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[ Day 5 – Synopsis ] 75 Days Mains Revision Plan 2022 – Modern India & Ethics



NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

Modern India

Q1. Whom do u think we need more of today, Gandhi or Ambedkar?  Justify your views. (10M)


Gandhi and Ambedkar are modern India’s most prominent leaders, their views on caste, values, polity and economy stood the test of time and are relevant even today,


Why do we need them now more than ever?

Independent India is battling inequalities and social issues. Political leadership is riddled with inefficiencies and corruption. Moral values are fast eroding and young people lack a sense of direction.

We need more of Gandhi on issues such as:

  • Importance of villages: For Gandhi, ‘Gramraj’ was ‘real independence for Indians. Ambedkar believed that ‘Gramraj’ would continue the social hierarchy based on discrimination and inequality. So, there was nothing to be proud of in the Indian village system.
    • Today, villages are the backbone of India. 2011 senses show 68% live in villages. Thus real independence lies in Gramraj and villages have to be modernized.
  • Cleanliness: Gandhiji laid great emphasis upon cleanliness or Swacchta, as he used to say- ‘Swacchta Hi Seva’.
  • Innovating dissent: To disobey the law to make the law more just was a Gandhian principle; its outward manifestations were noncooperation, hartal, satyagraha, and civil disobedience.

We need more of  Ambedkar on issues such as:

  • Caste: Gandhi’s views on caste evolved, initially he was in favour of the varna system. Ambedkar on the other hand wanted the complete elimination of the caste system.
    • In 2019, a Dalit Lok Sabha MP in Karnataka was denied entry to a village. Such incidents prove that discrimination exists as long as castes exist. We should work towards elimination and not reforms within the caste.
  • Economy: Ambedkar was sceptical of the Gandhian idea of ‘trusteeship’. As per Ambedkar, it would amount to the rich protecting the interests of the poor.
    • The World Inequality report 2022 shows that India is one of the most unequal countries in the world. Thus, it’s hard to believe that the rich would be good as a trustee of the poor.
  • Democracy: Ambedkar advocated a parliamentary system of government; Gandhi believed that democracy tends to get converted into mass democracy with a propensity for domination by leaders.
    • Comparing independent India’s experience with China and Pakistan, we can say that democracy with its shortcomings is the best as it enshrines the equality of all individuals,

We need both on issues such as:

  • Modern life: Gandhi was against machinery and modern civilization which unemployed people. In contrast, Ambedkar argues that modern machinery provides leisure which benefits human civilization to progress.
    • Now, we do have better education, health and wealth but they don’t inherently progress a civilization. We need a mixture of both.
  • Moral values:
    • Gandhi emphasized truth and non-violence. He withdrew from the non-cooperation movement after the Chauri Chaura violence of 1922. We need such leaders today.
    • Despite facing oppression and humiliation from the upper castes, Ambedkar never asked his followers to resort to violence.
  • Education: the idea of proper education to make the individual desire for change, reform, and integration was the stance where the views of the two leaders were the same.


Thus, today’s India needs more of both. Both the leaders had a strong commitment to the freedom and development of India.


Q2. Evaluate the significance of the Quit India movement and its impact on the British Raj in India. (10M)


 Quit India movement was officially launched by the Indian National Congress (INC) led by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942. The movement gave the slogans ‘Quit India’ or ‘Bharat Chodo’, and proved to be significant in India’s struggle for freedom.


Cause: While the Involvement of India in World War II without prior consultation with the leaders is the cause for the quit India movement, the Failure of Cripps mission was immediate fuel to start this mass movement.

 Significance of the Quit India movement:

  • Rise of Future Leaders: Underground activities were taken by leaders that included Ram Manohar Lohia, J.P. Narayan, Aruna Asaf Ali, Biju Patnaik, Sucheta Kriplani, etc who later emerged as prominent leaders.
  • Women Participation: Women took active participation in the movement. Female leaders like Usha Mehta helped set up an underground radio station which led to the awakening of the movement.
    • Aruna Asif Ali hoisted the national flag on the Gowalia tank maidan.
  • Rise of Nationalism: A greater sense of unity and brotherhood emerged due to the Quit India Movement. Many students dropped out of schools and colleges, and people gave up their jobs.
  • Paved the way for Independence: By the end of the movement in 1944, the British came to the important realization that India could not be governed without the support of the Indians.
    • It changed the nature of political negotiations with the British, ultimately paving the way for India’s independence.
  • Parallel governments – One of the most important significances of the movement was it led to the formation of parallel governments in different parts of India.
    • Example – ‘Prati sarkar’ in Satara by Nana Patil; ‘Jatiya sarkar’ in Midnapore by Satish Samant.

