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InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:


GS Paper 1:

1. Shimla Agreement


GS Paper 2:

1. The way to control tuberculosis

2. Panel suggests increasing tenure of House committees

3. Fewer judges increasing pendency


GS Paper 3:

1. India’s supercomputing capabilities

2. Pentaquarks


Content for mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay):

1. Transforming the Border into a Teeter Totter (See – Saw)

2. Business Blasters programme


Facts for Prelims:

1. Dr Rajendra Prasad Memorial Award

2. Fields Medal

3. Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)

4. InvITs and ReITs

5. Service Charges

6. Hurun India Future Unicorn Index 2022

7. Sand battery

8. “Camo-cropping” trial

9. Co-location

10. Anthrax outbreak in Kerala

11. Direct-seeded rice

12. Nairobi flies

13. Banni grasslands

Shimla Agreement

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.



The Shimla Agreement, completed 50 years, Signed after the Indo-Pakistan War that ended on December 16, 1971, following the Liberation of Bangladesh is considered a landmark agreement as it laid the blueprint for good neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan.

Principles of Shimla agreement

  • Relations were to be governed by the principles and purposes of the UN Charter
  • Cooperative relationshipwith a special focus on people-to-people contacts.
  • To uphold the inviolability of the Line of Controlin Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Prevent hostile propagandaagainst each other and resolve issues through peaceful means and bilateral negotiations
  • Refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of each other.
  • Peacefully, respecting each other’s sovereignty, and territorial integrity, and not interfering in each other’s internal affairs.


 Insta Links:

Simla Agreement


Practice Question:

  1. India’s fiasco to convert its victory in the 1971 war into a long-lasting peace in the region via the Shimla Agreement of 1972 is a case of missed opportunity. Examine. (250 words)

Source: The Hindustan Times

/ 06 July CA, Today's Article

The way to control tuberculosis

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Issues related to development and management of social sector related to health etc



Researchers at the Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (ICMR-NIRT) have found human-to-animal transmission of TB in livestock (cattle)

According to WHO, Tuberculosis is the among worst endemic disease. In India, the TB capital of the world, the disease kills some 1,400 persons every day.


Bacteria Mycobacteria cause diseases like TB and Leprosy in humans and others infect a wide range of animals. In humans, TB most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB), but it can also affect other organs (extra-pulmonary TB). TB is a treatable and curable disease.



Current Affairs




Current AffairsEnd TB strategy: India is committed to eliminating tuberculosis from the country by 2025, five years ahead of the global target by the World Health Organisation (WHO) i.e. 2030.


Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program(RNTCP)

(The programme has been renamed from the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) to National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (NTEP))

  • It is the state-run tuberculosis control initiative of the Government of India.
  • RNTCP incorporates the principles of directly observed treatment-short course (DOTS).
  • DOTS is a systematic strategy which has five components (see diagram)


Current Affairs


Flaws in RNTCP:

  • No prescribed methods of monitoring: First, for a programme that is heavily funded by the government, there is no prescribed method of monitoring the trajectory of TB control.
  • Programme is based on assumptions: The assumption that treating pulmonary TB patients alone would control TB was epidemiologically fallacious in India.
  • Failed to elicit people’s participation: RNTCP has failed to elicit people’s partnership in TB control. In India’s AIDS Control Programme, public education was given high priority. Red ribbon clubs in schools and colleges are its legacy.


Ways to control Tuberculosis:

  • Better basic facilities: Diseases that have social determinants tend to decline over time with better housing, nutrition, education and income. Globally the burden of TB had been falling by 1% or 1.5% per year.
  • Focus on control rather than elimination: As India has a huge backlog of latent TB, it cannot eliminate TB, but it must aim for a high level of control (lowering from 200 per lakh cases per year to 50 per lakh per year) and document it with measurement.



  Current Affairs  


Initiatives to control TB:


Current Affairs


Insta Links:



Practice Questions:

Q. Appropriate local community-level healthcare intervention is a prerequisite to achieve “health for all” in India. Explain. (UPSC 2018)


Q. Which of the following is/are bacterial infections?

  1. Dengue
  2. Tuberculosis
  3. Leprosy
  4. Hepatitis A
  5. Yellow fever

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a. 1, 2 and 3 only

b. 2 and 3 only

c. 1, 2, 4 and 5 only

d. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Ans: (b)


  • Dengue is caused by dengue virus and spread by an infected Adee’s mosquito.
  • Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Leprosy is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium Leprae.
  • Hepatitis is caused by Hepatitis A virus infecting the liver.
  • Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus(flavivirus) transmitted by mosquito bite.

