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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 07 April 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

 

1. Elaborate upon the features of Nagara style of architecture. Throw light on the essential attributes of Kalinga sub-style of Nagara architecture. (150 words)

 

Difficulty level: Easy

 

Reference: Indian Express

InstaPedia

 

Why the question: The Central government has told the Odisha government that its ordinance to bring the 11th-century Lingaraj temple in Bhubaneswar and its associated temples under a special law is outside the legislative competence of the state legislature. It also said the ordinance is in conflict with the rules laid down under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 (AMASR Act).

Key Demand of the question:  To write about features of Nagara style and Kalinga sub-style.

 

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving the origins of nagara style.

Body:

First, draw a simple representative diagram of Nagara style with its various key features. Describe the essential features of Nagara style. Cite examples of Nagara style temples.

Next, write about Kalinga style and its various features – parts of the temple, motifs and figurines and Deula. Cite examples of Kalinga  style.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising

Introduction

Nagara style is one of the styles of temple architecture. It is the temple construction style of North India. Nagara style is associated with the land between the Himalayas and Vindhyas. The Nagara style has its origin in the structural temples of the Guptas period The major example of the temple of Nagara Style is Sun Temple at Modhera, Kandariya Mahadeva Temple at Khajuraho, Jagannath Temple at Puri, etc.

Body

 

 

Various features of Nagara style of architecture

  • The cruciform ground plan and curvilinear mountain-peak like tower are the two most fundamental features of Nagara style.
  • The temples of Nagara style generally have a square plan with a number of graduated projections in the middle of each face which give the structure a cruciform shape in the exterior.
  • In Nagara style, the Shikhara remains the most prominent element of the temple and the gateway is usually modest or even absent.
  • In this style, temples have elaborated boundary, less emphasised.
  • The entire temple is built on high stone platform called Jagati
  • Generally, they do not have large enclosures and entrances.
  • The temple has only one peak or shikhara above the Garbagriha.
  • There was a Kalasha placed on the Shikara of a temple.
  • Sikhara(the tower) slowly bending inwards and capped by a spheroid plate with ribs around the edge (Amalaka) give the height.
  • Temples of Nagara styles are categorized on the basis of the shape of the Shikhara. They are – Rekha Prasad, Phamsana, and Valabhi.

The essential attributes of Kalinga sub-style of Nagara architecture

  • Kalinga Nagara style of temple architecture comes from Odisha.
  • In Kalinga style, the temple comprises two major parts namely – Garbha Griha and the Mandapa placed in the same axis, which was further divided on the basis of ornamental projections.
  • In the later period, there was also an addition of more Mandapas such as Bhoga Deula meant for Bhoga offering and Natya Deula for the Dance performances.
  • On rare occasions, we do also see an independent Torana or a gateway erected in front of the temple.
  • For instance, the Mukteshwar temple from Bhubaneshwar is flanked by a free-standing Torana.
  • The Torana is nothing but a thick arch balanced on two free-standing pillars.
  • Stylistically speaking the Kalinga Nagara style comprises three typologies i.e. Rekha DeulaPidha Deulaand Khakhra Deula.
  • All these were well-practiced and bear the finest of them specimens.

Conclusion

Nagara style is seen from the Himalaya to the north of Bijapur district in the South, from the Punjab in the west to Bengal to the east. Therefore, there are local variations and ramifications in the formal development of the style in the different regions. However, the cruciform plan and the curvilinear tower are common

 

Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

 

2. Political inaction on the issue of communalism leads to deterioration of the social fabric of our country. Evaluate the statement in the light of recent events. (250 words)

 

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: New Indian Express 

 

Why the question: Administrative collapse in Karnataka has been apparent and communalism is an effective diversion. The next Assembly polls are fast approaching, which makes it even more attractive.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the limitations in the working of CBI and role of judiciary in monitoring its performance.

Directive word: 

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining communalism.

Body:

First, write about the causes of communalism in India.

Next, write about the impact of communalism in India and how political inaction can adversely affect the social fabric of the country. Use recent happenings from the country to substantiate your points.

Next, write about the possible political and administrative that can be taken to remedy communalism in the society.

 Conclusion:

Comment with a balanced way forward.

Introduction

Communalism is basically an ideology which consists of three elements:

  • A belief that people who follow the same religion have common secular interests i.e. they have same political, economic and social interests. So, here socio- political communalities arise.
  • A notion that, in a multi-religious society like India, these common secular interests of one religion is dissimilar and divergent from the interests of the follower of another religion.
  • The interests of the follower of the different religion or of different ‘communities’ are seen to be completely incompatible, antagonist and hostile.

