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InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. What is the ‘onset’ of the monsoon?

2. What are twin cyclones?


GS Paper 2:

1. Power of the Centre to notify minority communities at a national level.

2. Chief Election Commissioner.

3. Karnataka Cabinet decides to take Ordinance route on anti-conversion Bill.


GS Paper 3:

1. Event Horizon reveals true colours of SgrA.

2. Police Reforms.


Facts for Prelims:

1. Amalthea.

2. Bharat Tap initiative.

3. Utkarsh Samaroh.

4. Macolin Convention.

5. What is INSACOG?

6. BrahMos.



What is the ‘onset’ of the monsoon?

GS Paper 1:

Topics Covered: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.



The southwest monsoon is likely to set in over Kerala on May 27, well ahead of its normal date of June 1.

  • If the forecast turns out to be accurate, this will be the earliest onset of the monsoon over Kerala since at least 2009.


The onset of southwest monsoon is announced by IMD Only after the following parameters are met:

Rainfall: The IMD declares the onset of the monsoon if at least 60% of 14 designated meteorological stations in Kerala and Lakshadweep record at least 2.5 mm of rain for two consecutive days at any time after May 10.

Wind field: The depth of westerlies should be upto 600 hectopascal (1 hPa is equal to 1 millibar of pressure) in the area bound by the equator to 10ºN latitude, and from longitude 55ºE to 80ºE. The zonal wind speed over the area bound by 5-10ºN latitude and 70-80ºE longitude should be of the order of 15-20 knots (28-37 kph) at 925 hPa.

Heat: Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) value (a measure of the energy emitted to space by the Earth’s surface, oceans, and atmosphere) should be below 200 watt per sq m (wm2) in the box confined by 5-10ºN latitude and 70-75ºE latitude.


Factors influencing the onset on Southwest Monsoon:

The onset needs a trigger in the form of a weather system in the proximity of the coastline. These are ocean born phenomena which accentuate the monsoon surge around the normal time of onset. These include:

  1. The low-pressure area or depression in the Bay of Bengal during the last days of May or the beginning of June.
  2. There are such systems in the Arabian Sea as well around the same time which results in onset over the mainland.
  3. ‘Cyclonic Vortex’ is another factor which appears in the Southeast Arabian Sea, off Kerala and Lakshadweep region. They also shift along the west coast to push the monsoon current.
  4. The formation of ‘trough’ off the west coast due to temperature differential between land and sea. This situation could be for a mild start and weak progress.
  5. Lastly the cross-equatorial flow, wherein the trade winds from the Southern Hemisphere crossover to the Northern Hemisphere can bring a strong monsoon surge towards the Indian mainland.


Monsoon in India- related key facts:

  1. Generally, across the world, the monsoons are experienced in the tropical area roughly between 20° N and 20° S.
  2. Out of a total of 4 seasonal divisions of India, monsoon occupies 2 divisions, namely- the southwest monsoon season and the retreating monsoon season.
  3. Southwest monsoon season over India, which brings more than 70 per cent of the country’s annual rainfall.


Insta Curious:

Curious about the factors influencing the formation (not the onset) of Southwest Monsoon? Read here:

Did you know that Andaman and Nicobar Islands start receiving monsoon rainfall between May 15 and May 20 every year? This is earlier than the onset of monsoon in Kerala.



Prelims Link:

  1. What is El Nino?
  2. What is La Nina?
  3. What is ENSO?
  4. When do these events occur?
  5. Impact of ENSO on Asia, Africa and Australia.
  6. What is Indian Ocean Dipole?
  7. Differences between Southwest and Northeast monsoon.
  8. Factors influencing the onset on Southwest Monsoon.

Mains Link:

Discuss the impact of La Nina weather phenomenon on India.


[Q 1) Consider the following statements:

  1. Generally, across the world, the monsoons are experienced in the tropical area roughly between 20° N and 20° S.
  2. Southwest monsoon season over India brings more than 70 per cent of the country’s annual rainfall.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?


