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InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:


GS Paper 1:

1. PM Modi unveils national emblem on new Parliament building


GS Paper 2:

1. India to surpass China as the most populous country in a year

2. Guidelines to prevent unfair trade practices

3. MPs’ panel oppose Mediation Bill


GS Paper 3:

1. RBI allows global trade settlements in rupees

2. Dark Matter


Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay)

1. Role of NGOs in uplifting tribals


Facts for Prelims:

1. Azores High

2. Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray

3. Bail Act

4. IS4OM

5. India Stack

6. Revamped Distribution Sector Scheme (RDSS)

7. National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI)

8. AI-based Mandarin translation devices


PM Modi unveils national emblem on new Parliament building

GS Paper-1

Syllabus: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature, and Architecture from ancient to modern times.


Source: Indian Express


Prime Minister Narendra Modi unveiled the National Emblem cast on the roof of the new Parliament building.

The concept sketch and process of casting the National Emblem on the roof of the building went through eight different stages of preparation from clay modelling/ computer graphics to bronze casting and polishing.

About National Emblem:

  • On 26 January 1950, a representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka placed above the motto, Satyameva Jayate, was adopted as the State Emblem of India.
  • It was chosen as a symbol of contemporary India’s reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to world peace and goodwill.


  • The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.
  • In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus
  • Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).



  • While Buddhist interpretations say the animals represent different phases of the Buddha’s life, non-religious interpretations say they depict the reign of emperor Ashoka in the four geographical directions, while the wheels depict his enlightened rule.


Current Affairs


Practice Questions:

Q. Who among the following rulers advised his subjects through this inscription? “Whosoever praises his religious sect or blames other sects out of excessive devotion to his own sect, with the view of glorifying his own sect, he rather injures his own sect very severely.” (UPSC 2020)

(a) Ashoka

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Harshavardhana

(d) Krishnadeva Raya

Answer: A


Q. In which of the following relief sculpture inscriptions is ‘Ranyo Ashoka’ (King Ashoka) mentioned along with the stone portrait of Ashoka? (UPSC 2019)

(a) Kanganahalli

(b) Sanchi

(c) Shahbazagrhi

(d) Sohgaura

Answer: A

India to surpass China as the most populous country in a year: UN

Gs Paper-2

Syllabus: Issues related to population and poverty, UN, Government policies and interventions for developments of various social sectors etc


Source: Livemint, The Hindu


  • On World Population Day(11 July), the United Nations released a report (world population prospectus) projecting India to surpass China as the world’s most populous country next year.
  • It further stated that the world population is forecast to reach eight billion by mid-November 2022.
  • The forecast by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs said the world’s population is growing at its slowest pace since 1950.


Current Affairs


Key Highlights:

  • China and India most populous countries: According to World Population Prospects 2019, China with a 1. 44 billion population and India with 1.39 billion are the two most populous countries in the world, representing 19 and 18 per cent of the world’s population, respectively.
  • India taking over China: However, by around 2023, India’s population will overtake China to become the most populous country with China’s population projected to decrease by 31.4 million, or around 2.2 per cent, between 2019 and 2050.
  • Population to reach eight billion: The UN forecast also stated, that the world’s population is expected to reach eight billion.
  • Net drop in birth rates: While a net drop in birth rates is observed in several developing countries, more than half of the rise forecast in the world’s population in the coming decades will be concentrated in eight countries, the report said.
    • Eight countries are the Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines and Tanzania.
  • Challenge to SDGs: Many are projected to double in population between 2022 and 2050, putting additional pressure on resources and posing challenges to the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • Older age population growth: The population of older persons is increasing both in numbers and as a share of the total.
  • Sustained drop in fertility: A sustained drop in fertility has led to an increased concentration of the population at working ages (between 25 and 64 years), creating an opportunity for accelerated economic growth per capita.
  • Migration: International migration is having an important impact on population trends in some countries.
    • Over the next few decades, migration will be the sole driver of population growth in high-income countries.
  • Coved-19: The Covid-19 pandemic has had significant demographic consequences affecting all components of population change, including mortality, fertility and migration.
  • Global life expectancy fell 1. 8 years between 2019 and 2021 due to excess mortality associated with the pandemic.
    • The impact of the pandemic on fertility is less clear-cut.