Body

Factors responsible for growth of Communalism in India:

  • A Legacy of Past:
    • On the basis of the “Two Nation” theory of Jinnah, India was partitioned. Communal politics had played its nasty game during the immediate past of independent India. The “Divide and Rule” policy of the British Government served their colonial interest. The partition of India was the ultimate outcome of their politics.
  • Presence of Communal Parties:
    • Religion in India has become an important agency of political socialization and it is also reflected in the ideology of a number of political parties. A number of communal and sectarian political parties and organisations are present in India. Muslim League, Jamaat—Islami, Hindu Mahasabha, Akali Dal, Vishwa Hindu Parishad are directly or indirectly responsible for the emergence of communalism.
  • Isolation of Muslims:
    • Indian Muslims have developed a tendency of isolationism even long after the creation of Pakistan. They remain aloof from the mainstream of national politics. Most of them are not interested to take part in the secular-nationalistic politics of the country. They insist on to be treated as a separate entity.
  • Poverty:
    • Mass poverty and unemployment create a sense of frustration among the people. It generates backwardness, illiteracy, ignorance, etc. The unemployed youth of both the communities can be easily trapped by religious fundamentalists and fanatics. They are used by them to cause communal riots. The weak economic status often breeds communalism.
  • Hindu Chauvinism:
    • The growths of Hindu chauvinistic attitudes have further strengthened the communal tensions in India. The Hindu religious groups like Shiv Sena, Hindu Mahasabha, Viswa Hindu Parisad often pressurize the government to take steps suitable to the interest of Hindus. They consider each Muslim as pro-Pakistani and anti-national. To face the possible challenge of other communal forces, they encourage the growth of Hindu communalism.
  • Social Cause:
    • The two major communities of India have been suspicious towards each other. The Muslims complain of the threat of Hindu cultural invasion upon their lives and have become more assertive of their rights. Either due to ignorance or insecurity, they do not fully accept the need of family planning and help in increasing population.
  • Communalization of Politics:
    • Electoral politics in India has become more expensive and competitive. Different political parties are not hesitating to use any means, fair or foul, for electoral victory. They even create communal tensions and try to take political advantage out of it. Concessions are granted to various minority groups for appeasing them.
  • Cross-Border factors:
    • Communal tensions in India sometimes are highly intensified due to the rule of two neighbouring theocratic countries. These countries try to create communal problems in the border states. The communal problems of Punjab and Jammu Kashmir are caused due to provocation of Pakistan. So long as this cross-border factor is not removed, communal problems are likely to stay in India.
  • Failure of Government:
    • Both the Union and the State Governments often fail to prevent communalism in the country. Due to lack of prior information, they fail to take any preventive measures. So the communal violence can easily take innocent lives and destroys property. The post-Godhra riot in Gujarat shows the inefficiency of the government to control the communal riot. Failure of immediate and effective steps has been a cause of the continuance of communalism.

Ramification of Communalism:

  • Genocides: With mass killings, the real sufferers are the poor, who lose their house, their near and dear ones, their lives, their livelihood, etc. It violates the human rights from all direction. Sometimes children lose their parents and will become orphan for a lifetime.
  • Ghettoization and refugee problem are other dimensions of communalism induced violence, whether its inter country or intra country.
  • Sudden increase in violence against any particular community causes mass exodus and stampede which in turn kills many number of people. For example, this was seen in the case of Bangalore in 2012, with respect to people from North eastern states, which was stimulated by a rumour.
  • Apart from having effect on the society, it is also a threat to Indian constitutional values, which promotes secularism and religious tolerance. In that case, citizens don’t fulfil their fundamental duties towards the nation.
  • It becomes a threat for the unity and integrity of the nation as a whole. It promotes only the feeling of hatred in all directions, dividing the society on communal lines.
  • Minorities are viewed with suspicion by all, including state authorities like police, para-military forces, army, intelligence agencies, etc. There have been many instances when people from such community have been harassed and detained and finally have been released by court orders guilt free. For this, there is no provision for compensation of such victims, about their livelihood incomes forgone, against social stigmas and emotional trauma of the families.
  • Barrier for development: Communal activities occurring frequently do harm the human resource and economy of the country. And then again it takes years for the people and the affected regions to come out the traumas of such violence, having deep impact on minds of those who have faced it. They feel emotionally broken and insecure.
  • Terrorism and Secessionism: As seen during the Khalistan movement in Punjab.

Steps to be taken to prevent communalism

  • Economic:
    • Poverty is one of the major factors for communal violence. Poverty alleviation measures are thus important for promoting communal harmony.
    • Eradicating the problem of unemployment among the youths, illiteracy and poverty and that too with honesty and without any discrimination.
    • Reducing educational and economic backwardness of minorities like Muslims.
    • This can uplift their socio-economic status and reduce their deprivation compared to Hindus
  • Social:
    • The religious leaders and preachers should promote rational and practical things through religion promoting peace and security.
    • Children in schools must be taught through textbooks and pamphlets to maintain brotherhood and respect for all religions
    • Creating awareness in the society about the ill effects of communism through mass media
  • Political:
    • Political communism should be avoided recent Supreme court’s directives
    • Identification and mapping of riot prone areas. For Example, Delhi police used drones to monitor to maintain vigil during communal festivals
    • Media, movies and other cultural platforms can be influential in promoting peace and harmony.
    • Social Media should be monitored for violent and repulsive content and taken off immediately.
  • Recommendations of Committee on National Integration
    • Joint celebration of community festivals
    • Observing restraint by Hindus while taking processions before the mosques
    • Formation of peace and brotherhood communities at local level to prevent anti-social elements from engaging in communal riots
    • Respect for religious customs, rituals and practices

Conclusion

In a vast country like India which is made up of diverse cultures, backgrounds, religions, identities etc. it really requires to maintain a sense of equality among its citizen to provide a meaning to the term democracy. The core reason behind all these discrimination are based on the nature of unacceptance of diversities. We tend to commit heinous crimes to eradicate the population which chooses a different set of traditions to follow. But these intolerance can lead India to get collapsed from being a secular country to communal. And India is known to the world by the term “diversity”. It is beautiful when the people irrespective of their differences are co-existing.

