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[MISSION 2022] SECURE 2022 : Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 May 2022

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

1. On the one hand, modern education introduced by British has been seen as the key tool to elicit the consent and loyalty of the Indian elite to British rule. On the other hand, education was also thought to have generated nationalist resistance. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Chapter 30 – A Brief History of Modern India by Rajiv Ahir (Spectrum Publishers)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the evolution of education in India under the colonial rule and its impact.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the Macaulay’s minute setting the stage for introduction of education system by the British in India.

Body:

Trace the evolution of education system in British India – orientalist v/s anglicist debate, setting up of Universities, Hunter Commission report, education system during the period of Diarchy rule, evolution of primary and higher education etc. You can make use of a flow chart for better presentation.

Write about the both positive and negative impacts of introduction of modern education in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning the contribution of modern education in rise of nationalism in India.

 

Topic: Social empowerment.

2. Examine the impact that the Supreme Court judgement, essentially recognising sex work as ‘profession’ will have in ensuring dignity of sex workers and ending their abuse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The HinduThe Hindu

Why the question:

With the Centre yet to come up with a law on sex workers, the Supreme Court, in exercise of its powers under Article 142, has issued a series of directions on their “rehabilitation”, including for sensitising police to treat sex workers with dignity and to avoid abusing them or subjecting them to violence.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about impact the SC judgement will have on life and livelihood of sex workers.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context about the judgement of the SC.

Body:

First, write about the various issues faced by sex workers in India – conflation with trafficking, criminalising sex work, Violence, Violation of Human Rights of Sex Workers, Discrimination in Medical Facilities, issue with documentation etc.

Next, write about remedial steps to be taken in this regard – access to basic service and facilities,  Fully decriminalise sex work and related activities, act against violence faced by sex workers, strengthen accountability of law enforcement, prevent trafficking etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3. Compare and contrast the pardoning powers of president and Governor in India as enumerated in the constitution.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The Governor’s powers of pardon or remission under Article 161 of the Constitution have been in the spotlight with the Supreme Court judgment ordering the release of A.G. Perarivalan, one of the seven convicts in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case.

Key Demand of the question: 

To compare the pardoning powers of the president and the governor.

Directive word:

Compare and contrast – provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Introduction: 

Begin by giving an account of article 72 and article 161 of the constitution.

Body:

Article 161 mentions the Pardoning Power of the Governor. When a convict has committed an offence against state law, the concerned punishment can be granted the pardon, reprieve, respite and remission by the Governor of the state.

Differentiate between Pardoning Powers of Governor and the President in detail (tabulate them for better presentation). Give relevant examples/case studies.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising their importance.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. The disruption in education caused by the pandemic resulted in an alarming regression in children’s foundational skills which can have long term repercussions on the learning outcomes. Suggest steps to bridge the gap in education. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The National Assessment Survey (NAS), details the magnitude of this learning crisis across the country. Conducted in November 2021 among students of more than one lakh schools in 720 districts, the NAS shows a sharp dip in the performance of students in almost all subjects during the pandemic years.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the impact of the pandemic on education and steps needed to offset the impact.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by highlighting some of the facts with respect to impact of covid-19 on education in India.

Body:

Firstly, mention the progress in education system before the pandemic. Cite a statistic to substantiate your point. Bring out the impact of learning deficit caused by the pandemic in India.

Next, mention the various ways to bridge the learning deficit that has emerged – readmitting dropouts, ensuring access to e-learning, special focus on most vulnerable states etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Explain the concept of open market operations (OMO) in order to manage liquidity and financial conditions in the country. What is its impact on various macroeconomic parameters? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the impact of OMO on macroeconomic parameters.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining OMO.

Body:

First, explain the process of OMO – sale and purchase of securities and the methods it is done.

Next, write about impact of OMO on various macroeconomic parameters such as – inflation, growth, credit supply interest rates and exchange supply etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. The draft E-waste Management Rules notified by the government can be a game changer in safe handling and disposal of e-wate if implemented in letter and spirit. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Quint

Why the question: 

The Environment Ministry this week released its Draft E-waste Management Rules which set fresh standards for businesses to adhere to when it comes to recycling electronic waste.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about draft E-waste Management Rules and their ability to manage safe disposal of e-waste.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving few facts regarding the rising number of e waste production every year.

Body:

Firstly, write about the various issues in the collection, management and disposal of e-waste. Write about its impact of this on developing countries like India and overall environment.

Next, write about the changes brought forth by draft E-waste Management Rules and how it can be a game changer.

Next, suggest various other measures to control and minimise the cause of e waste production.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case Study

7. There is a disaster prone state having frequent landslides, forest fires, cloudbursts, flash floods and earthquakes, etc. Some of these are seasonal and often unpredictable. The magnitude of the disaster is always unanticipated. During one of the seasons a cloudburst caused a devastating floods and landslides leading to high casualties. There was major damage to infrastructure like roads, bridges and power generating units. This led to more than 100000 pilgrims, tourist and other locals trapped across different routes and locations. The people trapped in your area of responsibility includes senior citizens, patients in hospitals, women and children, hiker, tourist, ruling parties, regional presidents along with his family, additional chief secretary of the neighboring state and prisoners in jail.

As a civil services officer of the state, what would be the order in which you would rescue these people and why? Give Justifications. (200 Words) (UPSC 2015)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief, mention the facts of the case and the major ethical issues involved along with the stakeholders.

Body:

Write about the order in which you will organise the reference based on their vulnerability. It should be based on rationality, empathy, objectivity and without any bias.

Give justification to your order of preference of your rescue.

Conclusion:

Stress on the importance of objectivity in Civil Servants especially in the light of the above case.

 


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