Source: The Hindu

/ 06 July CA, Today's Article

Panel suggests increasing tenure of House committees

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Parliament- structure, functioning and conduct of business, parliamentary committees etc



There should be a dedicated hour during the Rajya Sabha proceedings to discuss the“import and implications’ ‘of the reports finalized by Parliamentary Standing Committees, a panel headed by former General Secretary and adviser P.P.K. Ramacharyulu has recommended it.

  • It studied the working of the Rajya Sabha secretariat and other procedural issues and made 130 recommendations.
  • This is the first-ever comprehensive study of the Rajya Sabha secretariat.
  • The Rajya Sabha secretariat, which started in 1952 with 200 officers and staff, has 1700 personnel at present.


Suggestions by the Panel:

  • Increasing tenure of Parliamentary Committees: The committee suggested that the tenure of the Parliamentary committees should be increased from the present one year to two years.
  • Increase in field visits: Field visits should also be increased from the present two visits for a maximum of 10 days in a year to three visits and 15 days.“
  • Formation of Committee hour: Given the efforts that go into the preparation of reports by the DRSCs and their import and implications, a Committee Hour has been recommended for consideration to discuss select major reports in the Parliament for wider amplification of the content of the reports.
  • Reports should be accessible: The panel said that these reports should be made more accessible to the stakeholders and general public.
  • Streamlining of the secretariat work: The Study has suggested streamlining of the secretarial work, including disposing of of75% of the issues at lower and middle levels in a 10-layer hierarchy that exists in the secretariat at present.


Insta Links:

Parliamentary Committees


Practice Questions:

Q. Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work? Discuss, in this context, the role of the Estimates Committee. (UPSC 2018)


Q. Consider the following statements:

  1. Both the public accounts committee and the committee on public undertakings have 22 members each, fifteen elected from the Lok Sabha and seven from the Rajya Sabha.
  2. Parliament is not bound by the recommendations of committees.

Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (d)


Composition of Financial Committees:

  • The estimates committee has 30 members, all from the Lok Sabha.
  • Both the public accounts committee and the committee on public undertakings have 22 members each — 15 elected from the Lok Sabha and seven from the Rajya Sabha.
  • Powers: Parliamentary committees draw their authority from Article 105 (on privileges of Parliament members) and Article 118 (on Parliament’s authority to make rules for regulating its procedure and conduct of business).
  • However, Parliament is not bound by the recommendations of committees.

Source: The Hindu

/ 06 July CA, Today's Article

Fewer judges increasing pendency, hope for movement by govt to clear names: CJI

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Structure, function and organization of judiciary and executive, the appointment of judges etc



  • The problem of pendency of cases is “intensifying” due to a lack of the sufficient number of judges, the Chief Justice of India said the government is yet to clear 23 names recommended for various high courts (HCs).


Current Affairs


Issues concerning the judiciary:

  • Political Pressure:  while the ruling party wants courts to endorse its moves, the opposition wants judges to fight its political battles. But the judiciary is accountable only to the Indian Constitution.
  • Criticism on social media: of judicial rulings or against a judge
  • Inordinate delays in some cases:g., delay in hearing the case of the electoral bond, the pleas of girls in Karnataka shut out of class for wearing hijabs
  • Contradictions: E.g., Court’s decision on a plea related to the Gyanvapi mosque case seemed to show amnesia over the Places of Worship Act that it had so firmly upheld in its 2019 Ayodhya ruling
  • Sedition law:  Lower courts continue to ignore SC directions on “bail, not jail” as the default setting on unproven charges
  • Huge vacancy: 19% in SC, 44% in HC and 23% in lower courts


Suggestions by CJI:

  • Transformation and filling up vacancies: Transforming and upgrading the judicial infrastructure in India, as well as filling up judicial vacancies and augmenting the strength.
  • Reduced response period from the government: Government should expedite the process so that the remaining vacancies can be reduced considerably.
  • Use of arbitrations: He said the “growth of the Indian arbitration scenario has been very responsive to global trends and demands.
    • Many international dispute resolution institutions are being established across the country to provide the commercial world with a fast and effective resolution of disputes.
    • The presence of such international arbitration centres will not only boost India’s global position as an investor-friendly nation but also facilitate the growth of a robust legal practice.
    • He had “taken the initiative to set up an International Arbitration and Mediation Center in Hyderabad”.
    • He also conveyed that the Center has proposed to set up another one in Gujarat.