 

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 

3. Critically analyse the role that the Dam Safety Act, 2021, will play in addressing the issues concerning the safety of major dams all over the country. (250 words)

 

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

 

Why the question: The Central Water Commission (CWC)’s proposal to let the Mullaperiyar dam’s Supervisory Committee continue for a year essentially means status quo continues. The proposal makes the Chief Secretaries of Tamil Nadu and Kerala accountable and provides for the participation of technical experts as panel members.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the potential of Dam Safety Act, 2021 in improving Dam Safety and issues regarding the act.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing the aims and objectives of the Dam Safety Act, 2021.

Body:

First, mention the various features of the Damn safety act – National Committee on Dam Safety (NCDS), National Dam Safety Authority (NDSA), State Dam Safety Organization (SDSO) and State Dam Safety Committee (SDSC) etc.

Next, write about the ways in which the above will improve safety of the dams.

Next, write about the various issues in the act which have acted as hindrance with regards to dam safety.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

The Dam Safety Act, 2021 provides for the surveillance, inspection, operation and maintenance of all specified dams across the country. It aims to interfere and regulate the entire functioning of dams including its safety.

Body

Extra information: Provisions of the bill

  • Surveillance of dams: 
    • The Bill provides for the surveillance, inspection, operation, and maintenance of all specified dams across the country. 
    • These are dams with height more than 15 metres, or height between 10 metres to 15 metres with certain design and structural conditions.
  • The National Committee on Dam Safety (NCDS):
    • Its functions include evolving policies and recommending regulations regarding dam safety standards; 
    • It will be chaired by the National Water Commissioner.
  • The National Dam Safety Authority:
    • Its functions include implementing policies of the National Committee, providing technical assistance to State Dam Safety Organisations (SDSOs), and resolving matters between SDSOs of states or between a SDSO and any dam owner in that state.
  • A State Committee on Dam Safety & State Dam Safety Organisation.  
    • These bodies will be responsible for the surveillance, inspection, and monitoring the operation and maintenance of dams within their jurisdiction.
  • Hazard classification
    • The Bill provides for regular inspection and hazard classification of dams. It also provides for drawing up emergency action plans and comprehensive dam safety reviews by an independent panel of experts. There is provision for an emergency flood warning system to address the safety concerns of downstream inhabitants.
  • Obligation of Dam Owners:
    • Dam owners are required to provide resources for timely repair and maintenance of the dam structure along with related machinery.
  • Penal Provisions:
    • The Bill has penal provisions involving offences and penalties, for ensuring compliance with the provisions.

Pros of the act

  • The Bill will help all the States and Union Territories of India to adopt uniform dam safety procedures. These procedures will not only protect the dams but also human life, livestock and property.
  • Dam owners will have to provide a dam safety unit in each dam.
  • The dam safety unit will be required to inspect the dam before and after the monsoon session, and also during and after natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods.
  • The bill requires dam owners to prepare emergency action plans. Risk-assessment studies will also have to be undertaken by owners, regularly.
  • At specified, regular intervals, and in the event of either a modification to the dam’s structure or a natural event that may impact the structure, dam owners will have to produce a comprehensive safety evaluation by experts.

Issues in the act

  • Huge workload: National Dam Safety Authority will have to look after more than 5,000 dams across all over India. So it will face a huge workload.
  • Water is a state subject: Many states view the Dam safety bill as encroaching upon the States domain to manage their dams, and violating the principles of federalism enshrined in the Constitution.
  • Against federalism: Act is a legislation passed by the Union through brute majority to blatantly usurp the States’ power.
  • Centre’s control: Act usurped the power of the State governments and placed the operation of specified dams under the control of the Centre.
  • Specified dam: Certain terms including the word ‘dam’ in the Act, had been deliberately defined vaguely to give unbridled power to the Centre to treat any dam as a ‘specified dam’. If this definitions were followed, almost all dams in the country would fall under the purview of the Act.
  • Entry 56 of Union list: The power of the Centre under Entry 56 of Union list was only with respect to inter-State rivers or river valleys and nothing more. Entry 56 cannot be stretched to include dams and embankments exclusively within the control of the States.
  • Power over the subject ‘interstate river and river valley’ cannot be confused with the control over dams.

