Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 April 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Discuss the importance of fairs in the development, spread and promotion of various art forms throughout the course of history. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The India Art Fair (IAF) opens on April 28 in New Delhi after a year’s break owing to the Covid-19 pandemic. It is the biggest event for Indian art and artists, besides the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, which, unlike the fair, is not aimed at commerce.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the role played by fairs in the development and promotion of various art forms.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving context about fairs as part of Indian culture since time immemorial.

Body:

Write about the role played by fairs with respect to development and promotion of various art forms – providing platform, ensuring continuity, livelihood to artists, promotion throughout the country. Substantiate with examples. etc.

Next, write about bottlenecks in organising fairs across the country during recent times.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the need to promote fairs.

Introduction

India is worldly known as a land vibrant celebration; one can see the culture and life of India during the celebrations of various fair and festivals, celebrated with high sprit in each and every town in India. If someone wants to see the deep roots of the culture, belief, life style, living, food, art, traditions of India, the fair and festivals are the window to view the true colour of India.

In recent times, modern art fairs, book festivals have also been held to showcase talent of artists, authors and others in this field. They have provided better opportunities like in history to artists.

Body

Significance of fairs and festivals in India

  • Fairs and Festivals in a land give social attachment and cultural relationship to the individuals of different shades and colours.
  • Fairs and festivals give chances to impart the society and culture to different territories and habitants.
  • The local fair was a site for trade, celebrating community identity, and welcoming outsiders to a town or village.
  • Fairs usually had a dual purpose of business and pleasure, and were a key festive celebration in the local calendar.

Importance of fairs in the development spread and promotion of various art forms

In historical times

Religious festivals are seen as the oldest precursors to art fairs. These gatherings, which were often annual, and centred on religion and commerce, saw the representation and display of rare items, often from faraway places.

  • Celebrations during fairs and festivals in India entail livelihood opportunities for many artisans in the country.
    • Ex: Idol makers during Ganesha and Durga pooja festivities.
  • These festivals also provide an opportunity for sustenance of folk arts in the country.
    • Ex: Madhubani painting which is a major highlight of festivals in the Mithila region of Bihar; Kathakali is a chief attraction during the Onam festival; emphasis on Bhangra during the festival of Lohri.

Modern art fairs

  • Centred around trade and networking, an art fair is essentially a commercial platform.
  • Art galleries and enterprises rent booths to exhibit their collections, with the aim to sell to multiple categories of clients.
  • For instance, at the India Art Fair, apart from the booths, there are live performances by artists, outdoor projects, curated walks, and book launches.
  • The other major format of a cultural art event is the Biennale, which, compared to fairs, is more focussed on cultural exchange and discussions, and is a showcase with a curatorial vision.

Conclusion

Many fairs and festivals of India are celebrated to promote tourism or to promote the regional arts and crafts, music, dances, etc. Some of them are organized on a yearly basis to showcase the rich Indian culture and heritage. Such fairs continue our age-old traditions, art forms, culture and impart it to the younger generations and keep the heritage alive.

 

Topic: Social empowerment

2. The demographic transition, changes in the age structure and the switch from joint family to nuclear family are a source of concern for the support and care of elderly population. A proper road map is needed to streamline elderly care in India. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Our world is facing a rapid population ageing. The number of individuals above 60 years is at an all-time high and estimated to reach 2.1 billion by 2050.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the various concerns with elderly population and measures needed to overcome it.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving statistic regarding the current status of elderly population in India.

Body:

First, highlight that how the demographic transition as occurred and the various factors that have led to increased elderly population in India.

Next, write about the various issues associated with elderly population in India – lack of care, social isolation, dearth of geriatric care, family issues etc.

Next, write about the need of roadmap to scale up elderly care with passage of time.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Currently, India’s population is among the youngest in an ageing world, however, a major proportion of India’s population will be aged by 2050. This calls for more forward-looking policies incorporating population dynamics, education and skills, healthcare, gender sensitivity and most importantly geriatric care.