 Insta Links:

Appointment of Judges of Supreme Court and High Court


Practice Questions:

Q. The judicial systems in India and U.K. seem to be converging as well as diverging in recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between two nations in terms of their judiciary practices. (UPSC 2020)


Q. Consider the following statements:

  1. The SC collegium is headed by the CJI and comprises four other senior-most judges of the court.
  2. An HC collegium is led by its Chief Justice and four other senior-most judges of that court.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: :(a)


Collegium System:

  • It is the system of appointment and transfer of judges that has evolved through judgments of the SC, and not by an Act of Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution.
  • The SC collegium is headed by the CJI and comprises four other senior-most judges of the court.
  • An HC collegium is led by its Chief Justice and two other senior-most judges of that court.


Source: Indian Express, Live mint

/ 06 July CA, Today's Article

India’s supercomputing capabilities

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Indigenisation of technology and developing new technology.



As per the global ranking service of super-computers (Top 500), India has only 3 top-ranked supercomputers among 500 and none in the top 100.

  • (Param Siddhi (5.27 PFlops), Param Ganga (1.66 PFlops) and Pratyush supercomputer (Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology’s))


  • India had 2 in the top 100 in 2020
  • World: China and the US account for nearly two-thirds of the top 500 supercomputers in the world.
  • Frontier Supercomputer: The world’s fastest supercomputer, Frontier, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, offers a peak performance of 1,685 PFlops.


Benefits of Supercomputers:

High-speed computation: E.g., in May 2020, IBM’s Summit supercomputer, helped researchers find drug compounds that could stop the covid-19 virus from infecting host cells in just 2-3 days.

Other areas: chemistry formulations, protein folding, biomedicine, space (for satellite placements) and climate research.


India’s steps:

National Supercomputing Mission (NSM): Fifteen supercomputers, with an aggregate, compute capacity of 24 petaflops, have been installed in the country since 2015 under the National Supercomputing Mission (NSM).

  • The National Supercomputing Mission (started in 2015) is intended to indigenise the development and manufacturing of powerful computers., with the National Knowledge Network (NKN)as the backbone
  • The mission is planned in three phases:
    • Phase Ilooks at assembling supercomputers
    • Phase IIlooks at manufacturing certain components within the country
    • Phase IIIwhere a supercomputer is designed by India
  • A department of MeitY, C-DAC is responsible for designing, developing, and commissioning supercomputers under NSM.



Super computer

What is a Supercomputer?

A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers.

  • India’s first supercomputer was PARAM 8000.
  • PARAM Shivay, the first supercomputer assembled indigenously

PetaFlops: The computing power of a supercomputer is measured in floating-point operations per second, or FLOPS. One PetaFlops is equal to 1,000,000,000,000,000 (one quadrillion) FLOPS, or one thousand TeraFlops.


Insta Links

National Supercomputing Mission (NSM)


Practice Questions

Q. Though India is a major player in Information Technology, it lacks self-dependence in the manufacture of critical computing technology. Enumerate the steps the government is taking to fill this gap. (10M)


Q. In the context of digital technologies for entertainment, consider the following statements:

  1. In Augmented Reality (AR), a simulated environment is created and the physical world is completely shut out.
  2. In Virtual Reality (VR), images generated from a computer are projected onto real-life objects or surroundings.
  3. AR allows individuals to be present in the world and improves the experience using the camera of a smartphone or PC.
  4. VR closes the world, and transposes an individual, providing a complete immersion experience.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 and 4

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) 4 only

Answer: B

AR uses a real-world setting while VR is completely virtual. AR users can control their presence in the real world; VR users are controlled by the system. VR requires a headset device, but AR can be accessed with a smartphone. AR enhances both the virtual and real-world while VR only enhances a fictional reality.

Source: Live Mint

/ 06 July CA, Today's Article


GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Science and technology



A new kind of “pentaquark” and the first-ever pair of “tetraquarks” have been found by LHC. This article is in continuation of yesterday’s article on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)



CERN is the original name of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, which runs the particle accelerator complex that houses the LHC, the world’s largest and most complex collider. The LHC, re-ignited after three years in April, has begun smashing together protons at almost the speed of light, which could throw up “new” physics beyond the Standard Model.


What are quarks?

Quarks are elementary particles that come in six “flavours”: up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom. They usually combine together in groups of twos and threes to form hadrons such as protons and neutrons that make up atomic nuclei.

  • Strong force: The interaction of quarks was tied to one of the fundamental forces of nature called the strong force. The force not only holds the insides of atoms together but is important in the interactions of other sub-atomic particles that make the universe tick.
  • Hadrons: any of the subatomic particles (such as protons and neutrons) that are made up of quarks and are subject to strong force.