Way Forward

  • Dam safety is dependent on many external factors. So, the government has to consult environmentalists and take the environmental angle for the Dam Safety Bill.
  • The government should consider the selection of a dam on the basis of age, as this is the major issue.
  • The government has to strengthen the functioning and coordination of state irrigation departments and the Central Water Commission.
  • Considering climate change, the government has to think about the issue of water carefully and proactively. So, local factors, such as climate and catchment areas, need to be taken into consideration. Further, there is a need to integrate urban-rural planning with dam safety.
  • A Standing Committee recommended a penal provision for dam failures on authorities. The government has to incorporate this into law. Along with that, the government has to increase the capacity building of locals and associated institutions.

 

Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

 

4. Examine the issues that have hindered the performance and autonomy of Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the role of judiciary in ensuring that CBI does not act as a “caged parrot”. (250 words)

 

Difficulty level: Moderate

 

Reference: the Hindu

 

Why the question: While delivering the annual (and the 19th edition) D.P. Kohli Memorial Talk organised by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), the CJI minced no words in condemning the utter subordination of investigating agencies to the executive and its disastrous consequences for the cause of justice.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the limitations in the working of CBI and role of judiciary in monitoring its performance.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin your answer by giving brief about CBI as the premier investigating agency.

Body:

First, discuss the issues affecting the performance of CBI – political pressure, staff shortage, case burden, delays in investigation, consent withdrawal by some states and corruption etc.

Discuss the role judiciary has played in reforming CBI and maintaining its autonomy. Suggest reforms that are needed.

 Conclusion:

Comment with a balanced way forward.

Introduction

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating agency of India. Operating under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, the CBI is headed by the Director.

Body

Why CBI was called as caged parrot?

  • Politicisationof the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)has been a work in progress for years.
  • It has often been used by the government of the day to cover up wrongdoing, keep coalition allies in line and political opponents at bay.
  • Corruption and politically biased: This was highlighted in Supreme Court criticism for being a caged parrot speaking in its master’s voice.
  • CBI has been accused of becoming ‘handmaiden’ to the party in power, as a result high profile cases are not treated seriously.
  • Since CBI is run by central police officials on deputation hence chances of getting influenced by governmentwas visible in the hope of better future postings.

Issues that have hindered the working of CBI

  • The agency is dependent on the home ministryfor staffing, since many of its investigators come from the Indian Police Service.
  • The agency depends on the law ministryfor lawyers and also lacks functional autonomy to some extent.
  • The CBI, run by IPS officers on deputation, is also susceptible to the government’s ability to manipulate the senior officers, because they are dependent on the Central government for future postings.
  • Another great constraint on the CBI is its dependence on State governmentsfor invoking its authority to investigate cases in a State, even when such investigation targets a Central government employee.
  • Since police is a State subjectunder the Constitution, and the CBI acts as per the procedure prescribed by the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), which makes it a police agency, the CBI needs the consent of the State government in question before it can make its presence in that State. This is a cumbersome procedure and has led to some ridiculous situations.
  • It has been accused of enormous delays in concluding investigations – For example, the inertia in its probe against the high dignitaries in Jain hawala diaries case of the 1990s.
  • Improving the image of the agency is one of the biggest challenges till now as the agency has been criticised for its mismanagement of several cases involving prominent politicians and mishandling of several sensitive cases like Bofors scandal; Hawala scandal, Sant Singh Chatwal case, Bhopal gas tragedy, 2008 Noida double murder case of Aarushi Talwar.
  • CBI is exempted from the provisions of the Right to Information Act, thus, lacking public accountability.
  • A major cause of the shortfall is the government’s sheer mismanagement of CBI’s workforce, through a system of inefficient, and inexplicably biased, recruitment policies – used to bring in favoured officers, possibly to the detriment of the organisation.
  • The powers and jurisdiction of members of the CBI for investigation are subject to the consent of the State Govt., thus limiting the extent of investigation by CBI.
  • Prior approval of Central Government to conduct inquiry or investigation on the employees of the Central Government, of the level of Joint Secretary and above is a big obstacle in combating corruption at higher levels of bureaucracy.

Reforms needed

  • Ensure that CBI operates under a formal, modern legal framework that has been written for a contemporary investigative agency.
  • The Second Administrative Reforms Commission (2007) suggested that a new law should be enacted to govern the working of the CBI.
  • Parliamentary standing committee (2007) recommended that a separate act should be promulgated in tune with requirement with time to ensure credibility and impartiality.
  • The 19th and 24th reports of the parliamentary standing committees (2007 and 2008)recommended that the need of the hour is to strengthen the CBI in terms of legal mandate, infrastructure and resources.
  • It is high time that the CBI is vested with the required legal mandate and is given pan-India jurisdiction. It must have inherent powers to investigate corruption cases against officers of All India Services irrespective of the assignments they are holding or the state they are serving in.
  • Besides appointing the head of the CBI through a collegium, as recommended by the Lokpal Act, the government must ensure financial autonomy for the outfit.
  • It is also possible to consider granting the CBI and other federal investigation agencies the kind of autonomy that the Comptroller and Auditor General enjoysas he is only accountable to Parliament.
  • A new CBI Actshould be promulgated that ensures the autonomy of CBI while at the same time improving the quality of supervision. The new Act must specify criminal culpability for government interference.
  • One of the demands that has been before Supreme Court, and in line with international best practices, is for the CBI to develop its own dedicated cadre of officers who are not bothered about deputation and abrupt transfers.
  • more efficient parliamentary oversight overthe federal criminal and intelligence agencies could be a way forward to ensure better accountability, despite concerns regarding political misuse of the oversight.