Body

Demographic transition in India

  • NFHS-5 places the total fertility rate (TFR) at 2.0. known as replacement level of fertility. This decline is spread evenly across the country.
    • 28 states and UTs have a TFR of 9 or less, with seven below 1.6.
    • All southern states have a TFR of 1.7-1.8, similar to that of Sweden.
  • Even states that have not reached replacement fertility — Bihar and Uttar Pradesh — seem to be head in that direction.
  • Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan that were part of the lagging states have achieved TFRs of 0.
  • With falling fertility (currently 2.0), the median age of India has risen from 24 years in 2011 to 29 years now and is expected to be 36 years by 2036.
    • With a falling dependency ratio (expected to decrease from 65% to 54% in the coming decade taking 15-59 years as the working age population), India is in the middle of a demographic transition.
    • However, the elderly care is neglected in policies till date.
  • Elderly population : Age division of Indian population (0-14) is 30.8%, (15-59) is 60.3%, (60+) is 8.6%.
    • According to Population Census 2011, there are nearly 104 million elderly persons in India.
    • It has increased from 5.5% in 1951 to 8.6% in 2011.
    • Projected a rise upto 19% in 2050

Issues associated with elderly population in India

  • Feminisation of ageing: The sex ratio of the elderly has increased from 938 women to 1,000 men in 1971 to 1,033 in 2011 and is projected to increase to 1,060 by 2026.
    • The report also noted that between 2000 and 2050, the population of 80-plus people would have grown 700% “with a predominance of widowed and highly dependent very old women” and so the special needs of such old women would need significant focus of policy and programmes.
  • Financial issues: Retirement and dependence of elderly on their child for basic necessity.
    • Sudden increase in out-of-pocket expenses on treatment.
    • Migration of young working-age persons from rural area have negative impacts on the elderly, living alone or with only the spouse usually poverty and distress.
  • Health: Multiple disabilities among the elders in old age.
    • Health issues like blindness, locomotor disabilities and deafness are most prevalent.
    • Mental illness arising from senility and neurosis.
    • Absence of geriatric care facilities at hospitals in rural area.
  • Social issues: Indian society is undergoing rapid transformation under the impact of industrialization, urbanization, technical & technological change, education and globalization.
    • Consequently, the traditional values and institutions are in the process of erosion and adaptation, resulting in the weakening of intergenerational ties that were the hallmark of the traditional family.
    • Feeling of powerlessness, loneliness, uselessness and isolation in elderly.
    • Generational gap.

Roadmap for elderly care with passage of time

  • Increasing the monthly pension of elderly to minimum of Rs 2,000 per month.
  • Under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, Housing for the aged, particularly the aged poor, must be a priority.
  • Assisted living facilities for indigent elderly, particularly those with age-related issues like dementia, needs policy focus.
  • More tax benefits, or at least removing tax on deposit interest for seniors.
  • Enhancing the geriatric care health infrastructure especially in rural area.
  • Allocation of special budget for elderly population at both levels.
  • Providing entertainment facilities like libraries and clubs at panchayat level.
  • Appreciations for the contributions of elderlies at village level.

Conclusion

Social security is the concurrent responsibility of the central and state governments as, mandated under Indian constitution i.e., Well-being of senior citizens – Article 41 in particular and 46 in general of Indian constitution. In this regard, National Policy on Senior Citizen, 2011 was framed.

For the welfare and care for the older persons, we must focus on the protection of already existing social support systems/traditional social institutions such as family and kinship, neighbourhood bonding, community bonding and community participation must be revived and kins should show sensitivity towards elderly citizens.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

3. Critically analyse India’s role with respect to various world affairs as the non-permanent member of UNSC. Do you think that the UNSC needs reforming? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the role of India at UNSC as the non-permanent member and reforms needed in UNSC.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context about India’s stint with UNSC as the non-permanent member.

Body:

First, mention the key resolutions and activities that were undertaken during India’s presidency with a special emphasis on Afghanistan, Palestine and Ukraine. Write about India as proponent of international law with respect to Afghan crisis, Israel-Palestine issue and efforts to maintain the rules based international order.

Next, write about the need for reforms in the UNSC – archaic membership structure of the UNSC, expansion of the UNSC’s permanent membership, structural inequality in the security grouping etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward and diplomatic steps needed to be taken in this regard.

Introduction

India has criticised the slow pace of UN Security Council reform process and opaque methodologies, non-attribution of assertions and obfuscation of references by the member states which are blocking the early reform of the UN. What is ironical is, the permanent member of Security Council, Russia itself has waged a war on Ukraine while it is being given the responsibility to maintain world peace.

