Print Friendly, PDF & Email

What were the causes behind the Surat Split? Examine its short- and long-term impact on the national movement.

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. What were the causes behind the Surat Split? Examine its short- and long-term impact on the national movement. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Chapter 11 – India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipin Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To discuss and contrast the ideologies and methods of Moderates and Extremists which ultimately resulted in the Surat Split.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

Write about the factors that led to the split -Bring out the shortcomings of liberal moderates and their disconnect with the masses and the rise of extremists to fill this gap. Contrast the ideas of Extremists vis-à-vis the Moderates such as use of methods of appeals as against the radical moves, belief in masses, use of press with a strong language against the British by Tilak, personalities such as Aurobindo promoting superiority of our own civilisation etc.

Next, write about the short-term impact of the split.

Next, write about the long-term impact of the split.

Conclusion:

Mention that although the end was to attain Swaraj, the means to achieve it was different in the eyes of the Moderates and Extremists and that mutual distrust lead to the Surat split.