Conclusion

Delink the CBI from the administrative control of the government – As long as the government of the day has the power to transfer and post officials of its choice in the CBI, the investigating agency will not enjoy autonomy and will be unable to investigate cases freely. Providing statutory status through legislation equivalent to that provided to the Comptroller & Auditor General and the Election Commission will help maintain the independence of the institution.

 

 


General Studies – 3


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

 

5. The planning in India is a mixed-bag of achievements and shortcomings. However, there is a lot many unfulfilled tasks which are yet to be achieved. Examine. (250 words)

 

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: InstaPedia

 

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:  To write about the unfulfilled tasks of planning and thus the way forward to achieve it.

 

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.


Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start with few lines on the concept of planning in India.

Body:

Briefly discuss the achievements of planning in India. Then move on to discuss the drawbacks or failures of planning, Failure to Remove Poverty and Inequality completely, Problem of Unemployment Persists, Failure to Curtail Corruption and Black Money etc.

Discuss the current status of planning in India and the changes post 2014.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

The term economic planning is used to describe the long term plans of the government of India to develop and coordinate the economy with efficient utilization of resources. Planning Commission of India, an extra-constitutional and non-statutory body formed by the resolution of the Government of India in March 1950. Economic planning in India started after independence in the year 1950 when it was deemed necessary for economic growth and development of the nation.

Body

Achievements of 5 year plans:

  • Economic Growth:
    • Economic planning in India has been successful in increasing the national income and the per capita income of the country resulting in economic growth.
    • The average growth rate has increased from 3.5 percent during 1950 to 1970 to about 5.5 percent after 1990’s. The economy recorded a growth rate of 7.8 percent during the eleventh five- year plan.
  • Progress in Agriculture:
    • The index of agricultural production increased from 85.9 in 1970-71 to 165.7 in 1999-2000 (Base year- 1981-82).
    • The production of major food grains which includes rice, wheat, coarse cereals and pulses has increased from 77.14 million tons in 1958-59 to 252.22 tons in 2015-16.
    • With the introduction of green revolution, the yield per hectare of food grains has increased from 662 kg in 1959-60 to 2056 kg in 2015-16.
    • Similarly, the production of commercial crops has also recorded an increasing trend. Various reforms in the agricultural sector such as the Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana and Kisan credit cards during the ninth plan and National Food Security Mission and Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana during the eleventh plan have been quite successful in improving the performance of the agricultural sector.
  • Industrial Growth
    • Economic planning has also contributed to the progress of the industrial sector.
    • The index of industrial production increased from 54.8 in 1950-51 to 152.0 in 1965-66 (Base year- 1960-61) which is about 176 percent increase in production during the first three five-year plans.
    • The introduction of reforms in 1991 relieved the industrial sector from numerous bureaucratic restrictions that were prevalent earlier.
    • This has led to the rapid growth of the industrial sector in India. India has made remarkable progress in cotton textiles, paper, medicines, food processing, consumer goods, light engineering goods etc.
  • Public Sector:
    • While there were only 5 industrial public sector enterprises in 1951, the number increased to 244 in 1990 with an investment of Rs.99, 330 cores. However, the number of public sector enterprises fell to 217 in March 2010.
    • Very high profits were recorded by petroleum, telecommunication services, power generation, coal and lignite, financial services, transport services and minerals and metal industries.
  • Infrastructure:
    • Development of infrastructure such as transport and communication, power, irrigation etc., is a pre-requisite to rapid economic growth and development.
    • Power projects help in meeting the growing demand for power by both industrial and household sector. The total road length increased from about 400,000 km in 1951 to about 4.7 million km in 2011.
    • The route length of the Indian railway network has increased from about 53,596 km in 1951 to about 64,450 km in 2011.
  • Education and Health Care:
    • The number of universities increased from about 22 in 1950-51 to 254 in 2000-01.
    • The number of institutions in higher education has increased to over 100 percent since 2008.
    • With the growth in the number of institutions, the literacy rate in India has increased from 16.7 percent in 1950-51 to 74.04 percent in 2011.
    • With improvements in the health infrastructure, India has been able to successfully control a number of life threatening diseases such as small pox, cholera, polio, TB etc.
    • As a result, there has been a fall in the death rate from 27.4 per thousand persons in 1950-51 to 7.3 per thousand persons in 2016.
    • The life expectancy has increased from about 32.1 years in 1951 to 68.01 years in 2014. The infant mortality rate has declined from 149 per thousand in 1966 to 37.42 per thousand in 2015.
  • Growth of Service Sector:
    • The service sector contributed to about 53.2 percent of the gross value added growth in 2015-16.
    • Financial services, insurance, real estate and business services are some of the leading services that have been recording a robust growth in the past few years.
  • Science and Technology:
    • India is the third most preferred destination for technology investments. It is among the top most countries in scientific research and space exploration.
    • India is also making rapid progress in nuclear technology. ISRO has made a record of launching 104 satellites in one go on a single rocket. India today has the third largest scientific manpower after U.S.A and Russia.
    • The government has undertaken various measures such as setting up of new institutions for science education and research, launching the technology and innovation policy in 2013, strengthening the infrastructure for research and development in universities, and encouraging public- private partnership etc.
  • Foreign Trade:
    • With the development of heavy industries during the five-year plans, India has been able to reduce its dependence on other countries and was able to achieve self-reliance in a number of commodities.
    • With the liberalisation of trade, India now exports about 7500 commodities to about 190 countries and it imports about 6000 commodities from about 140 countries.
    • The exports of the country increased from Rs. 54.08 billion in 1977- 78 to Rs. 17,144.24 billion in 2015-16. And imports have increased from Rs. 60.20 billion in 1977-78 to Rs. 24, 859.27 billion in 2015-16.