Body

India and UNSC

  • India has adopted a multi-layered strategy to assume the long-awaited permanent seat in the Security Council consisting of two components:
    • Maximising support in the UN General Assembly and Minimising resistance in the UN Security Council.
  • India hopes that its continued engagement at various Global South forums such as G 77 and NAM, African Union would garner much needed numbers in the UNGA. This is reflected in India’s strong defence of the principle of sovereignty and the constant voluble criticism of the “Responsibility to Protect.”
  • India’s growing strategic partnerships with the P5, growing economic strength, including the nuclear deals with US, Russia paints a favourable picture for Indian Explicit public declarations supporting India’s candidature as a permanent member in the Council are reiterated by countries like France, UK.
  • India has also formed the G4 with Brazil, Germany, and Japan, its “coalition of the willing”, and a “collaborative strategy” to negotiate reforms of the Council. The four nations support each other’s bids for permanent seats on an expanded Security Council.

Need for UNSC reforms

  • Membership: The current membership of UNSC reflect post-WWII structure. It doesn’t actually reflect the changes that have occurred in the international system after the end of the cold war.
    • Emerging nations like India, Brazil, South Africa etc needs representation in the UNSC as permanent members.
    • The existing membership reflects a regional imbalance, with no representation from Africa or Latin America and Europe being over-represented in the council.
  • Changed Geopolitics: The Security Council’s membership and working methods reflect a bygone era. Though geopolitics have changed drastically, the Council has changed relatively little since 1945, when wartime victors crafted a Charter in their interest and awarded “permanent” veto-wielding Council seats for themselves.
  • Reforms Long Overdue: It was expanded only once in 1963 to add 4 non-permanent members.
    • Although the overall membership of the UN has increased from 113 to 193 but no change in the composition of the UNSC happened.
  • Inequitable economic and geographical representation: While Europe is over represented, Asia is under represented. Africa and South America have no representation at al
  • Crisis of legitimacy and credibility: Stalled reform agenda and various issues including its Interventions in Libya and Syria in the name of responsibility have put the credibility of the institution in jeopardy.
  • North South Divide: The permanent UNSC membership of portrays the big North-South divide in the decision making of security measures.
    • For instance, there is no permanent member from Africa, despite the fact that 75% of its work is focused on Africa.
  • Emerging issues: Issues such as transnational threats, deepening economic interdependence, worsening environmental degradation also call for effective multilateral negotiations based on consensus yet all critical decisions are still being taken by the veto-wielding permanent members of the Security Council.

Way forward

  • The imbalances in power relationships among P5 and the rest of the world needs to be corrected urgently.
  • Also, it is needed to reform the Security Council through an expansion in permanent and non-permanent seats to enable the UN organ to better deal with the “ever-complex and evolving challenges” to the maintenance of international peace and security.
  • India as the current one of the non-permanent members of the UNSC can start by drafting a resolution containing a comprehensive set of proposals for reforming the UNSC.

Value Addition

India’s stature to get permanent membership

  • Founding member of UN.
  • World’s largest democracy and both demographically and geographically holds a significant position.
  • One of the fastest growing large economies in the world.
  • One of the largest contributors to UN peace keeping missions and India suffered highest number of fatalities over the years, which is acknowledged time and again.
  • India is seen as a responsible power, which adheres to rule of law, global norms. India’s elevation will make UNSC more credible, representative.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

4. Examine the various issues that impact tea production in the country. What measures are needed to ensure result oriented, fast-paced yet sustainable growth in the sector? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The draft Tea (Promotion and Development) Bill, 2022, is meant to replace the 68-year-old Tea Act, 1953. The commerce ministry, which is piloting the Bill, says the new legislation will remove colonial-era provisions and socialist-era governmental restrictions on the industry.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the issues with tea production and measures needed to overcome them.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by briefly citing statistics regarding the extent of tea production in India and India’s share in global market.

Body:

First, write about the importance tea industry.

Next, write about the various issues in the tea industry – archaic laws, labour issues, pesticides, lack of standards etc.

Next, write about the measures that are required – draft Tea (Promotion and Development) Bill, overcoming labour issues, supply chain bottlenecks etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

India today is the second-largest producer of tea in the world, accounting for a fifth of the world’s production with annual production in excess of 1.2 billion kgs. It is also the fourth biggest exporter, behind China, Sri Lanka and Kenya.