Comparison with India:


Current Affairs


  • In India, the Registrar General comes out with a population projection based on the Census.
  • The last such projection was released in 2019 and it was based on Census 2011.
  • The Census projection is slightly lower than the UN projection.
  • India’s fertility rate is expected to dip from 2. 01  presently to 1.78 in 2050 and 1.69 in 2100, compared to the global average of 2.3 at present.
  • The findings reveal that the positive number of births in India among women aged 15 to 19 might fall from the current 988,000 to 282,000 by 2050, and then to 132,000 by 2100.


Current Affairs


World Population Prospects:

●      The Population Division of the UN has been publishing the WPP in a biennial cycle since 1951.

●      Each revision of the WPP provides a historical time series of population indicators starting in 1950.

●      It does so by taking into account newly released national data to revise estimates of past trends in fertility, mortality or international migration.




Current Affairs


UN Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC):

●      It is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as the implementation of internationally agreed development goals.

●      It has 54 members, elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms.

●      Few important bodies under the purview of ECOSOC:

○       International Labour Organization (ILO)

○       Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

○       United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

○       World Health Organization (WHO)

○       Bretton Woods Twins (World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund)

○       United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

●      Apart from these, there are various Functional and Regional Commissions, Standing Committees, and Ad Hoc and Expert Bodies as well.


Practice Questions:

Q. Despite Consistent experience of high growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive. (UPSC 2021)


Q. Which of the following is/are the principal UN organs?

  1. UN Security Council
  2. The Economic and Social Council
  3.  The Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat
  4. World Health Organization (WHO)

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a. 1, 2 and 3 only

b. 2, 3 and 4 only

c. 1 and 2 only

d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (a)


The United Nations (UN) has six main organs:

  • The General Assembly
  • The Security Council
  • The Economic and Social Council
  • The Trusteeship Council
  • The International Court of Justice

The new guidelines to prevent unfair trade practices

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation, trade practices etc


Source: The Hindu


  • On July 4, the Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) announced five guidelines to prevent unfair trade practices and to protect consumer interests regarding the levy of service charges in hotels and restaurants.
  • The guidelines are in addition to the Center’s 2017 guidelines which prohibit the levy of service charges on consumers by hotels and restaurants, and terms the charging for anything other than “the price displayed on the menu card along with the applicable taxes” without “express consent” of the customer as “unfair trade practices”.


New Guidelines:

  • Prohibition from levying extra charges: Hotels or restaurants are prohibited from levying extra charges automatically or by default in the bill or by any other name.
  • No forced service charges: Also, they are not allowed to force service charges, and must clearly inform the consumers that service charges are voluntary, optional, and at their discretion.
  • No restriction on entry based on service charges: Hotels and restaurants are no longer allowed to restrict entry or services based on the collection of service charges.
  • No addition of service charges and GST on total: Hotels cannot add service charges to their bills and charge GST on the total.
  • Tips or donations no longer permitted: Any tip, donation, token, gratuity, etc. is no longer permitted to be charged and shall be considered as a separate transaction between the consumer and the staff of the hotel and restaurant.
    • It is entirely up to the consumer to decide whether or not to tip.
    • If a consumer enters a restaurant or orders something, the restaurant policy cannot require them to tip.
  • Unfair trade practice: Guidelines now consider charging a customer other than the price of food items displayed on the menu along with applicable taxes, as an unfair trade practice’ under the CPA.