      1. 1 only.
      2. 2 only.
      3. Both.
      4. None of the above. ]


Sources: Indian Express.

What are twin cyclones?

GS Paper 1:

Topics Covered: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclones etc.



A pair of tropical cyclones, Asani & Karim (one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere) one on each side of the equator, have been formed.

  • These are cyclones originating in the same longitude and now drifting apart.

Cyclone Asani has formed in the Bay of Bengal.

Cyclone Karim has created a path in the open seas west of Australia.


What are twin cyclones?

The interplay of the wind and the monsoon system combined with the Earth system produces twin cyclones.

They are basically caused by equatorial Rossby waves.

  • Rossby waves are named for famous meteorologist Carl-Gustaf Rossby who was the first to explain that these waves arose due to the rotation of the Earth.
  • They are huge waves in the ocean with wavelengths of around 4,000–5,000 kilometres.
  • This system has a vortex in the northern hemisphere and another in the southern hemisphere, and each of these is a mirror image of the other.
  • The vortex in the north spins counterclockwise and has a positive spin, while the one in the southern hemisphere spins in the clockwise direction and therefore has a negative spin.
  • Both have a positive value of the vorticity which is a measure of the rotation.


How are twin cyclones formed?

  • When the vorticity is positive in both Northern and Southern hemispheres, as is the case with Rossby waves, the air in the boundary layer, whichis moist, is lifted slightly. That is enough to set off a feedback process.
  • When the air is lifted slightly, the water vapour condenses to make clouds. As it condenses, it lets out the latent heat of evaporation.
  • The atmosphere warms, this parcel of air rises, and a positive feedback is set off by this process.
  • The warmer parcel of air can rise further because it is lighter than the surrounding air, and it can form deeper clouds.
  • Meanwhile, moisture comes in from both sides. This leads to the formation of a cyclone if certain conditions are present.


Madden-Julian Oscillation or MJO:

Karim and Asani are “twin” cyclones not only because they formed at the same time in the same general area but also because they were formed primarily from the same “parent” circulation:  the Madden-Julian Oscillation or MJO.

  • The MJO is a large cluster of clouds and convection, around 5000-10,000 kilometres in size.
  • It is composed of a Rossby wave and a Kelvin wave, which is a type of wave structure that we see in the ocean.
  • On the eastern side of the MJO is the Kelvin wave, while on the western, trailing edge of the MJO, is the Rossby wave, once again with two vortices on either side of the equator.
  • However, not all tropical cyclones are born from the MJO. Sometimes it is a mere Rossby wave with two vortices on either side.


Insta Curious:

  • Did you know that The MJO is an intraseasonal oscillation? Its time scale is on the order of 30 to 60 days; it is also known as the 30-to-60 day oscillation or wave.
  • The MJO acts a little like El Niño or La Niña by concentrating tropical convection or thunderstorm activity but is smaller in scale and doesn’t remain stationary but propagates eastward.



[Q.2) Consider the following statements:

  1. Karim and Asani are “twin” cyclones formed in the year 2022.
  2. Rossby waves can be seen only in northern hemisphere.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

      1. 1 only.
      2. 2 only.
      3. Both.
      4. None. ]

Sources: the Hindu.

/ 14 May CA, cyclones, Today Article

Power of the Centre to notify minority communities at a national level:

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Separation of Powers.



A public interest litigation (PIL) under the consideration of the Supreme Court of India challenges the power of the Centre to notify minority communities at a national level.


Who is a minority and who decides that?


What the PIL says?

Section 2(f) is arbitrary and contrary to Articles 14, 15, 21, 29 and 30 of the Constitution.

The PIL cited a Supreme Court verdict in its support.


What’s the main issue now?

Centre’s power has created an anomalous situation in which the communities declared as minorities by the Centre enjoy the status even in States/UTs where they are in majority (Muslims in Jammu and Kashmir and Christians in Nagaland for instance) while followers of Hinduism, Judaism and Bahaism who are minorities are not accorded the same status under the Act.


What’s the demand now?

