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InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. Caste-based census in Bihar.

2. Safety of Aadhaar.

3. Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP).


GS Paper 3:

1. Government-e-Marketplace (GeM).

2. NTPC’s Biodiversity Policy.

3. Naga peace process.


Facts for Prelims:

1. Why do Neptune and Uranus appear in different colours?

2. What is HIMARS?

3. Minimum educational qualification for CRPF Constables relaxed.

4. Israel, UAE sign free trade deal, first with an Arab country.

5. World Milk Day.


Caste-based census in Bihar:

GS Paper 2:

Syllabus: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.



An all-party meeting held in Bihar has unanimously decided to start the caste-based census very soon.



Bihar Legislature’s two resolutions demanding caste-based census had already been rejected by the Central Government because it would be a “divisive exercise”.

  • The centre, however, said “States can hold caste census on their own”.


How have caste details been collected so far?

  1. While SC/ST details are collected as part of the census, details of other castes are not collected by the enumerators. The main method is by self-declaration to the enumerator.
  2. So far, backward classes commissions in various States have been conducting their own counts to ascertain the population of backward castes.


What kind of caste data is published in the Census?

Every Census in independent India from 1951 to 2011 has published data on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, but not on other castes. Before that, every Census until 1931 had data on caste.


What is SECC 2011?

The Socio-Economic Caste Census of 2011 was a major exercise to obtain data about the socio-economic status of various communities.

  • It had two components: a survey of the rural and urban households and ranking of these households based on pre-set parameters, and a caste census.
  • However, only the details of the economic conditions of the people in rural and urban households were released. The caste data has not been released till now.


Difference between Census & SECC:

  • The Census provides a portrait of the Indian population, while the SECC is a tool to identify beneficiaries of state support.
  • Since the Census falls under the Census Act of 1948, all data are considered confidential, whereas all the personal information given in the SECC is open for use by Government departments to grant and/or restrict benefits to households.


Pros of caste census:

The precise number of the population of each caste would help tailor the reservation policy to ensure equitable representation of all of them.


Concerns associated:

  • There is a possibility that it will lead to heartburn among some sections and spawn demands for larger or separate quotas.
  • It has been alleged that the mere act of labelling persons as belonging to a caste tends to perpetuate the system.


Insta Curious:

Did you know that ‘Ain-e-Akbari’ included comprehensive data pertaining to population, industry, wealth and many other characteristics? What were the other contents of this? Reference:

The National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993, provides under Section 11 that the Central government may every 10 years revise lists with a view to exclude those classes which have ceased to be backward and include new backward classes. This exercise has not been done to date.



Prelims Link:

  1. What is a census?
  2. Statutory provisions in this regard.
  3. How is the census carried out?

Mains Link:

Discuss the need for and significance of caste based census.


Q.1) Consider the following statements regarding the National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993:

    1. It provides under Section 11 that the Central government may every 10 years revise lists with a view to exclude those classes which have ceased to be backward and include new backward classes.
    2. This exercise has not been done to date.

Choose the correct answer using the codes given below:

    1. 1 only.
    2. 2 only.
    3. Both.
    4. None.


Sources: the Hindu.

Safety of Aadhaar:

GS Paper 2:

Syllabus: Government Policies and associated issues.



The Unique Identification Development Authority of India (UIDAI) chose to withdraw its advisory two days after it was issued, encouraging users to desist from distributing photocopies of their Aadhaar Card.

  • The notification has been withdrawn to avoid any misinterpretation.


What did the UIDAI advisory say?

  • Holders should utilise a masked Aadhaar card instead of the traditional photocopy.
  • The document must not be downloaded from a cybercafé or a public computer, and if it is, it must be wiped from the system permanently.

The first eight numbers of the twelve-digit ID are hidden behind ‘XXXX’ characters in ‘Masked Aadhaar.’

What does the law say on usage of Aadhar and its safety?