Redressal mechanisms:

  • If any consumer finds that a hotel or restaurant is levying a service charge in violation of these guidelines:
    • They may request the concerned hotel or restaurant to remove the service charge from the bill
    • May lodge a complaint on the NCH, which works as an alternate dispute redressal mechanism at the pre-litigation level
    • Call 1915 or through the NCH mobile app.
    • Complaint against unfair trade practice with the Consumer Commission electronically through for its speedy and effective redressal.


Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA):

●      The CCPA has been established to regulate matters related to the violation of the rights of consumers.

●      Under the Consumer Protection Act (CPA), 2019, the authority was established to regulate violations of consumer rights, unfair trade practices, and false or misleading advertisements that are prejudicial to the interest of the public.

●      The CCPA has authority under section 18 of the CPA, 2019 to protect, promote and most importantly enforce the rights of the consumers and prevent violation of their rights under the Act.

●      It also seeks to ensure that no person engaged in unfair trade practices.

●      It is also empowered to issue guidelines to enforce the rights of the consumers laid down in the Act.


Service charge:

●      Service charge is a tip or a direct transaction between the customer and the restaurant staff, specifically the wait staff.

●      It is a fee collected to pay for services associated with the purchase of a primary product or service.

●      It is collected by hospitality sectors and food and beverage industries as a fee for serving customers.



Insta Links:

Consumer Protection Act, 2019


Practice Questions:

Q. Which of the following consumer rights is/are defined by Consumer Protection Act 2019?

  1. Right to Safety.
  2. Right to Choose.
  3. Right to seek Redressal.
  4. Right to Consumer Education.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a. 1, 2 and 4 only

b. 1 and 4 only

c. 2 and 3 only

d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (d)


Six consumer rights have been defined in the act:

  • Right to Safety.
  • Right to be Informed.
  • Right to Choose.
  • Right to be heard.
  • Right to seek Redressal.
  • Right to Consumer Education.

MPs’ panel oppose Mediation Bill

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Parliament- Structure, functioning and conduct of business, parliamentary committees etc


Source: The Hindu


  • The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Law and Justice, headed by Sushil Kumar Modi, has recommended substantial changes to the Mediation Bill, meant for the institutionalization of mediation and establishment of the Mediation Council of India.
  • The panel cautioned against making pre-litigation mediation compulsory and warned the Centre against the provision to give higher courts the power to frame rules for mediation.


Current Affairs


Key Issues:

  • Clause 26 of the Bill: It provides for the court-annexed mediation
    • This clause gives the powers to the court to make rules for ‘court-annexed mediation’, which is unconstitutional.
  • Pre-litigation mediation mandatory: Making pre-litigation mediation mandatory may actually result in the delaying of cases and may prove to be an additional tool in the hands of truant litigants to delay the disposal of cases.
  • Non-applicability of provisions to non-commercial matters: Non Applicability of the provisions of the Bill to disputes/matters of non-commercial nature involving the Government and its agencies.
  • Appointment of chairperson and members: Appointment of the Chairperson and Members of the Mediation Council of India should be made by a Selection Committee constituted by the Centre.


Insta Links:

Mediation bill, 2021

Parliamentary committees


Practice Questions:

Q. Parliamentary oversight regulation is necessary for the effective functioning and implementation of government policies. Analyze. (15M)

Q. Do Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committees keep the administration on its toes and inspire reverence for parliamentary control? Evaluate the working of such committees with suitable examples. (UPSC 2021)


Q. Consider the following statements:

  1. The Parliamentary estimates committee has 30 members, all from the Lok Sabha.
  2. Both the public accounts committee and the committee on public undertakings have 22 members.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (c)


Composition of Financial Committees:

  • The estimates committee has 30 members, all from the Lok Sabha.
  • Both the public accounts committee and the committee on public undertakings have 22 members each — 15 elected from the Lok Sabha and seven from the Rajya Sabha.

RBI allows global trade settlements in rupees

GS Paper-3

Syllabus: Effects of liberalisation on the economy (post-1991 changes)


Source: Live Mint


In order to facilitate trade with sanctions-hit Russia, RBI has allowed global trade settlements in Indian rupees for domestic traders. Banks will need RBI approval to use the new system.