The petition seeks the SC to curtail the Centre’s power to notify national minorities or direct the Centre to notify followers of Hinduism, Bahaism and Judaism as minorities in States/UTs where they are actually fewer in numbers; or direct that only those communities that are “socially, economically and politically non-dominant” besides being numerically smaller in States/UTs be allowed the status of minorities.


What has the Centre said?

The Centre had pointed out that it had concurrent powers with States to take measures for the welfare of minorities.

  • States could have minorities notified as such within their jurisdiction, and it even cited the examples of Maharashtra recognising Jews as a minority community and Karnataka recognising speakers of several languages as linguistic minorities.


What next?

The Centre has said it would come back to the apex court “after consideration of several sociological and other aspects.”


Minority communities in India at present:

Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Parsis, and Jains.

Do you want to know more about Minority and the Relevant constitutional provisions in the Indian Constitution for them?

Reference: read this.


Insta Curious:

Do you know how are minority schools exempt from RTE and SSA? Reference: read this.



Prelims Link:

  1. State can regulate minority institutions.
  2. Article 30.
  3. Article 14.
  4. Article 21.
  5. Minority Status.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of grant of minority status of a religion in the country.


[Q.3) Which of the following Articles in the Indian Constitution are related to minority communities?

    1. Article 29.
    2. Article 30.
    3. Article 350 B.

Choose the correct answer using the codes given below:


    1. 1 only.
    2. 1 and 2 only.
    3. All of the above.
    4. None of the above. ]

Sources: the Hindu.

Chief Election Commissioner:

GS Paper2:

Topics Covered: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.



Election Commissioner Rajiv Kumar would take charge as the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC).


About Election commission of India:

The constitution under article 324 provides for an Election Commission for the superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of the electoral rolls for the conduct of elections to parliament, state legislatures and to the offices of president and vice president.

  • It was established in accordance with the Constitution on 25th January 1950 (celebrated as national voters’ day).


Composition Election commission of India:

The constitution provides for the following provisions in relation to the composition of the election commission:

  1. The election commission shall consist of the Chief Election Commissioner and a number of other election commissioners, if any, as the president may from time to time fix.
  2. The appointment of the chief election commissioner and other election commissioners shall be made by the president.
  3. When any other election commissioner is so appointed the chief election commissioner shall act as the chairman of the election commission.
  4. The president may also appoint after consultation with the election commission such regional commissioners as he may consider necessary to assist the election commission.
  5. The conditions of service and tenure of office of the election commissioners and the regional commissioners shall be such as the President may by rule determine.


CEC vs ECs:

Though the Chief Election Commissioner is the chairman of the election commission, however, his powers are equal to the other election commissioners. All the matters in the commission are decided by the majority amongst its members. The Chief Election Commissioner and the two other election commissioners receive equal salary, allowances and other benefits.


More about CEC, ECs, tenure, functions etc:

Read this.


Insta Curious:

Have you heard of A-WEB(Association of World Election Bodies)? Is India a member ? Read Here.



Prelims Link:

  1. Article 243 vs 324, similarities and differences in powers of state election commissions vs Election Commission of India.
  2. Appeals against decisions of Election Commissions.
  3. Elections to Parliament and state legislatures vs Local Bodies.


Mains Link:

Are the State Election Commissions in India as independent as the Election Commission of India? Discuss.


[Q. 4) Consider the following statements: (2017):

    1. The Election Commission of India is a five-member body.
    2. Union Ministry of Home Affairs decides the election schedule for the conduct of both general elections and bye-elections.
    3. Election Commission resolves the disputes relating to splits/mergers of recognised political parties.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


(a) 1 and 2 only.

(b) 2 only.

(c) 2 and 3 only.

(d) 3 only. ]


Sources: the Hindu.

Karnataka’s anti-conversion Bill:

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


anti-conversion Bill:


Karnataka state government has decided to take the Ordinance route to get clearance for the Karnataka Protection of Right to Freedom of Religion Bill, 2021.