  • The Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies Benefits and Services) Act, 2016 makes it clear that Aadhaar authentication is necessary for availing subsidies, benefits and services that are financed from the Consolidated Fund of India.
  • The requesting entity would have to obtain the consent of the individual before collecting his/her identity and ensure that the information is only used for authentication purposes on the Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR).
  • The Act makes it clear that confidentiality needs to be maintained and the authenticated information cannot be used for anything other than the specified purpose.
  • Identity information or authentication records would only be liable to be produced pursuant to an order of the High Court or Supreme Court, or by someone of the Secretary rank or above in the interest of national security.

What are the issues associated with Aadhar? What does CAG’s audit of UIDAI say?

Reference: read this.


About UIDAI:c

  • The UIDAI is a statutory authority established on 12th July 2016.
  • Parent body: Works under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.
  • Initially, the UIDAI was set up by the Government of India in January 2009, as an attached office under the aegis of the Planning Commission.
  • Mandate: The UIDAI is mandated to assign a 12-digit unique identification (UID) number (Aadhaar) to all the residents of India.
  • Total: As of 31st October 2021, UIDAI had issued 131.68 crore Aadhaar numbers.



Prelims Link:

  1. About UIDAI.
  2. Aadhaar.
  3. Registration of UIDAI.

Mains Link:

Has the concept of Aadhaar succeeded as a ‘game changer’ for India’s leaky welfare regime? Analyse.


Q.2) Consider the following statements: (2018)

    1. Aadhaar card can be used as a proof of citizenship or domicile.
    2. Once issued, Aadhaar number cannot be deactivated or omitted by the Issuing Authority.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

    1. 1 only.
    2. 2 only.
    3. Both 1 and 2.
    4. Neither 1 nor 2.

Sources: the Hindu.

Prime Minister Employment Generation Program (PMEGP):

GS Paper 2:

Syllabus: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.



The Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises has approved the extension of the Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) for five years till FY26.


About Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme:

  • PMEGP is a central sector scheme administered by the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MoMSME).
  • Launched in 2008-09,it is a credit-linked subsidy scheme which promotes self-employment through setting up of micro-enterprises, where subsidy up to 35% is provided by the Government through Ministry of MSME for loans up to ₹50 lakhs in manufacturing and ₹20 lakhs in the service sector.



National Level- Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) as the nodal agency.

State Level- State KVIC Directorates, State Khadi and Village Industries Boards(KVIBs), District Industries Centres (DICs) and banks.



  • Any individual above 18 years of age, Self Help Groups, Institutions registered under Societies Registration Act 1860, Production Co-operative Societies and Charitable Trusts are eligible.
  • Existing Units and the units that have already availed Government Subsidy under any other scheme of Government of India or State Government are not eligible.
  • Only new projects are considered for sanction under PMEGP.



  • The scheme will create sustainable estimated employment opportunities for about 40 lakh persons in five financial years.
  • It facilitates generation of employment opportunities for unemployed youth across the country by assisting setting up of micro-enterprises in the non-farm sector.



Prelims Link:

  1. PMEGP.
  2. Eligibility.
  3. Benefits.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of PMEGP.


Q.3) Consider the following statements:

    1. PMEGP is a central sector scheme.
    2. It is administered by the Ministry of Finance.

Choose the correct answer using the codes given below:

    1. 1 only.
    2. 2 only.
    3. Both.
    4. None.

Sources: the Hindu.

Government-e-Marketplace (GeM):

GS Paper 3:

Syllabus: Mobilization of resources.



The Union Cabinet has cleared a proposal allowing cooperatives to sell products on the Government-e-Marketplace (GeM) platform.



The move will benefit 27 crore people associated with 8.5 lakh cooperatives.

  • The micro and medium small industries will get buyers and it will boost the prospects of “Vocal for local” and Atma Nirbhar Bharat.


What is GeM?

  • Started in
  • It is a one stop portal to facilitate online procurement of common use Goods and Services.
  • The portal is open for all government buyers— Central and State Ministries, departments, public sector enterprises etc.
  • Private buyers cannot buy on the platform but private people can sell products to government bodies through the portal.
  • Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Commerce and Industry.


