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Karnataka sets 2027 target to become malaria-free:

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Issues related to health.

 

Context:

Karnataka has set a target to eliminate malaria by 2027, three years before the 2030 target set by the Union government.

  • Karnataka has received national recognition and appreciation for its efforts to eliminate malaria in the past six years, between 2015 and 2021, as part of the National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India (NFMEI) initiative.

 

About Malaria:

Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.

 

Malaria burden across the world:

  • Malaria is most endemic in Africa, with Nigeria, Congo, Tanzania, Mozambique, Niger and Burkina Faso together accounting for over half the yearly deaths.
  • Even now, the disease kills over four lakh every year, according to WHO figures.
  • Children aged under 5 years are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria; in 2019, they accounted for 67% (274,000) of all malaria deaths worldwide.
  • In 2019, India had an estimated 5.6 million cases of malaria compared to about 20 million cases in 2020.

 

WHO malaria-free certification:

  1. WHO grants the certification when a country has demonstrated that the chain of indigenous malaria transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes has been interrupted nationwide for at least the past three consecutive years.
  2. A country must also demonstrate the capacity to prevent the re-establishment of transmission.
  3. The final decision on awarding a malaria-free certification rests with the WHO Director-General, based on a recommendation by the independent Malaria Elimination Certification Panel (MECP).

 

Key findings of the WHO World Malaria Report 2020:

  • India has made considerable progress in reducing its malaria burden.
  • India is the only highly endemic country which has reported a decline of 17.6% in 2019 as compared to 2018.

 

Recently, the World Health Organisation (WHO) endorsed the world’s first Malaria Vaccine in the hope that it will spur stalled efforts to curb the spread of the parasitic disease.

 

Insta Curious:

Following a 70-year effort, China, in July 2021, was awarded a malaria-free certification from WHO – a notable feat for a country that reported 30 million cases of the disease annually in the 1940s.

  • China is the first country in the WHO Western Pacific Region to be awarded a malaria-free certification in more than 3 decades.
  • Other countries in the region that have achieved this status include Australia (1981), Singapore (1982) and Brunei Darussalam (1987).
  • Globally, 40 countries and territories have been granted a malaria-free certification from WHO – including, most recently, El Salvador (2021), Algeria (2019).

 

Keys to success- steps taken by China:

  1. China provides a basic public health service package for its residents free of charge. As part of this package, all people in China have access to affordable services for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria, regardless of legal or financial status.
  2. Effective multi-sector collaboration was also key to success. In 2010, 13 ministries in China – including those representing health, education, finance, research and science, development etc – joined forces to end malaria nationwide.
  3. “1-3-7” strategy: The “1” signifies the one-day deadline for health facilities to report a malaria diagnosis; by the end of day 3, health authorities are required to confirm a case and determine the risk of spread; and, within 7 days, appropriate measures must be taken to prevent further spread of the disease.

 

Do you know that through its DAMaN initiative, Odisha has emerged as an inspiration in the global fight against malaria? What is this initiative all about? Read here

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Difference and examples of various diseases caused by Virus and Bacteria.
  2. Malaria- causes and treatment.
  3. About WHO Certification process.
  4. Overview of WHO World Malaria Report 2020.

Mains Link:

Discuss India’s efforts targeted at Malaria control.

Sources: the Hindu.