  • The Bill, which was adopted by the Karnataka Legislative Assembly in its special session in December 2021, is yet to be introduced in the Legislative Council.


Highlights of the Karnataka Protection of Right to Freedom of Religion Bill, 2021:

  1. Any person found guilty of unlawfully converting another person will face a minimum jail term of three to five years and a fine of Rs 25,000.
  2. If the person ‘unlawfully converted’ is either a minor or a woman or belongs to the Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes, the punishment is more — a minimum sentence of three years and a maximum of ten years imprisonment, and Rs 50,000 fine.
  3. In cases of ‘mass conversion’, the accused person can face three to ten years in prison and a fine of Rs 1 lakh.
  4. An appropriate court will order the accused person to pay compensation to the “victim of conversion and this amount can go up to Rs 5 lakh, and must be paid by the accused over and above the fine under the law.
  5. In case someone wants to convert to another religion voluntarily, there is a lengthy process in place and this applies to inter-faith marriages too.


Challenges ahead:

Some of the provisions that the Karnataka government is aiming to introduce under its anti-conversion laws were stayed in Gujarat. In 2020, the Gujarat government had also brought in an amended anti-conversion law.

However,  the Gujarat High Court had stayed some of the provisions in August 2021 — provisions like the one that places the burden of proof on those entering into an inter-faith marriage.

  • The Gujarat High Court noted that the provisions go against an individual’s right to choice and liberty, granted under the Constitution of India. So, since similar provisions are included in the Karnataka Bill too, it means the law goes against rights guaranteed by the Constitution.


Rationale behind the enactment of anti-conversion laws, What do critics say and what has the Supreme Court said on Marriage and Conversion?

Reference: read this.


Insta Curious:

Did you know that the Special Marriage Act, 1954 (SMA) was enacted to facilitate the marriage of couples professing different faiths? Reference: 



Prelims Link:

  1. About Article 21.
  2. Article 25.
  3. About SMA.
  4. States which have passed anti-conversion laws.

Mains Link:

The right to choose a partner or live with a person of choice was part of a citizen’s fundamental right to life and liberty. Discuss.

Sources: the Hindu.

Event Horizon reveals true colours of SgrA:

GS Paper 3:

Topics Covered: Awareness in space.



Scientists from the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) facility revealed the first image of the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way in press conferences held around the world.

  • This image of the black hole referred to as Sagittarius A* (SgrA*) gave further support to the idea that the compact object at the centre of our galaxy is indeed a black hole.


What is Sagittarius A*(SgrA*)?

Sagittarius A* is a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy i.e. the Milky Way. It is located near the border of the constellations Sagittarius and Scorpius.

  • SgrA* possesses 4 million times the mass of our sun and is located about 26,000 light-years and 5.9 trillion miles (9.5 trillion km)—from Earth.


What is a black hole?

  • A black hole is an object in space that is so dense and has such strong gravity that no matter or light can escape its pull. Because no light can escape, it is black and invisible.
  • There’s a boundary at the edge of a black hole called the event horizon, which is the point of no return — any light or matter that crosses that boundary is sucked into the black hole. It would need to travel faster than the speed of light to escape, which is impossible.
  • Anything that crosses the event horizon is destined to fall to the very centre of the black hole and be squished into a single point with infinite density, called the singularity.


What is Event Horizon?

A black hole’s event horizon is the point of no return beyond which anything—stars, planets, gas, dust and all forms of electromagnetic radiation—gets dragged into oblivion.


About Event Horizon Telescope:

  • Event horizon telescope consists of eight radio observatories around the world, including telescopes in Spain, the US and Antarctica
  • In 2006, an international team of more than 200 researchers, led by Harvard University astronomers, launched the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) project with a sole aim: to capture a direct shot of a black hole.
  • Thirteen partner institutions worked together to create the EHT, using both pre-existing infrastructure and support from a variety of agencies.
  • The EHT observations use a technique called very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) which synchronises telescope facilities around the world and exploits the rotation of our planet to form one huge, Earth-size telescope observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm.