Thus, the movement placed the demand for complete independence at the top agenda of the freedom movement. Soon after, Gandhi and nearly the entire top leadership of the Congress were arrested, ushering in a truly people-led movement in our fight for independence.

Impact of Quit India movement on the British Raj in India.

  • Moral and Monetary loss – The destruction the movement had caused through various protests and violent activities, together with the expense of World war II made sure the British administration was left with insufficient funds to rebuild India.
  • Changing attitude towards Indians – The movement established a fact in the minds of the British that to attain complete freedom the Indians were ready to dig deeper than they had expected.
  • British adopted the ‘Stick Approach’ – Over 100000 people were arrested and the government resorted to violence to crush the agitation. Special courts were also established by the government to deal with criminal cases.
    • The Britishers declared the INC to be an unlawful association.
    • The revolution revealed that India’s youth had grown defiant and would not tolerate the slavery of the British.
  • Support of Global leaders for India, and loss of British cause – The movement also conveyed to the British that India had the support of global leaders.
    • The then-American President Franklin D. Roosevelt had urged the British administration to consider at least some of the demands put forth by the Indian leaders.
  • Paved way towards Independence – After the movement, the British offered Wavell Plan(1945), the Cabinet commission plan(1946), and the Mountbatten plan (1947). This paved the way for India’s independence.


The Quit India Movement was a watershed moment in the sense that it established the stage for future Indian politics. Linlithgow’s statement, Linlithgow, the Viceroy, admitted that the “Quit India Movement was by far the most serious rebellion since that of 1857, the gravity and extent of which we have so far concealed from the world for reasons of military security”.




Q: How do ethics in private and public relationships converge and diverge from each other? Discuss (10M).


 Individual’s private relationship such as marriage, family, kinship, and friendship differs from his/her public relationships such as relationships with society, community, and office people.

Ethics in private relationships are generally directed by individual virtues, universal human values, religion etc. Ethics in public life are determined by Rules and Regulations established by organizations like citizen charters, codes of conduct and ethics.


Convergence of ethics in private and public relationships

  1. Integrity – In both private and public spheres of life one should have the highest sense of integrity and not be influenced by any outside individual or organization which might affect their performance.

Eg- Lal Bhadur Shastri showed the highest level of integrity both in his personal and public life. He never used the government vehicle for his personal purposes.

  1. Honesty – Individuals have to have utmost honesty and sincerity in their actions and both take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that affects their respective private and public lives.

Eg – A judge rescuing himself from a case that involves his/her close relatives, Thus Following the principle of natural justice and his/her Honesty, Sincerity.

  1. Morally responsible – In both spaces, an individual should have a sense of moral obligation in the interest of the overall welfare of everyone around, and not resort to extreme actions which destroy the harmonious fabric.

Eg – Following fundamental duties by an individual like respecting the national flag, and not destroying public property, renouncing practices that are derogatory to the dignity of women.

  1. Environmental Ethics – One should protect the environment and wildlife irrespective of public or private space, as the environment will have an impact on present as well as future generations.

Eg – Promoting the usage of bioplastics, and public transportation instead of private vehicles.

  1. Social influence – When people are in a responsible position their ethical, and moral actions will influence society to a larger extent and influence others to act accordingly.

Eg – Educating orphans and poor children, Donating eyes done by Late Kannada actor Dr Puneeth Rajkumar influenced many across Karnataka to do such activities.

However, Under some circumstances, certain ethical standards will diverge in both private and public life.

  1. Morality vs Legality – What is Morally justifiable that can’t be legally correct and vice versa.

Eg – Debate over the retention and abolition of Capital Punishment, The legalization of prostitution.

  1. Choosing private interests – When it comes to private interests, individuals tend to act with personal motives and are ignorant of its effects on the public as a whole.

Eg – Exploitation of Labourers by capitalists

Jharkhand  IAS officer Pooja Singhal indulging in 18Cr MGNREGA scam.

  1. Accountability and transparency – Private lives are influenced by closed choices, and secretive decisions and emphasize privacy whereas public lives delve into openness and transparency and hence render more accountability to one another.

Eg – Karnataka IPS officer D.Roopa speaks out about corrupt politicians and Showcased irregularities in treating VIP Criminals.

  1. Primary laws vs Secondary laws – some regressive customs, and traditions followed by society will not comply with a value system that is followed by individuals.

Eg – Freedom to choose a life partner vs the tradition of  Khap Panchayat

The Sati system followed by society and Rajaram Mohan Roy’s value system were against this tradition.

  1. Freedom of choice – Option over choices enables the individual or organization to make quick choices suited for them, sometimes even foregoing ethical values, just to achieve the result at a faster pace.