  • Will boost Indian export and currency: The move would promote global trade growth with an emphasis on exports from India (e.g. Tea export) and will support the increasing interest of the global trading community in the domestic currency.
  • Expedite transactions with sanctions-hit Russia: India’s trade with Russia stood at $13.1 billion in 2021-22.
  • Final settlement in Indian Rupee: Under the existing provisions of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, final settlements must be in free foreign exchange except for Nepal and Bhutan. Now, if RBI approves, the final settlement to all countries can be in the Indian rupee.
  • Save foreign currency and reduce trade deficit: Since India imports more than it exports. It will enhance forex inflows and as a step to stabilize the rupee.
  • Will help build better ties with Russia: The opening of the trade settlement route shows Russia’s importance as India’s trading partner in the face of increasing pressure from Western countries to cut links.
  • Can be used for other neighbouring countries as well: Several countries including Iran, Sri Lanka and some in Africa and Latin America are facing forex  shortages. As such, the new mechanism will help India promote its exports in these countries.


How the system will work:

  • Russian banks will have to open Vostro accounts in India, and whenever exports or imports take place, that account will be debited or credited.
  • Indian importers will make payments in rupees, to be credited to the Vostro account of the correspondent bank of the partner country.
  • Indian exporters will be paid the export proceeds in rupees from the balances in


Current Affairs


Current Affairs



  • A similar Vostro account set up for the purpose of trade with Iran had run dry as India was stopped from sourcing oil from Iran amid US sanctions.
    • Exporters had said the payment problem in the Iran market restricted them from filling the space left vacant by Sri Lanka, which is in the middle of a severe financial crisis.
  • Western countries might put pressure on India to not allow any such mechanism.


Insta Links

 Lessons from Russia for India


Practice Questions

Q. Even as India and Russia explore new relationships, they continue to remain each other’s, all-weather friends. Comment. (10M)

 Q. The problem of international liquidity is related to the non-availability of (UPSC 2015)

(a) goods and services

(b) gold and silver

(c) dollars and other hard currencies

(d) exportable surplus

Answer: C

Since most International transactions occur in Dollar or other hard currencies.


 Q. The balance of payments of a country is a systematic record of (UPSC 2013)

(a) All import and export transactions of a country during a given period of time, normally a year

(b) Goods exported from a country during a year

(c) Economic transaction between the government of one country to another

(d) Capital movements from one country to another

Answer: A

In international economics, the balance of payments of a country is the difference between all money flowing into the country in a particular period of time and the outflow of money to the rest of the world.

Dark Matter

GS Paper-3

Syllabus: Science and Technology


Source: The Hindu


One of the most sensitive dark matter detector experiments named LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) in the U.S.A, has been used for finding evidence of dark matter in the universe.


What is dark matter and why is it so elusive?

All interactions in the universe are a result of four fundamental forces acting on particles — strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, electromagnetic force and gravitation.

Dark matter is particles that do not have a charge — which means they do not interact through electromagnetic interactions.

  • dark”: because they do not emit light.
  • matter”: because they possess mass like normal matter and hence interact through gravity.

Dark matter is elusive because: Gravitational force is extremely weak. A particle that interacts so weakly becomes rather elusive to detect.


Fig: Composition of Universe



Current Affairs


Evidence for Dark Matter:

  • By observing the rotation of galaxies: there are discrepancy changes in how stars revolve around the galaxy centre than what should be the ideal path. This has been contributed to the presence of dark matter along the path.
  • By the observations of the Bullet Cluster of galaxies: The Bullet cluster is formed through the merging of two galaxy clusters. The merger didn’t take place as per the observable calculations, signifying the presence of another massive matter particle, ‘the dark matter’.

Dark matter particles are made up of: No definite answer is known, but scientists say:

  • neutrino’ would have been an excellent candidate if it had been more massive, but being too light, it doesn’t fit the bill.
  • Other postulated entities include the supersymmetric partner of the Z boson, a particle that mediates the electro-weak interaction.