Insta Curious:

There are supermassive blackholes, which are several million solar masses in size, at the centres of galaxies, and these are known as Active Galactic Nuclei. Learn more about them here.



Prelims Link:

  1. About the General Theory of Relativity.
  2. When was the first gravitational wave detected?
  3. LIGO- mission objectives, observatories and funding.
  4. What are event horizon and singularity in the context of a black hole?
  5. LIGO India- proposed site, partners and objectives.
  6. Where is the Virgo locator located?

Mains Link:

Discuss the applications and significance of findings of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detector.


[Q.5) Sagittarius A*(SgrA*), which was in news recently, is a:

    1. Blackhole.
    2. New Galaxy.
    3. Dwarf planet.
    4. None of the above. ]

Sources: the Hindu.

Police Reforms:

GS Paper 3:

Topics Covered: Important security agencies.


Police Reforms:


Recently, the Vice President of India called for renewed thrust to implement reforms in police forces.


Need of the hour:

  • A progressive, modern India must have a police force which meets the democratic aspirations of the people.
  • There is a need to upgrade the skills of our policemen to effectively tackle 21st century crimes such as cybercrimes and economic offences.


What is the SC’s Prakash Singh judgment on police reforms?

Prakash Singh, who served as DGP of UP Police and Assam Police besides other postings, filed a PIL in the Supreme Court post retirement, in 1996, seeking police reforms.

  • In a landmark judgment, the Supreme Court in September 2006 had directed all states and Union Territories to bring in police reforms.


What measures were suggested by the Supreme Court?

  1. Fixing the tenure and selection of the DGP to avoid situations where officers about to retire in a few months are given the post.
  2. In order to ensure no political interference, a minimum tenure was sought for the Inspector General of Police so that they are not transferred mid-term by politicians.
  3. Postings of officers should be done by Police Establishment Boards (PEB) comprising police officers and senior bureaucrats to insulate powers of postings and transfers from political leaders.
  4. Set up State Police Complaints Authority (SPCA) to give a platform where common people aggrieved by police action could approach.
  5. Separate investigation and law and order functions to better improve policing.
  6. Set up of State Security Commissions (SSC) that would have members from civil society.
  7. Form a National Security Commission.


How did states respond to these directives?

So far almost all states have complied with the seven directives of the Supreme Court issued in Prakash Singh Case.


Model Police Act:

The Central Government has also reviewed the Model Police Act, 2006. Accordingly, a draft Model Police Bill, 2015 has been prepared and placed on the website of BPR&D.


Various committees in this regard:

  • There have been the National Police Commission, the Ribeiro and Padmanabhaiah committees, and other commissions which directly alluded to police reforms.
  • In addition, the Malimath Committee and the Second Administrative Reforms Commission indirectly expressed requirements for police reforms.


Issues present:

  1. Colonial Law: The Police Act of 1861.
  2. Huge vacancies.
  3. Poor infrastructure.
  4. Accountability and operational freedom issues.
  5. Psychological Pressure.


Insta Curious:

  1. Police is an exclusive subject under the State List (List II, Schedule 7 of the Constitution).
  2. The present Indian police system is largely based on the Police Act of 1861.



Prelims Link:

  1. When was the National Police Commission established?
  2. Ribeiro committee is associated with?
  3. Key recommendations made by Malimath Committee.
  4. Police under 7th schedule of the Indian Constitution.
  5. Prakash Singh case is more popularly associated with?



Write a note on police reforms.



[Q) With reference to the Union Government, consider the following statements: (2021)

    1. Gopalaswamy Iyengar Committee suggested that a minister and a secretary be designated solely for pursuing the subject of administrative reform and promoting it.
    2. In 1970, the Department of Personnel was constituted on the recommendation of the Administrative Reforms Commission, 1966, and this was placed under the Prime Minister’s charge.

Select the correct code:


  1. 1 Only.
  2. 2 Only.
  3. Both 1 and 2.
  4. Neither 1 nor 2. ]


Sources: the Hindu.