Current Affairs


Recent findings:

  • Scientists have found new ways in which quarks, the tiniest particles known to humankind, group together
  • “Exotic” matter: Quarks can also combine into four-quark and five-quark particles, called tetraquarks and pentaquarks.
  • Towards Period table of exotic mass: This takes the total number discovered there to 21. the latest finds mean that there are now enough of these particles to begin grouping them together, like the chemical elements in the periodic table. That is an essential first step towards creating a theory and set of rules governing exotic mass.


Current Affairs


Insta Links

W Bosons


Practice Questions

Q. Discuss the significance of the Standard Model of particle physics in understanding the sub-atomic particle and the origin of the universe. How is it different from Einstein’s theory of relativity? (15M)


Q. In the context of modern scientific research, consider the following statements about ‘IceCube’, a particle detector located at the South Pole, which was recently in the news:

  1. It is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometre of ice.
  2. It is a powerful telescope to search for dark matter.
  3. It is buried deep in the ice.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

A neutrino is a fermion that interacts only via weak interaction and gravity. The neutrino is so named because it is electrically neutral and because its rest mass is so small that it was long thought to be zero.

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is constructed at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica. The project is a recognized CERN experiment. It is buried beneath the surface, extending to a depth of about 2,500 meters.

/ 06 July CA, Today's Article

Content for mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay):

Transforming the Border into a Teeter Totter (See – Saw)

On the US-Mexico steel border wall, Architecture studio Rael San Fratello wanted to create a place where citizens across the border could connect, so they designed three bright pink temporary ‘teeter-totters’ (see-saws) to slot into gaps.

What does it represent?

  • How neighbours are connected in multiple ways. Any impact on one country will have some effect on neighbouring countries too ( symbolic of a see-saw)
  • That our relationships with our neighbours can extend past political relationships but also humanistic relationships.
  • The see-saw demonstrated how those immediate relationships between people can create an environment where happiness and play are also important aspects of life on the border.

Design Museum in London awarded Teeter Totter wall, the Beazley Design of the Year, one of the design world’s most prestigious prizes. Beazleys are given to projects and products that contain “powerful messages of change”.



Current Affairs 


 Business Blasters programme

Part of the Entrepreneurship Mindset curriculum in Delhi government schools.

School students who pitched business ideas and floated their own business venture with a meagre government grant of Rs 1000 per student as well as a platform to implement these ideas.

These kinds of programs can help in inculcating the values of innovation and research among young students thus helping them provide quality education, encourage entrepreneurship, and in the overall development of the country.

Previously, Delhi government had introduced Happiness Curriculum (2018) and Deshabhakthi Syllabi (2020-2021)

Current Affairs


/ 06 July CA, Today's Article

Facts For Prelims


Dr Rajendra Prasad Memorial Award

Awards in public administration in the field of academic excellence, in memory of the first President of India.

Dr Rajendra Prasad was the first president of independent India. He was an Indian Freedom Activist, Lawyer, and Scholar too. He served as the Food and Agriculture Minister in the central government after the 1946 elections. He also served as the President of the Constituent Assembly of India.


  •    Satyagraha at Champaran (1922)
  •    India Divided (1946)
  •    Atmakatha (1946) his autobiography written during his 3-year prison term in Bankipur Jail
  •    Mahatma Gandhi and Bihar, Some Reminiscences (1949)
  •    Bapu Ke Kadmon Mein (1954)
  •    Since Independence (1960)


Current Affairs


Fields Medal


The International Mathematical Union (IMU) recognised Ukrainian mathematician Maryna Viazovska’s work on the sphere-packing problem in 8 and 24 dimensions.

The Fields Medal is awarded by the IMU, an international non-governmental and non-profit scientific organisation.

The Fields Medal is awarded every four years to one or more mathematicians under the age of 40 in recognition of “outstanding mathematical achievement for existing work and for the promise of future achievement.

Indian Origin winners:

  • Akshay Venkatesh of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton (2018)
  • Manjul Bhargava of the Department of Mathematics at Princeton University(2014)


Current Affairs


Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)


As per the RBI, India’s services sector purchasing managers’ index (PMI), climbed to 59.2 in June, its highest reading in 11 years.


Purchasing managers’ indexes are economic indicators derived from monthly surveys of private sector companies.

  • IHS Markitproduces the PMI for India.
  • The index is derived after a survey of 500 manufacturing companies and 350 services sector companies.
  • A level above 50 denotes expansion in activity, while anything below signals contraction.
  • Significance: As services constitute a big bulk of our economy’s output, the survey’s findings spell good news.


Current Affairs



InvITs and ReITs

Context: Even as markets are down, returns from ReITs and InvITs are expected to rise.