The draft Tea (Promotion and Development) Bill, 2022, is meant to replace the 68-year-old Tea Act, 1953. The commerce ministry, which is piloting the Bill, says the new legislation will remove colonial-era provisions and socialist-era governmental restrictions on the industry.

Body

Issues impacting tea production in the county

  • Decline in tea price: Due to various causes, the auction price of the tea has seen a steady decline over the years. According to World Bank, the tea prices declined by almost 44% in real terms.
  • In India, all the profits from the tea gardens were siphoned off and there was no real or proper reinvestment in improving quality of tea.
  • License and quotas: Manufacturing tea requires a separate licence.
    • Exports are controlled and there are quotas and allotments.
  • Draconian provisions: As the tea sector went into a steady decline in the seventies, the government armed itself with powers to take over the management of any estate which remains closed for more than three months without investigation.
  • Less production of tea: There are multiple problems being faced by the tea industry such as finance crisis, power problems, labour problems, poor labour schemes, inadequate communication system, increased revenue tax for tea gardens, increased pollution fee, less transport subsidy etc.
    • All these have altogether put the tea industry in a bad situation, resulting in low production of tea leaves and tea.
  • Labour demand: Leaving aside the natives, most of the workers in the tea gardens in Assam and Bengal are the ones who have migrated from states like Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, since the later part of the 19th century. These workers are solely dependent on the tea industry for their daily income and livelihood.
    • However, the migration of labourers has reduced in recent times, resulting in the reduction of the number of labourers in the tea factories.
    • The local labourers have also reduced due to a smaller number of tea labourers for NREGA.
  • No proper storage: The problem of storing premium quality tea has always been there. Due to delay in transportation and lack of storage facilities, the processed tea gains moisture from the atmosphere and deteriorates in quality.
  • Climatic factors: Unfavourable climatic conditions for tea plantations owing to scanty or very heavy rainfall have badly affected the tea industry.

Measures needed to re-orient tea industry

  • Tackling climate change: In tackling climate change the industry will have to work with multiple agencies and partners such as TRA Tocklai to research and develop new tea clones, provide information on improving soil fertility, and to study rainfall and water management systems.
  • Scrapping old laws: It has been suggested that as in Sri Lanka, India may consider the dovetailing of various government schemes with the benefits being provided by PLA, 1951 – this will reduce the burden on Tea producers regarding compliance with the PLA, 1951 – and also help increase the quality of life of the workers.
  • Marketing of products: Need to provide a marketing arrangement for small tea growers to help them sell their product at the right price and also increase their market accessibility.
  • Increase awareness regarding better plantation techniques and plantation worker rights and provision of financial assistance to increase mechanization in Tea gardens.
  • Community development, including improving education, healthcare and access to welfare, facilitating access to government schemes, and ensuring safe migration.
  • Building the capacity of smallholders on good agricultural and pest management practices and improving integration with the rest of the industry

Conclusion

The law must provide solution to how to develop and scale-up approaches to deal with the sustainability challenges facing the Indian tea industry and communities, so that producers thrive, workers lives’ and the environment are improved, and buying companies can be assured that they are sourcing sustainably produced teas.

 

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. What is gene therapy? Examine the scope and concerns associated with this novel technology. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the gene therapy, its scope and concerns associated with the technology.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by briefly defining gene therapy.

Body:

First, in brief, explain the mechanism of the working of gene therapy and its types.

Next, write about the scope of gene therapy – influencing the course of various genetic and acquired disorders at the genetic level.

Next, write about the various concerns associated with the gene therapy – cost, ethical concerns, procedural difficulties etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward to overcome the concerns.

Introduction

Gene therapy is a medical approach that treats or prevents disease by correcting the underlying genetic problem. Gene therapy techniques allow doctors to treat a disorder by altering a person’s genetic makeup instead of using drugs or surgery.

A newer technique, called genome editing (an example of which is CRISPR-Cas9), uses a different approach to correct genetic differences. Instead of introducing new genetic material into cells, genome editing introduces molecular tools to change the existing DNA in the cell.