 Facts for Prelims:


  • The moon Amalthea is one of Jupiter’s 53 named satellites; it was the first to be discovered after the four Galilean moons, and it is the fifth-largest overall.
  • In terms of proximity to Jupiter, Amalthea is the planet’s third moon — it takes just 12 hours to make a full orbit.
  • Amalthea also contributes to one of the Gossamer Rings of Jupiter — the Amalthea Gossamer Ring — which is the faint innermost Gossamer ring of the planet. The Gossamer Rings are outside the main Jovian ring.
  • Only two missions have visited Amalthea: Voyager and Galileo. Both the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft photographed the Jovian moon during their flybys in 1979.

Why in News?

According to recent findings, Amalthea appears to radiate out more heat than it receives from the sun, which NASA suggests may be due to Jupiter’s magnetic field or from tidal stresses.

  • Amalthea is tidally locked to Jupiter in synchronous rotation — it always aligns with the planet along its long axis.

Bharat Tap initiative:

Recently, the Minister for Housing and Urban Affairs launched the BHARAT TAP initiative at the ‘Plumbex India’ exhibition. This exhibition is aimed at products and services related to the plumbing, water, and sanitation industry.

BHARAT TAP is a concept to use low flow tap and fixtures.

  • It will provide low-flow, sanitary-ware at scale, and thereby reduce water consumption at the source considerably.
  • It is estimated to save approximately 40% of water.
  • This will in turn result in water saving and energy saving due to less water and energy will be required for pumping, transporting, and purification.


Utkarsh Samaroh:

Utkarsh Samaroh was recently held  in Bharuch, Gujarat.c

The event commemorates the district’s 100 percent saturation of four main state government initiatives that will help give prompt financial support to individuals in need.

The four schemes are:

  1. Indira Gandhi Vrudh Sahay Yojana.
  2. Ganga Swaroopa Aarthik Sahay Yojana.
  3. Rashtriy Kutumb Sahay Yojana.
  4. Niradhar Vrudh Aarthik Sahay Yojana.


Macolin Convention:

The 12th meeting of Interpol’s Match-Fixing Task Force (IMFTF), in which the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was one of the participants, concluded with a call for harmonised global efforts to curb competition manipulation.

  • The members deliberated on various mechanisms to improve intelligence sharing “such as the establishment of national platforms, as outlined in the Macolin Convention, that centralise and analyse information on irregular and suspicious trends”.
  • The Council of Europe Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions, known as the Macolin Convention, is a multilateral treaty aimed at checking match-fixing. It came into force on September 1, 2019.


What is INSACOG?

Setup in 2020, the Indian SARS-CoV-2 Genomics Consortium (INSACOG) is jointly initiated by the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) with Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).

  • It is a consortium of 38 National Laboratories to monitor the genomic variations in the SARS-CoV-2.
  • It carries out whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 virus across the nation, aiding in understanding the spread and evolution of the virus.
  • INSACOG also aims to focus on sequencing of clinical samples to understand the disease dynamics and severity.



Brahmos extended range missile was recently test-fired.

  • It was air launched from the first time from a Su-30 MKI fighter aircraft of the Indian air force.
  • The range of this extended range Brahmos is 350 kms compared to 290kms in the base version.

About Brahmos:

  • The BrahMos supersonic missile is an Indo-Russian joint venture which can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land.
  • It is a two-stage engine composed of solid propellant engine in the first stage and liquid ramjet in second.
  • It operates on the “Fire and Forgets” principle i.e it does not require further guidance after launch.



Answers to Questions asked Yesterday:

Q.1)     C.

Q.2)    C.

Q.3)     B.

Q.4)     A.

Q.5)     B.

Q.6)     B.


Articles to be covered tomorrow:

  1. WHO Reforms (We were supposed to include this article today. But, since the article demands a little more value addition, we shall include it tomorrow. We apologise for the inconvenience).
  2. US proposes pick-and-choose Indo-Pacific economic framework.
  3. IFPRI report on climate change and food systems.
  4. Iron in Tamil Nadu 4,200 years ago..

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