Dark energy: It is a hypothetical form of energy that exerts a negative, repulsive pressure, behaving like the opposite of gravity.

  • It is causing the rate of expansion of our universe to accelerate over time, rather than to slow down. That’s contrary to what one might expect from a universe that began in the Big Bang.


Current Affairs

Did you know about the XENON1T experiment?

  • It is the world’s most sensitive dark matter experiment and was operated deep underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy.
  • It uses the dual-phase (liquid/gas) xenon technique and is located underground at the Laboratory Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN, Italy.


Insta Links

What are dark energy and dark matter?

Practice Questions

  1. In the context of modern scientific research, consider the following statements about ‘IceCube’, a particle detector located at the South Pole, which was recently in the news:
  1. It is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometre of ice.
  2. It is a powerful telescope to search for dark matter.
  3. It is buried deep in the ice.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a neutrino observatory constructed at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica. The project is a recognized CERN experiment. Its thousands of sensors are located under the Antarctic ice, distributed over a cubic kilometre.

Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay)

 Role of NGOs in uplifting tribals – Example

Source: DownToEarth


The residents of Bidapaju village in Odisha’s Nayagarh district were not even aware of the forest rights act (FRA) until 2020, even though it was enacted 14 years ago.

In 2020, the forest department officials marked 84 trees in the woods near the village to be chopped down and sold for timber. The clueless villagers had no say in the matter.

This is when volunteers of Nirman, an NGO working on forest rights, told the residents about the Act, they were sceptical in the beginning. It took several meetings and readings of the FRA preamble and text to convince them.

This created a new sense of ownership for the tribals and made them more responsible and careful of forest resources.

/ 12 July CA, Today's Article

Facts For Prelims


Azores High


An extremely large ‘Azores High’ (a subtropical weather phenomenon) has resulted in abnormally dry conditions across the western Mediterranean.

Azores High is a subtropical high-pressure system that extends over the eastern subtropical North Atlantic and Western Europe during winter. It is associated with anticyclonic winds in the subtropical North Atlantic. It is formed by dry air aloft descending the subtropics and coincides with the downward branch of the Hadley Circulation.


Current Affairs


Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray


Ministry of Culture along with the Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, and Vijnana Bharti (VIBHA) organized a curtain-raiser for two days International Conference on the “Contributions of Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray as a Chemist and Freedom Fighter”.

About P.C Ray

PC Ray’s contribution to the field of Science was a step toward nation-building. He was also a scholar who championed educational reforms, promoted employment through industry, and rallied for political advancement.


Discovered several ground-breaking chemical compounds (eg: mercurous nitrite), published more than a hundred and fifty research papers in famous science journals (eg: Journal of the Chemical Society of London); authored many books on chemical sciences (eg: Life and Experience of a Bengali Chemist).

Founder of Bengal Chemical & Pharmaceutical Works


Current Affairs


 Bail Act


Supreme Court has recommended the Government to introduce a special enactment in the nature of a “Bail Act” to streamline the grant of bail.

Bail: Bail is the conditional release of a defendant with the promise to appear in court when required.

  • The principal use of bail in modern legal systems is to secure the freedom, pending trial, of one arrested and charged with a criminal offence, although it may also be used in some cases to secure release pending an appeal of a conviction.
  • “Bail and not Jail” is the basic rule given by SC
  • Bail is right and not a favour: According to section 436 of CrPC, If the offence alleged is bailable, then, the Accused is entitled to Bail as a matter of right, maybe before the Police station itself, or if forwarded to Magistrates Court.
  • In 2020, there were 371,848 under-trial prisoners, an increase from 324,141 in 2018.


The ISRO System for Safe and Sustainable Space Operations & Management (IS4OM)


ISRO launches the world’s first facility to track space debris, and safeguard assets.