Infrastructure Investment Trusts (InvITs) are investment instruments that work like mutual funds and are regulated by SEBI. Typically, such a vehicle is designed to pool money (small sums) from several investors to be invested in income-generating assets.

ReITs (Real estate investment trusts) is a company that owns and typically operates income-producing real estate or related assets. These may include office buildings, shopping malls, apartments, hotels, resorts, self-storage facilities, warehouses, and mortgages or loans.



Current Affairs



Service Charges

Context: Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) (regulator under the Consumer protection act 2019) barred hotels and restaurants from adding service charges automatically or by default to the food bill.

What are service charges?

They are a type of fee collected to pay for services associated with the purchase of the primary product or service.

Current Affairs


Hurun India Future Unicorn Index 2022

Context: As per the report, Startups- Zepto, Shiprocket, and Turtlemint are at the top list of probable unicorns. Bengaluru continues to be the start-up capital of India. It is home to 46 probable Unicorns.





Sand battery

Context: Finnish researchers have installed the world’s first fully working “sand battery” which can store green power for months at a time.

How does it work?

  1. Charging: Using low-grade sand, the device is charged up with heat made from cheap electricity from solar or wind.
  2. Storage: The sand (placed in siloes) stores the heat at around 500C. Sand is a very effective medium for storing heat and loses little over time.
  3. Discharge: When energy prices are higher or in winter, the battery discharges the hot air which warms water for the district heating system which is then pumped around homes, offices and even the local swimming pool.


Current Affairs


“Camo-cropping” trial

ContextScientists hope patchworks of multi-coloured crops will help hide them “in plain sight” from pests as a natural alternative to pesticides.

Fields of sugar beet have been dyed in different colours using food dye at the farm. Colour and the contrast between the plant and soil, using the dye will effectively hide the crops in plain sight from the pests such as aphids.”


Current Affairs



Co-location is a data centre facility where third parties can lease space for servers and other computer hardware. They provide infrastructure like power supply, bandwidth, and cooling for setting up servers and storage of data. Customers usually rent out space by rack, cabinet, cage, or room.



Current Affairs 


 Anthrax outbreak in Kerala


An outbreak of Anthrax has been declared in Athirappilly of Thrissur district, after finding several carcasses of wild boar.

Anthrax is a serious infectious disease, which is caused by spore-forming bacteria.

Anthrax is also called woolsorter’s disease or malignant pustule. It is a rare but serious disease, caused due to rod-shaped bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. These bacteria occur naturally in soil.

As per WHO, Anthrax is a disease of herbivores, affecting wild as well as domestic animals. It is a zoonotic disease; thus, it is transmissible from animals to humans.


Current Affairs


Direct-seeded rice

DSR also called the ‘broadcasting seed technique’, is a water-saving method of sowing paddy.

Seeds are directly drilled into the fields in this method. This saves groundwater, as opposed to the traditional water-intensive method, under which rice seedlings are transplanted from a nursery to waterlogged fields.


Nairobi flies

Context: Around 100 students of an engineering college in East Sikkim have reported skin infections after coming in contact with Nairobi flies


Nairobi flies, also called Kenyan flies or dragon bugs (native to east Africa), are small, beetle-like insects. They are orange and black in colour, and thrive in areas with high rainfall, as has been witnessed in Sikkim in the past few weeks.

  • Usually, the insects attack pests that consume crops and are beneficial for humans — but at times, they come in contact with humans directly. These flies do not bite, but if disturbed while sitting on anyone’s skin, they release a potent acidic substance that causes burns.


Current Affairs


Banni grasslands

Context: The Gujarat Forest department will restore 10,000 hectares of the Banni grasslands in the coming year.

  • Under Bonn declaration: India’s endeavour to reach the target of restoring 26 million hectares of degraded land by 2030.


  • Location: It is the largest grassland (accounting for 45% of pastures in Gujarat) in Asia situated near the Great Rann of Kutchin Gujarat.
  • Ecosystem and Vegetation: Two ecosystems, wetlands and grasslands, are mixed side by side in Banni.
  • It is dominated by low-growing plants, forbs and graminoids, many of which are halophiles (salt-tolerant).
  • It is a Reserve Forest (most restricted forest; local people are prohibited unless specifically allowed by a Forest Officer in the course of the settlement.
  • Maldharis are a tribal herdsmen community inhabiting Banni.
  • It is one of the last remaining habitats of the cheetahin India and a possible reintroduction site for the species.

Issues facing: heavy uncontrolled grazing, widespread ingress of Prosopis Juliflora (a harmful exotic tree species), dams constructed on rivers flowing towards Banni, periodic occurrence of droughts and continuous increase in soil salinity.


Current Affairs

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