Significance of GeM:

  • Transparent and Cost-effective Procurement.
  • Promotion of Atmanirbhar Bharat.
  • Entry of Small Local Sellers.



Prelims Link:

  1. GeM.
  2. Eligibility.
  3. Nodal Ministry.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of GeM.


Q.4) Consider the following statements:

    1. GeM portal is open for all government buyers.
    2. Private buyers cannot sell on the platform but private people can buy products to government bodies through the portal.

Choose the correct answer using the codes given below:

    1. 1 Only.
    2. 2 Only.
    3. Both.
    4. None.


Sources: PIB.

NTPC’s Biodiversity Policy:

GS Paper 3:

Syllabus: Conservation Related issues.



Recently, National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC Ltd) issued a renewed Biodiversity Policy 2022.

  • It is an integral part of NTPC’s Environmental Policy and its objectives are aligned with environmental and sustainability policies.


Objectives of the Policy:

  1. To support all the professionals of the NTPC Group to help them contribute toward the achievement of the targets set in this field.
  2. To achieve a ’no net loss’ of biodiversity at all of its currently operating sites and ensure there is a net positive balance wherever applicable.
  3. To mainstream the concept of biodiversity across NTPC’s value chain and adopt a precautionary approach for sustainable management of biodiversity in all the decision-making processes.


Expected outcomes of the policy:

  • Overall conservation will increase with participation from business/firm’s side.
  • Better practices of conservation will be known and will yield better results.
  • Grass root participation will make people feel more connected to the cause.


About NTPC:

  • NTPC Ltd. is a central Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) under the Ministry of Power.
  • It is India’s largest energy conglomerate with roots planted way back in 1975 to accelerate power development in India.
  • It became a Maharatna company in 2010.



Prelims Link:

  1. NTPC.
  2. Biodiversity Policy.
  3. What is Corporate Social Responsibility?


Q.5) Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways (2011):

    1. Soil formation
    2. Prevention of soil erosion
    3. Recycling of waste
    4. Pollination of crops

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

    1. 1, 2 and 3 only
    2. 2, 3 and 4 only
    3. 1 and 4 only
    4. 1, 2, 3 and 4


Sources: the Hindu.

Naga peace process

GS Paper 3:

Topics Covered: Internal security related issues.


Naga peace process


Naga rebel group National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah) or NSCN(IM) has stuck to its demands for a separate flag and a constitution in an indication that the deadlock in the peace talks with the central government, aimed at bringing an end to India’s oldest insurgency, is likely to continue.



The process has been ongoing since mid-1997 when the NSCN (I-M) declared a ceasefire with the armed forces. Other groups began opting for talks in 2001. However, it has been put in a cold storage” since the Framework Agreement was signed on August 3, 2015.


How old is the Naga political issue?

  1. Pre- independence:
  • The British annexed Assam in 1826, and in 1881, the Naga Hills too became part of British India. The first sign of Naga resistance was seen in the formation of the Naga Club in 1918, which told the Simon Commission in 1929 “to leave us alone to determine for ourselves as in ancient times”.
  • In 1946 came the Naga National Council (NNC), which declared Nagaland an independent state on August 14, 1947.
  • The NNC resolved to establish a “sovereign Naga state” and conducted a “referendum” in 1951, in which “99 per cent” supported an “independent” Nagaland.


  1. Post- independence:

On March 22, 1952, the Naga Federal Government (NFG) and the Naga Federal Army (NFA) were formed. The Government of India sent in the Army to crush the insurgency and, in 1958, enacted the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.


Agreement in this regard:

  • The NSCN (IM) entered into a ceasefire agreement with the Centre in 1997 and the two have been holding talks since then, while a conglomerate of seven different Naga national political groups (NNPGs) also got into separate talks with the Centre since 2017.
  • The Centre signed a “framework agreement” with NSCN (IM) in 2015, and an “agreed position” with the NNPGs in 2017. However, the NSCN (IM)’s demand for a separate Naga flag and constitution has been a delaying factor in signing a final deal on the protracted Naga political issue.