IS4OM is ISRO’s holistic approach to ensure the safety of space assets and sustaining the utilization of outer space for national development.


In response to the ever-growing space object population and the risk of collisions in space, it undertakes observation and monitoring of space objects and space environment, processing the observations for orbit determination, object characterization and cataloguing, analysis of space environment evolution, risk assessment, and mitigation, and data exchange and collaboration.

Prevent a rising concern about Kessler Syndrome, which states that a collision in space due to pollution could increase the number of space debris, increasing the number of potential collisions due to the multiplying space debris.




India Stack


Recently, India Stack Knowledge Exchange was held

India Stack: India Stack is a set of open APIs (Application Programming Interface- allows two applications to talk to each other) and digital public goods that aim to unlock the economic primitives of identity, data, and payments at a population scale.

  • India Stack includes– Aadhar, UPI, Co-Win, DigiLocker, Aarogya Setu, UMANG, DIKSHA, and eSanjeevani.
  • India also launched (a single repository of all major projects on IndiaStack)

Benefits of India Stack:

  • Will contribute towards Global Digital Public Goods (open source software, open AI model, open data that adhere to privacy and at the same time help attain socio-economic goals)
  • Digital Governance: by increasing transparency, efficiency and accountability
  • Will help promote digital innovations
  • Service Delivery: Presence-less, paperless and cashless service delivery


Current Affairs


Revamped Distribution Sector Scheme (RDSS)

Context: DISCOMs to get support under the RDSS scheme so as to make DISCOM financially sustainable, reduce AT&C loss (to 12-15% by 2024-25) and reduce the Cost-revenue gap (to zero by 2024-25)


  • Reforms-based and Results-linked scheme to improve the operational efficienciesand financial sustainability of discoms (excluding Private Sector DISCOMs)
  • Components:
    • Action plan for each state
    • Financial assistance to strengthen the supply infrastructure of DISCOMS
    • Compulsory smart metering
    • Feeder segregation ( to enable solarization under PM KUSUM)
    • Distribution strengthening: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) in all urban areas.
  • Timeline: till 2025-26
  • Convergence: Existing power sector reforms schemes- Integrated Power Development Scheme, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana, and Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana will be merged into this umbrella program.
  • Nodal body: Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) and Power Finance Corporation (PFC)

Related news:  Power Ministry plans to commission a socioeconomic survey to measure the effectiveness of its marquee schemes aimed at universal access to electricity. Economists say there is a strong link between poverty eradication and the spread of electricity use (SDG 7)


Current Affairs



National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI)


NIXI has established two new Internet exchange points (IXP) in West Bengal

An Internet exchange point (IXP) is a physical location through which Internet infrastructure companies such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and CDNs connect with each other.

  • Nixi is a not-for-profit organization (under the companies act) established in 2003. It works for the exchange of domestic internet traffic between ISP members, and allocates Internet protocol addresses (IPv4 and IPv6)
  • Recently, NIXI announced to offer Free Domain (IDN) in local Indian languages


Current Affairs


AI-based Mandarin translation devices


Artificial Intelligence-based devices developed by an Indian start-up will be deployed along LAC. It is an offline handheld language translation system which works based on AI.

  • Other devices produced by Defence PSU: – AI-enabled Voice Transcription/Analysis software, Driver Fatigue Monitoring System, and AI-enabled evaluation of welding defects.
  • Projects for use of AI in Defence: Technological Development Fund projects, ‘Dare to Dream’ contests and ‘Defence-Industry-Academia’ Centres of Excellence.

Related News: India’s export of arms and defence technologies touched a record Rs 13,000 crore in the financial year 2021-22, with 70% contribution coming from the private sector. Export is mainly to the US, Philippines (Brahmos), other S-E Asian counties as well as to west-Asia and Africa.




A fuel named POP-FAME has been developed from bacteria (streptomyces) in the US. It has an energy density greater than that of Petrol and other rocket fuel. So, ideal for space fuel.


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