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[MISSION 2023] Insights SECURE : Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 6 July 2022

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. The rise of Indian Nationalism was a reaction against the discriminatory and devious policies and nature of the British rule. Critically Analyze. (250 words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers.

 Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of the General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyze the nature of Rise of nationalism in India. Was it a reaction against the policies of British? Or was it born on its own?

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment?

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start the answer by describing the genesis of Indian nationalism in the late nineteenth century.

Body:

In the first part of the body, analyze how Indian nationalism was a reaction against policies of the British. Mention about the Despotic nature of the rule, the racial discrimination, the lack of proper administration, lack of Indians in administration, alien rule, the loot and the plunder, indiscriminate taxation, ruining of Industries etc.

In the next part, analyze how Indian nationalism was a product of its own maturity. Introduction of modern education, the influx of ideas of liberalism and constitutionalism, the rise of an educated middle class, the impact of the press, the impact of socio-religious reform movements etc.

Conclusion:

Pass a balanced judgement as to how Indian Nationalism took birth.

 

2. Discuss the nature of the moderate phase of the Indian National Congress. Do you think their great faith in the British sense of justice and fair play was their major drawback? (250 words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers.

 Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of the General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question: To explain in detail the features of moderate phase pf INC and their style of functioning and to analyze the impact of their trust in the efficacy of British rule.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by writing about the moderate phase of INC, its nature and its leaders.

Body:

Explain in the detail the nature of the moderate phase of INC. Their Aims and Objectives, Constitutional nature, Belief in the British, Inspiration, mode of operation, core composition, and important outcomes.

Mention the belief of moderates in sense of justice of the British rule. They knew the exploitative nature of British rule but wanted its reforms and not expulsion.

Mention at its nascent stage they could not all out ask for expulsion for the fear of a crackdown on the entire organization. They had to tread carefully between nationalistic interests and protecting the nascent congress.

Conclusion:

Pass a balanced judgement and highlight the major contributions of moderates.

 

Topic: changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and polar ice caps) and, in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

3. Floods are known to cause devastation but they also play a key role in the making of the floodplain ecosystem. Elucidate. Also, explain what adaptation measure would you suggest for building resilience against recurring floods. (15M)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express  

Why the question:

Floods have played a key role in Assam’s ecology. But increasing human footprint has affected the ability of flood plains to absorb water and transport sediment. Therefore, the need to make people and infrastructure resilient against recurring floods

Key Demand of the question:

Give reasons for erratic flooding pattern, give its benefits and suggest adaptation measures against it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a context of the recent Assam floods

Body:

Give reasons for recurring floods in some parts of India and the devastation they cause e.g., in Brahmaputra valley (as given in the article)

They give the positive impact it has on ecology (also given in the article)

Mention how humans and infrastructure can be made resilient against these recurring floods. ( you may need to research a bit)

e.g., capacity building, and creation of the sponge city concept.

Conclusion:

Give a positive way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, and Human Resources.

4. India has made substantial progress in tackling Tuberculosis however, some concerns remain. Identify these concerns and suggest measures to overcome them. 10M

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question

India has the highest burden of TB patients in the world despite the fact that TB is a completely curable disease. Even though there are many policies but the disease still inflicts heavy economic and  health costs on the poor patients

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into the TB disease burden in India, and bring out the inefficiencies of the surveillance-based strategies in tackling the disease.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines giving data about how Tuberculosis is the worst among endemic diseases, killing 1.5 million people every year (WHO).

Body-

Concerns: Bring out the flaws in the government programs in tackling TB.E.g. there is no prescribed method of monitoring the trajectory of TB control, contrast this with the National AIDS Control Programme. RNTCP has failed to elicit people’s partnership in TB control

Measures: Discuss the advantages/ need for a rights-based approach in this direction. E.g Such an approach focuses on creating health systems that foster trust, partnership, and dignity. This approach regards people with TB not as subjects to be controlled but as people to be partnered with

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Environment Conservation

5. What is the main purpose of the Environment Protection Act 1986? Will the recent proposal to ‘decriminalize’ its provision dilute its effectiveness? Critically analyse (10M)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The Environment Ministry proposes to soften the provisions of the Environment Protection Act (EPA) by replacing a clause that provides for imprisoning violators with one that only requires them to pay a fine. 

Key Demand of the question:

Write down the mandate of the act and analyse the recent changes brought in it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a briefly describing EPA 1986

Body:

Write down its main purpose

e.g., The Act covers all forms of pollution; air, water, soil and noise. It provides safety standards for the presence of various pollutants in the environment. It prohibits the use of hazardous material unless prior permission is taken from the Central Government.

Then briefly describe the recent changes brought it.

Then answer, will the recent changes dilute its effectiveness- Yes/No: Give reasons for each.

Conclusion:

Give a balanced conclusion about what more need to be done in EPA 1986.

 

Syllabus: Quote-based questions.

6. What do the following quotations mean to you in the present context?

“The secret of change is to focus all of your energy, not on fighting the old, but on building the new”- Socrates. (10M)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

There has been a growing resistance to bringing positive change in the world in recent times. (Ex: Racist-motivated attacks in America, Honor killing in India, refugee crisis). However, there has been some positive change brought in recent times through collective effort. Ex: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao.

Key Demand of the question:

To test your skills on what you perceive as change and how you can connect it with what is happening in the world in the present times.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: Give your understanding of what change means briefly.

Body:

  • Elaborate on positive examples which have brought about a change in any old obsolete idea.
  • Identify those areas where we need to focus our energies to bring change and usher in a more positive and newer order (both within ourselves and in the world). Elaborate on those factors which are preventing us from doing this.
  • Provide solutions to overcome these challenges.

Conclusion:

An optimistic and solution-based opinion on this issue would suffice.

 

7. “Unity, not uniformity, must be our aim. We attain unity only through variety. Differences must be integrated, not annihilated, not absorbed”- Mary Parker Follett (10M)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

A rising tendency to create homogenization of culture in recent times.

Key Demand of the question:

Knowing the difference between unity and uniformity and its significance and how our constitution, programs and policies try to create unity.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: Bring out the basic difference between unity and uniformity briefly and crisply.

Body:

  • Talk about various steps we have taken to ensure unity in the country since our independence and also in recent times (Ex: Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat, NEP 2020 etc.)
  • Identify the factors that are pushing us towards uniformity in recent times. Ex: Politics, Fundamentalism, social media etc.
  • Suggest measures to overcome this.

Conclusion:

An optimistic and solution-based opinion on this issue would suffice or you can highlight the significance of ensuring unity for a country such as India and what you can do as an administrator to ensure this.


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