Major criticisms of planning in India

  • Slow Growth
    • The planning process in India has been able to achieve considerable increase in the national income and per capita income.
    • Yet, the rate of increase has been slow as compared to developing countries like China, which have been able to achieve more than 10 percent growth rate consistently.
    • India was able to achieve a growth rate of only about 4 to 5 percent during the pre-reform period.
    • It was only during the post reform period that is after 1991, that the country could experience a growth rate of over 7 percent.

Measures undertaken:

  • Important steps need to be taken like framing policies to improve health, nutrition and education.
  • Labour market reforms and reforms of direct taxation will have redistributive effects on the system.
  • MSMEs were given a boost with various support schemes to increase employability, productivity.
  • Neglect of Agriculture
    • The five year plans failed to pay attention to the agricultural sector except for the first five-year plan.
    • As a result, the agricultural growth rate declined from 3.62 percent in 1991-92 to 0.81 percent during 2009-10.
    • And the share of agriculture in GDP declined from about 50 percent during 1950-51 to about 16 percent of the GDP in 2015.

Measures undertaken:

  • Green Revolution was started with usage of HYV seeds, fertilisers, mechanization etc which increased the yield output in few states.
  • Farming Techniques such as Organic farming, Natural Farming, Precision Agriculture are being promoted to ensure the soil fertility is not lost and more output is gained from minimal inputs.
  • Schemes such as RKVY, PM FASAL BIMA Yojana, PM KISAN etc are being implemented to ensure farmer’s welfare and agricultural productivity.
  • Unemployment
    • The plans have failed to address the problem of unemployment which is a cause of many social evils.
    • The unemployment rate has marginally reduced from 8.35 percent during 1972-73 to about 6.53 percent in 2009-10. It was about 4.19 percent in 2013.
    • The growth rate of employment has recorded a decline from 2.61 percent in 1972-73 to 1.50 percent during 2009-10.
    • The employment in primary sector recorded a negative growth rate of 0.13 percent in 2009-10.

Measures undertaken:

  • Lowering the incidence of poverty and inequality requires a comprehensive strategy.
  • Poverty alleviation and Employment schemes like PM Rozgar Yojana, MGNREGA, JAM Trinity etc was implemented to ensure security of livelihood of the poor.
  • Right to education was made a fundamental right which has ensured free education to all children between 6 to 14years of age.
  • Skill India was introduced to hone the skills, upskill and reskill individuals who could be leveraged in attaining the demographic dividend of India.
  • Widespread Poverty
    • Failure to address the problem of unemployment has resulted in widespread poverty in the country.
    • The first four plans failed to address the problem of poverty.
    • It was only during the fifth five-year plan that measures were taken to tackle poverty directly by introducing various poverty alleviation programmes.
    • These programmes, however, have achieved only limited success.
    • The poverty rate in India declined from about 26.1 percent in 2000 to 21.9 percent in 2011.

Measures undertaken:

  • Poverty alleviation and Employment schemes like PM Rozgar Yojana, MGNREGA, JAM Trinity etc was implemented to ensure security of livelihood of the poor.
  • To ensure food security, National Food Security Act was implemented in 2013 and schemes like Antyodaya Anna Yojana for the poorest of the poor was carried out.
  • Inflation
    • Poverty is aggravated under the situation of inflation.
    • The five-year plans have not been able to stabilise the prices due to which there has been a steep rise in the general prices.
    • The inflation rate was around 10 percent in 2012.

Measures undertaken:

  • Supply side interventions like scientific technologies for agriculture, bottlenecks like Supply chain was tackled through strengthening transport and storage infrastructure of farm produce.
  • Schemes like TOPS, Prize deficiency support scheme was implemented to fight the sudden price rise due to crop failure or glut in the market.
  • Rising Inequality
    • With rapid economic growth, the country has been witnessing a rise in the level of inequality.
    • It has been estimated that the richest 1 percent own about 58 percent of the country’s wealth.
    • Poor performance of the agricultural sector and lack of investments in rural infrastructure are cited as the primary reason for such rising inequalities.