The 2015 ‘agreement’:

After years of negotiations with successive governments, the NSCN(IM) had on August 3, 2015 signed a framework agreement with the BJP-led Centre.b

The “agreement” was based on the idea of “shared sovereignty” for the Nagas, a community comprising more than 60 tribes (the exact number is unclear) spread across the Northeast and parts of neighbouring Myanmar.

  • Shared sovereignty denotes sharing of administrative and legislative power between India and ‘Nagalim’.

Under this arrangement, the Naga Hoho, the apex body of all Naga tribes, would look after the welfare of all Naga-inhabited areas, irrespective of their integration with the proposed ‘Nagalim’.



Insta Curious:

The key demand of Naga groups has been Greater Nagalim. What parts of the state are covered in it? Reference: read this.



Prelims Link:

  1. Parts of States included Greater Nagalim.
  2. About Naga Club and NNC.
  3. When was the Naga Referendum held?

Mains Link:

Discuss the issues and challenges associated with the Naga Peace Accord.


Sources: the Hindu.

Facts for Prelims:

Why Neptune and Uranus appear in different colours?

Neptune and Uranus have a lot in common, such as similar masses, sizes, and atmospheric components, but their colours are very different.

  • Neptune is a rich, deep azure colour at visible wavelengths, while Uranus is a notably light shade of blue.

Astronomers have now found the explanation for this.

  • The cloud around Uranus is thicker than around Neptune, which explains why.
  • Uranus seems lighter in tone than Neptune because of its lethargic, sluggish atmosphere.
  • If there was no haze in Neptune’s and Uranus’ atmospheres, the blue light scattered in their atmospheres would make both appear nearly identically blue.

What is HIMARS?

United States will send M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket Systems, also known as HIMARS, to war-torn Ukraine.

  • HIMARS are medium-range rocket systems.
  • HIMARS are a high-tech, lightweight rocket launcher that is wheel mounted, giving it more agility and manoeuvrability on the battlefield.
  • Range:

Minimum educational qualification for CRPF Constables relaxed:

The government has relaxed the minimum qualification for recruitment of constables in the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) from Bijapur, Dantewada, and Sukma districts of Chhattisgarh to encourage tribal youth to join the force.

  • The minimum educational qualification for the post is being relaxed from 10th Class pass to 8th Class pass.

Need for:

The CRPF formed one Bastariya Battalion in Chhattisgarh in 2016-2017 by recruiting Scheduled Tribe people from four districts: Bijapur, Dantewada, Narayanpur, and Sukma.

  • However, the recruiting process did not produce the best results because native youth from the interior were unable to compete due to a lack of the required educational requirement of a 10th pass.


Israel, UAE sign free trade deal, first with an Arab country:

  • Israel and the United Arab Emirates have signed a free trade agreement.
  • This is the first of its kind that Israel has concluded with an Arab country.
  • The deal scraps customs duties on 96% of all products traded.

The UAE was the first Gulf country to normalise ties with Israel and only the third Arab nation to do so after Egypt and Jordan.


World Milk Day:

June 1 is observed as World Milk Day every year.

  • The theme of World Milk Day 2022 is to bring attention to the climate change crisis and how the dairy sector can reduce its impact on the planet.
  • The aim is to achieve ‘Dairy Net Zero’ by reducing greenhouse gas emissions over the next 30 years and improving waste management in order to make the dairy sector sustainable.
  • It was established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in 2001 to recognize the importance of milk as a global food.

India is the world’s largest milk producer, with 22% of global production, followed by the United States of America.

The top 5 milk-producing states are: Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.


Answers to Questions asked Yesterday:


Q.1) A.

Q.2) C.

Q.3) D.

Q.4) C.

Q.5) B.

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