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Large year-round ozone hole over tropics

GS Paper-1

Syllabus: Geography: Atmosphere



Scientists revealed a large, all-season ozone hole in the lower stratosphere over the tropics comparable in-depth to that of the Antarctic hole, but roughly seven times greater in area

It is an all-season ozone hole — defined as an area of ozone loss larger than 25% compared with the undisturbed atmosphere.

About Ozone:

Ozone (O3) is a highly reactive gas composed of three oxygen atoms. It is both a natural and a man-made product that occurs in the Earth’s upper atmosphere (the stratosphere) and lower atmosphere (the troposphere).


Current Affairs


Current Affairs



  • Vienna convention: The Vienna Convention is the first international agreement dedicated to the protection of the ozone layer. The Convention commits all countries to take measures to protect human health and the environment resulting from modifications to the ozone layer.
  • Montreal Protocol: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was designed to reduce the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances in order to reduce their abundance in the atmosphere and thereby protect the earth’s fragile ozone Layer.
  • Kigali Agreement: Around 197 countries, including India, China and the USA, agreed at Kigali to reduce the use of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by roughly 85% of their baselines by 2045, by amending the 1987 Montreal Protocol.


Insta Links

Basics: Ozone depletion and protection

Practice Questions

Q. Analyse the science behind the causes of ozone depletion, greenhouse effect, global warming and acid rains. (200 Words) (NCERT Question)


Q. Which one of the following is associated with the issue of control and phasing out of the use of ozone-depleting substances?

(a) Bretton Woods Conference

(b) Montreal Protocol

(c) Kyoto Protocol

(d) Nagoya Protocol

Answer: B