Measures undertaken:

  • Employment schemes like PM Rozgar Yojana, MGNREGA, JAM Trinity etc was implemented to ensure security of livelihood of the poor.
  • To ensure food security, National Food Security Act was implemented in 2013 and schemes like Antyodaya Anna Yojana for the poorest of the poor was carried out.
  • Political Instability
    • Political instability and inefficient administration are the major hurdles in successful implementation of the plans.
    • Though the plans are formulated after complete analysis of the economic situation, most of the plans fail to achieve the targets due to inefficient administration, corruption, vested interests and red tapism.

Measures undertaken:

  • Anti-Defection law was enacted to curb the practice of rampant defection in the decades of 70s and 80s.
  • Election commission of India undertook reforms such as Elector Photo Identity Card, Electoral Voting Machines etc. to reduce the malpractices in Election.

Conclusion:

The achievements and failures of the economic planning in India, thus, reveal the underlying gaps in the process of planning. It is an undeniable fact that the current level of growth and development that the country has achieved could not have been possible without planning. Yet, systematic and efficient implementation of the plans and strategic policies to tackle the problem of unemployment and poverty could take the country to greater heights. It is strongly believed that the NITI Aayog would address these gaps that existed in the planning process in India and would strive to build a vibrant economy over the years.

 

Topic:  Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

6. Define liberalization? How does it affect the international business environment? What led to Liberalisation of Indian economy? Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: InstaPedia

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:  To write about the unfulfilled tasks of planning and thus the way forward to achieve it.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe what is liberalization.

 

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered: Explain what you understand by liberalization, the major goals of economic liberalization and the importance of Liberalization.

Then discuss that the economic liberalization in India refers to the changes and reforms, initiated in 1991, of the country’s economic policies, with the goal of making the economy more market- and service-oriented, and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.

Explain its effect on international business environment.

 

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward and reassert the significance of it.

Introduction

Liberalization is defined as laws or rules being liberalized, or relaxed, by a government. Economic liberalization is generally described as the relaxing of government regulations in a country to allow for private sector companies to operate business transactions with fewer restrictions. It is usually promoted by advocates of free markets and free trade, whose ideology is also called economic liberalism. Economic liberalization also often involves reductions of taxes, social security, and unemployment benefits.

Body

With reference to developing countries, this term denotes to opening of their economic borders to multinationals and foreign investment. Many economists explained that economic liberalization is “opening up” to the rest of the world with regards to trade, regulations, taxation and other areas that generally affect business in the country.

Impact of Liberalization on international business environment:

  • Investing in emerging market countries can sometimes be an impossible task if the country you’re investing in has several barriers to entry.
  • These barriers can include tax laws, foreign investment restrictions, legal issues and accounting regulations, all of which make it difficult or impossible to gain access to the country.
  • The economic liberalization process begins by relaxing these barriers and relinquishing some control over the direction of the economy to the private sector. This often involves some form of deregulation and privatization of companies.
  • Foreign companies got free access to Indian markets and made domestic products un-competitive. They obviously had better access to technology and larger economies of scale.
  • The primary goals of economic liberalization are the free flow of capital between nations and the efficient allocation of resources and competitive advantages. This is usually done by reducing protectionist policies such as tariffs, trade laws and other trade barriers.
  • One of the main effects of this increased flow of capital into the country is it makes it cheaper for companies to access capital from investors. A lower cost of capital allows companies to undertake profitable projects they may not have been able to with a higher cost of capital pre-liberalization, leading to higher growth rates.
  • Software, BPO, KPO, LPO industry boom in India has helped India to absorb a big chunk of demographic dividend, which otherwise would have wasted. Best part is that export of services result in export of high value.
  • In banking too India has been a gainer. Since reforms, there have been three rounds of License Grants for private banks. Private Banks such as ICICI, HDFC, Yes Bank and also foreign banks, raised standards of Indian Banking Industry. Now there is cut through competition in the banking industry, and public sector banks are more responsive to customers.
  • Stock Markets are platforms on which Corporate Securities can be traded real time. It provides mechanisms for constant price discovery, options for investors to exit from or enter into investment any time. These are back bone of free markets these days and there is robust trade going all over the world on stock exchanges.
  • Telecom sector was a government owned monopoly and consequently service was quite substandard. After reforms, private telecom sector reached pinnacle of success. And Indian telecom companies went global. However, corruption and rent seeking marred growth and outlook of this sector.