Eg – The Supreme Court has ordered the forced eviction of more than 1,000,000 tribal and other forest-dwelling households from forestlands across 16 states after the government failed to defend a law protecting their rights.

  1. In private life, ambitions and goals, constraints and difficulties, of an individual sometimes result in a compromise of values.
  2. Since organisations have their own set of prescribed ethical standards, one should follow them if he/she belongs to that organisation irrespective of different ethical standards followed by individuals in their personal life.


In general ethics in public and private life should respect each other, as some ethical values should be followed in both spheres of an individual irrespective of the consequences, and some are based on their matter of influence over the individual’s life. Nevertheless, any action by an individual must be logical and work on self-betterment and contribute to the larger welfare of the public life he/she is involved in.


Q4. As an individual who hails from a middle-class family, you are fully acquainted with the difficulties and complexities one faces in life in society. Your parents led a life where they readily helped people who needed it. This quality has become a part of your character as well. When you completed your graduation, you wanted to land a government job since it would help you in your endeavour to help people. You even landed a government job, however, once you started working, you realized the quantum of help provided by the government is not adequate. Furthermore, there is a delay in providing the required help. Seeing this situation, you instinctively decide based on the goodness of your heart and your upbringing that you have to take matters into your hand, you start helping people who need it from your savings and resources.

This has increased your standing in the region, even though this was not your intention. Your increased fame in the region has soured your relationship with your colleagues. Importantly, this created a discord even in your personal life with your newlywed wife who opposes your approach to work since she believes that it will put the family’s future economic security in jeopardy. There are constant fights regarding this in your home. The situation in your office is also tense.

In this context, answer the following questions:

  1. Will you in your administrative life adopt the approach taken by this individual in this case study? Justify your opinion adequately. (150W|10M)
  2. What steps would you suggest for an administrator in India to ensure minimal conflict between ethics in their public and private life? (150W|10M).



The case study highlights the conflicts faced by an individual in handling ethics in private and public life. It also shows a lack of attitude by the government in helping the people.


       Yes, In my administrative life I will adopt the approach taken by the individual in the case study. Because

  • My action will uphold our family values like Helping the needy people, Humanity, compassion etc.
  • This will be in line with the private virtues or qualities that I inherited from my parents.
  • My approach will be Compliance with My voice of conscience.
  • I have chosen a government job thinking that it would support my efforts in helping the people.
  • The Quantum of help provided by the government is not adequate and also delays in providing the required help.
  • Upliftment of the poor ensures their empowerment by reducing their hardships as I am from a middle-class family and acquainted with the difficulties and complexities one faces.


If I did not follow the approach

  1. It will be against well-established family values.
  2. May I will be under a crisis of conscience situation and ethical dilemma as it goes against my value system.
  3. It shows my inability in balancing ethics in private life and public life.
  4. It will go to weaken my value system.
  5. My action will compromise civil service values like compassion, dedicated and selfless public service, and management of conflict of interest.
  6. Lethargic attitude of the government may continue.
  7. It may aggravate the complexities and difficulties faced by poor or needy people.


Public servants play conflicting roles due to conflict in private life and public life, as one facing in the case study.

Steps need to be taken by administrators in minimizing conflict between ethics in public and private life.

  1. Private relationships demand an individual’s responsibilities towards the role played in private life such as father, mother, and spouse. So he has to be responsible for his wife’s future.
  2. In private and public relationships trust is an important factor for instance trust in family members. Thus firstly he has to build the trust of his newlywed wife by setting aside part of the money and resources for their future so that she will be assured that his actions will not put their future economic security in jeopardy.
  3. As his wife is a new member of the family, he needs to pursue her about their family values, parents helping nature towards needy people and convince her about his actions.
  4. As the administratior’s fame is the main reason for souring relationships with colleagues, he has to tell people not to spread the news about his ethical conduct.
  5. Ensuring high ethical conduct – As a civil servant, one has to adhere to the standards of civil service values like impartiality, and dedicated selfless service to people. Thus he has to inculcate these values along with emotional intelligence in his colleagues.
  6. This action will not only change their behaviour, and attitude toward him but also reform the work culture thereby enhancing the efficiency of the organization. Along with this, even his colleagues may adopt the same approach and help the needy. This is going to supplement the administrator’s effort in helping the poor.
  7. He and his colleagues need to find reasons for the lackadaisical attitude of the government in helping the needy n the delay in providing help. If there is any corruption they need to complain against the culprits to a higher authority.
  8. Even when his colleagues didn’t pursue and the situation in the office was tense, he didn’t have to bear them as his actions are transparent and he helped people with his savings not by siphoning any government funds.


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