Body

Gene therapy: Mechanism

  • Gene therapy works by altering the genetic code to recover the functions of critical proteins. Proteins are the workhorses of the cell and the structural basis of the body’s tissues.
  • The instructions for making proteins are carried in a person’s genetic code, and variants (or mutations) in this code can impact the production or function of proteins that may be critical to how the body works.
  • Fixing or compensating for disease-causing genetic changes may recover the role of these important proteins and allow the body to function as expected.

Types

  • Somatic Gene Therapy: Effects will not be transferred to next generation
  • Germline Gene Therapy: Effects transferred to next generation

Scope of gene therapy

  • Fix a genetic alteration underlying a disorder, so the gene can function properly.
  • Turn on a gene to help fight a disease.
  • Turn off a gene that is functioning improperly.
  • Remove a piece of DNA that is impairing gene function and causing disease.

Gene therapies are being used to treat a small number of diseases, including an eye disorder called Leber congenital amaurosis and a muscle disorder called spinal muscular atrophy

various concerns associated with the gene therapy

  • Human embryo editing research may not be adequately controlled, leaving it open to a lab somewhere to create gene-edited babies.
  • Some of the key scientists in this field have concerns about the potential misuse of a technology that could be used for eugenics, to create genetic discrimination.
  • But even in agriculture, genetic modification is a subject of major debate, especially in developing countries, including India.
  • Most of the ethical discussions related to genome editing center around human germline editing. This is because changes made in the germline would be passed down to future generations.
  • There is also debate that, ecological disequilibrium can be caused by gene editing.
  • Due to the possibility of off-target effects (edits in the wrong place) and mosaicism (when some cells carry the edit but others do not), safety is of primary concern.

Conclusion

Human civilization has always progressed by interfering with the natural evolutionary process. In this process, the application of Gene Editing is inevitable. However, to prevent it from being a disruptive force, it is better to regulate it.

India does not have a comprehensive gene editing policy in place, though germline gene editing is banned in line with international norms. Yet, in the face of persisting diseases and crippling human conditions, divine intervention may sometimes need to be supplemented with genetic ones in a carefully regulated environment.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. A carbon price that starts low and rises steadily could help India reach its targets under the Paris climate accord and also achieve net zero in the long run. Critically examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

As climate change bakes the planet, dozens of nations and many local governments are putting a price tag on greenhouse gas emissions that are increasing flooding, droughts and other costly catastrophes.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about need of carbon pricing regime to tackle climate change.

Directive word: 

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining carbon pricing.

Body:

First, in brief, explain the as to how the carbon pricing mechanism works. Cite examples to substantiate.

Next, write about the role of carbon pricing in tackling climate change – Carbon pricing helps express carbon emissions in monetary terms, shift the burden for the damage back to those who are responsible for it, helps identify revenue opportunities and risks to reduce costs, emissions and guide capital investment decisions.

Next, write about the limitations associated with carbon pricing – cost of business, low incentives for developing countries etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward to overcome the concerns.

Introduction

India along with the U.S, China and Japan are some of the countries that are hardest hit by climate impacts. In order to mitigate the condition and reduce the GHG emissions, one smart approach is pricing Carbon. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has endorsed the European Union’s plan for Carbon levying on imports. India can be among the world’s first movers in taxing and switching from carbon-intensive fuels.

Body

About carbon pricing

  • It is an instrument that captures the external costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions—the costs of emissions that the public pays for, such as damage to crops, health care costs from heat waves and droughts, and loss of property from flooding and sea level rise—and ties them to their sources through a price, usually in the form of a price on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted.
  • A price on carbon helps shift the burden for the damage from GHG emissions back to those who are responsible for it and who can avoid it.

Staring Carbon pricing in India

  • A smart approach is pricing carbon, building on the small steps taken thus far, such as plans by some 40 large companies to price carbon, government incentives for electric vehicles, and an environmental tax in the 2020-21 budget.
  • Another way to price carbon is through emission trading, i.e., setting a maximum amount of allowable effluents from industries, and permitting those with low emissions to sell their extra space.
  • Carbon tax can be imposed on economic activities — for example, on the use of fossil fuels like coal, as done in Canada and Sweden.
    • Canada imposed a carbon tax at $20 per tonne of CO2 emissions in 2019, eventually rising to $50 per tonne.
    • This is estimated to reduce greenhouse gas pollution by between 80 and 90 million tonnes by 2022.
  • Big economies like India should also use their global monopsony to impose a carbon tariff as envisaged by the European Union.
  • India under the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution has committed to 40% of electricity capacity being from non- fossil fuels by 2030, and lowering the ratio of emissions to GDP by one-third from 2005 levels.
  • A carbon tax at $35 per tonne of CO2 emissions in India is estimated to be capable of generating some 2% of GDP through 2030.
  • A market-oriented approach to tax and trade carbon domestically and to induce similar action by others through international trade and diplomacy.