Conditions that led to liberalization of Indian Economy:

  • Rise in Prices:
    • Price rise continuously in India. The inflation rate increased from 6.7% to 16.7%. Due to inflation country’s economic position became worse. Main reason for inflation was rapid increase in money supply. It was due to deficit financing Deficit financing means borrowing from Reserve Bank of India by Government to meet its deficit.
  • Rise in Fiscal Deficit:
    • Due to increase in non- development expenditure fiscal deficit of the Govt. had been increasing. To cover the fiscal deficit, the Govt. has to raise loans and pay interest on it. Due to rise in fiscal deficit there was rise in public debt and interest. In 1991 interest liability became 36.4% of total govt. expenditure. The Govt. caught in debt trap. So Govt. has to resort to economic reforms.
  • Increase in Adverse Balance of Payments:
    • When foreign exchange falls short for payment otherwise total imports exceed total exports, problem of adverse balance of payments arise. Though incentives are given for export promotion yet the desired results cannot be achieved. It is due to the fact that our export goods could not compete in price and quality. Liability of loan and its interest payment goes as increasing. It made balance of payments adverse.
  • Iraq War:
    • In 1990-91, war in Iraq broke, and this led to rise in petrol prices. The flow of foreign currency from Gulf countries stopped and this further aggravated the problem.
  • Dismal Performance of Public Sector Undertakings:
    • PSU’s are enterprises wholly owned by Govt. have invested crores of Rs. in these enterprises. These are no performing well due to political interference and became big liability for Govt.
  • Fall in Foreign Exchange Reserves:
    • Indians foreign exchange reserve fell to low ebb in 1990-91 and it was insufficient to pay for an import bill for 2 weeks. In 1986-87 foreign exchange reserves were Rs. 8151 crores ad in 1989-90, it declined to Rs. 6252 crores. Then Govt. had to sell Gold to meet the import liability.

Conclusion

In the Indian case the term liberalisation is used to show the direction of the economic reforms-with decreasing influence of the state or the planned or the command economy and increasing influence of free market or the capitalistic economy. It is a move towards capitalism. India is attempting to strike its own balance of the ‘state-market mix’. It means even if the economic reforms have the direction towards market economy it can never be branded a blind-run to capitalism. Since the economy was more like the state economy in the former years, it has to go for a greater degree of mix of the market.

 

 


General Studies – 4


Topic: Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information

7. Whistleblowing is one of the most effective ways to detect and prevent corruption and malpractices. Elaborate.

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Abstract Thursdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key demand of the question: Explain in detail the act of whistle blower and how it can have both perspectives.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain what is whistle blowing.

Body:

Explain What are the moral and ethical justification of whistleblowing – whistleblowing is morally required when it is required at all; people have a moral obligation to prevent serious harm to others if they can do so with little costs to themselves. Give examples to justify your points.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on the need of whistle-blower protection

Introduction

A whistle-blower is a person who comes forward and shares his/her knowledge on any wrongdoing which he/she thinks is happening in the whole organisation or in a specific department. A whistle-blower could be an employee, contractor, or a supplier who becomes aware of any illegal activities. Personal Values and Organizational Culture are the Foundation of Whistle-blowing

A good civil servant is one who is kind, responsive, fair, has sense of duty, objective judgement skills with a hint of rebellion.

Body

In the course of civil service, an officer is bound to face challenges of various types. One must find innovative solutions to such problems by working around the problems. However, when there are inevitable situations, it becomes necessary to whistle blow, albeit within the system.

Merits of whistleblowing:

  • Exposing Unethical Behaviour: When corporations and government agencies step over legal and ethical lines, whistle-blowers can make these practices public knowledge, which can lead to violators being held accountable.
  • Take care of things internally: Stronger whistle-blower protection laws all over the world, such as in the EU and Australia, mean that if you do not listen to and act upon whistleblowing tips internally, people may decide to report externally, for example to the media, and are legally protected if they do so.
  • Reduce losses when misconduct occurs: Whistleblowing benefits organisations through significant loss savings. Organisations that did not have a whistleblowing system in place suffered losses that were twice the size compared to those who did have a whistleblowing system.
  • Build trust in your brand: 50% of the participants responded that building trust was the main benefit of a whistleblowing system. An openness to whistleblowing demonstrates a commitment to high ethical standards and builds trust in the company.
  • Ensure legal compliance: Having a system in place for whistleblowing benefits organisations by reducing compliance risk.

Demerits of whistleblowing:

  • The world, government, corporates and even society to an extent do not like whistle-blowers and some countries go so far as to call them ‘traitors’
  • The case of Edward Snowden and Julian Assange of Wikileaks proves the point
  • Whistle-blowers face legal action, criminal charges, social stigma, and termination from any position, office, or job.
  • Vindictive tactics to make the individual’s work more difficult and/or insignificant, assassination of character, formal reprimand, and difficult court proceedings

Ethical perspective:

The ethics of whistleblowing is a tricky matter. Whistle-blowing brings two moral values, fairness and loyalty, into conflict.

In the case where a company does serious harm through its service or product, the disclosure of such information for the sake of public constitute the ground for an understanding that takes whistleblowing as an ethical behaviour.

The situations where whistleblowing is morally justified:

  • Whenever and wherever the product/service of the firm will cause considerable harm to the public.
  • Whenever an employee feels serious threat or harm to him or anybody he should report to the firm.
  • If an immediate boss does not care for report (whistle blowing) the employee should go up to highest level to present his case.

Conclusion

A good civil servant would adhere to the foundational principles and fight against corrupt practices in a pragmatic way as the situation demands.

 


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