • Gait analysis is a process where a person’s manner of walking is compared with CCTV camera footage of the accused.

About:

  • Established in the year 1958
  • Function: The DFSL’s main function is to provide a scientific opinion on different types of evidential material referred to by the investigating agencies and help the judiciary.
  • Significance: Reports from DFSL were used in many high-profile cases, including the 1993 serial bomb blasts in Bombay, cases related to the 2006 train blasts and the 2011 serial blasts in Mumbai.

 

Natural Resource Accounting (NRA)

Context: Government Accounting Standards Advisory Board (GASAB) has released a concept paper on NRA

  • Natural resource accounting deals with changes in the stocks of natural assets, comprising biota (produced or wild), subsoil assets (proved reserves), water and land with their aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
    • Aim: The aim of natural resource accounting is to provide information on the state of natural resources and the changes affecting them. It is therefore an important link in the chain of sustainable development.
  • It aims to help make policymakers take informed policy decisions about the country’s key natural resources.
  • It will be in compliance with international standards set by UN’s SEEA CF (SEEA measures the environment and its relationship with the economy)

 

Project 17A Frigate

Context: Defence Minister recently launched Dunagiri (latest ship of 17A frigate)- Nilgiri Class. This is the fourth and latest ship in this class.

  • It has been designed in-house by the Indian Navy’s Directorate of Naval Design (DND)
  • The Shivalik class or Project 17 class is a class of multi-role stealth frigates in service with the Indian Navy. They are the first stealth warships built in India.
  • P17A Frigates (Nilgiri Class ) are follow-on class of the P17 (Shivalik Class) Frigates with improved stealth features

 

 

Kilo class submarine

Context: INS Sindhudhvaj  (Navy’s Kilo-class submarine) was decommissioned from service after 35 years in service. With this, the Navy now has 15 conventional submarines in service.

  • The Kilo-class boats are called the Sindhughosh-class, after the lead vessel in the series. They are diesel-electric submarines that can dive to a depth of 300 metres.
  • The Navy’s sub-surface fleet now includes seven Russian Kilo-class submarines, four German HDW submarines, four French Scorpene submarines, and the indigenous nuclear ballistic missile submarine INS Arihant.

 


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