Issues with carbon pricing

  • Climate change is framed as the consequence of a market failure that can be rectified by placing a price on carbon so that actors also pay for the social cost of their carbon-intensive activities and reduce their demand for such goods and services. This fails to see the climate change problem in its entire depth and expanse. They argue that fundamental changes to the system are needed to address this issue.
  • This approach places more emphasis on efficiency than effectiveness. To address climate change, for example, to limit global warming to less than 1.5 °C, there is hardly any time to reach carbon neutrality.
    • Carbon pricing, by allowing polluters to choose abatement options that are the most cost-effective for them, basically allows polluters to go for the low-hanging fruit.
    • This is not enough to address the issue of climate change which is urgent and widespread.
  • It is unclear how carbon pricing is pushing the research and development of low-carbon technologies or innovations.
  • Carbon pricing strategies are predicated on the idea that eventually, all nations will be covered under uniform pricing since only then, it can be ensured that no country will free-ride on the efforts of others.
    • But, this universalist approach ignores the realities of the fragmented international climate policy landscape.
    • This ignores the fact that all countries do not have the same level of institutional structures, regulatory environment, and compliance.
  • Carbon pricing also ignores the political realities, that is, how politicians and policymaking are linked to the influences that big corporations and businesses wield on them.
    • These ‘polluting’ actors can influence policymaking in such a manner as to reduce the cost associated with carbon emissions or weaken the stringency of carbon pricing for themselves.

Conclusion

According to economists, carbon pricing is an effective way to encourage countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The costs of carbon pollution are heavily skewed against future generations as they are the ones who would suffer most because of the effects of pollution. The idea behind carbon pricing is to distribute this cost more evenly across generations, rather than the costs being borne disproportionately by the future generations.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. The emotional and ethical foundation we give our children at home is foundational to their life. Elaborate. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the role of family in providing emotional and ethical foundation to their children.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the answer by mentioning the role of family in inculcating values in children.

Body:

First, write about family as an institution of socialization for a person is his/her family. Since values have an affective component, family plays a major role in an individual subscribing to certain values. Mention as to how these lay foundation to strong emotional and ethical foundation in children’s life.

Next, write about the importance of above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Childhood is a crucial time in a child’s development because this period lays the foundations for the child’s learning and well-being throughout their life. It is therefore considered to be the most important phase of development in life, that which shapes the adults and consequently the society of tomorrow. Protecting and safeguarding children’s development over this period is therefore of the utmost importance for parents, states and all individuals who want to contribute to building a better world.

Body

As such, children’s early experiences shape their whole life. These early experiences lay the foundations of a child’s brain architecture, and strongly influence the strength or weakness of the child’s ability to learn, their health and their behaviour throughout their life.

Every child is influenced by its environment and the very first environment of a child is the home. Parents are the most influential personalities in a child’s life. The way it learns to walk, talk and comprehend the world, is through the foundational values that the parents impart.

A child needs to learn to respect other human beings, be kind and be in one with the rights and laws of the land. A child needs to be disciplined when there is a wrong doing. At the same time, child must have a stable environment at home without causing any traumas. This happens when a child is abused and is disciplined in a violent way.

A child’s environment includes not only their close family, i.e. their parents, but also their family in a broader sense, their community, and even the country in which they live. It is therefore crucial to understand that healthy early childhood development involves everyone: parents, family, civil society, and government.

Conclusion

It is important to understand that a healthy start in life gives each child an equal chance to flourish and become an adult who contributes positively to the community, both economically and socially (WHO). This start continues however to be conditioned by a number of factors relating to home life, community and the child’s environment. As such, a child in the early years of life needs to be stimulated and to receive care and protection at home and in their community.


Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates

Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos