Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 06 April 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

 

1. Critically examine the limitations of the Indian model of secularism? Do you think that there should be changes to the model to accommodate changing needs of the society?  (250 words)

 

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: the Hindu

 

Why the question: The High Court of Karnataka has not been able to settle the hijab issue. Its judgment has further provoked the hijab-wearing college students in Udupi, who have now approached the Supreme Court of India to contest the order.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the limitations of Indian model of secularism and comment of the need for changes in it.

Directive word: 

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin your answer by defining secularism.

Body:

First, mention the various features of the Indian model of secularism. Next, analyse the various limitations of the Indian model – Problem of Uniform Civil Code, Politics and Religion, communal tensions and Cultural Symbols and Secularism: etc.

Next, discuss the various changes that need to be done the current model as per the changing needs to the society.

Conclusion:

Comment with a balanced way forward.

Introduction

Secularism is the “indifference to, or rejection or exclusion of, religion and religious considerations.” As a philosophy, secularism seeks to interpret life on principles taken solely from the material world, without recourse to religion. In political terms, secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries. Under a brief definition, secularism means that governments should remain neutral on the matter of religion and should not enforce nor prohibit the free exercise of religion, leaving religious choice to the liberty of the people.

The High Court of Karnataka has not been able to settle the hijab issue. Its judgment has further provoked the hijab-wearing college students in Udupi, who have now approached the Supreme Court of India to contest the order.

Body

Secularism in India

  • Secularism has been discussed in India primarily as a state policy towards religious groups.
  • The debate on secularism began by pointing to the difference of the Indian variation to its Western counterpart, either by pointing to an idea of a ‘principled distance’ or samadharma samabhava, where all religions are treated as equal.
  • Our Constitution acquire its secular character from the words in the Preamble, collective reading of many of its provisions, particularly the various fundamental rights.

Limitations of Indian Secularism

  • Uniform Civil Code:
    • No progress has been made in the evolution of a uniform Civil Code.
    • There are deep religious sentiments prevailing among different religious communities.
    • It limits the path to a truly secular society in India
  • Politics and Religion:
    • The Supreme Court had observed in the Bommai case that if religion is not separated from politics, the religion of the ruling party tends to become the state religion.
    • During the time of elections most of the political parties completely forget the noble ideal of secularism and woo the voters on communal or cast lines.
  • Communalism:
    • Increasing violence between people of different communities or religions.
    • Rise of fringe elements threatens India’s history of communal harmony and peace.
    • Instances like demolition of the Babri Masjid, anti-Sikh riots in Delhi and other places in 1984 are on the rise.
  • Rise of fundamentalism and obscurantism:
    • Religious entities have taken up the radicalisation of youths to promote their religion.
    • This poses grave threat to the harmony and security of the nations.
  • Failure of the Government in Evolving a Just Economic Order:
    • The failure of the government to evolve a just economic order and eliminate poverty also is a setback to secularism.
  • Cultural Symbols and Secularism:
    • Many public rituals like Bhoomi puja, breaking of coconuts on inaugural occasions, performing of ‘aarti’ and applying ‘tilak’ are perceived by Hindus as cultural or nationalistic expressions, but to non-Hindus these are manifestations of Hindu culture.
    • Such rituals are performed even on state functions and therefore, create unnecessary misgivings about the neutrality of the State.
  • Schools today have become havens of social isolation where children of similar economic and social backgrounds are unaware of the kind of social diversity that exists outside their little worlds.

Yes, changes are needed in Indian Secularism and the way forward

  • Since secularism has been declared as a part of the basic structure of the Constitution, governments must be made accountable for implementing it.
  • Define the word “minority”. The concept of secularism is based on recognition and protection of minorities. The two cannot be separated.
  • Setting up of a commission on secularism for ensuring adherence to the constitutional mandate on secularism.
  • Separation of religion from politics. It is of such urgency that no time should be wasted in bringing this about.
  • It is the duty of the secular and democratic forces to rally behind those political forces that really profess and practice secularism.
  • In a secular state, religion is expected to be a purely personal and private matter and is not supposed to have anything to do with the governance of the country.

Conclusion

Supreme Court rulings over the years have also ensured that the secular ethos of India is maintained, and that religion does not interfere or impinge upon the fundamental rights guaranteed to the individuals. Indian secularism is a unique concept that has been adopted and devised keeping in mind the unique needs and characteristics of the Indian culture. It denotes the core principles of tolerance and respect that have been ingrained into the Indian conscience since millennia.

 

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary.

2. Digitisation of the judiciary offers key benefits in improving efficiency of the courts. However, the lack of digital expertise is a major hindrance which needs to addressed. Analyse. (250 words)

 

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: livelaw

 

Why the question: Dr. Justice Dhananjaya Y. Chandrachud joined an event organised by the High Court of Orissa to inaugurate e-filing 3.0 for the High Court and District and Subordinate Courts of the State, Vulnerable Witness Deposition Centres with Virtual Courtrooms in District Court Establishments and Odisha Judicial Workflow Automation System (OJWAS) for paperless office in the High Court.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the approach that needs to be taken for digitisation of courts.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context towards increased Digitisation of the judiciary in the recent times.

Body:

Mention the advantages that the digitisation of judiciary brings. Especially with respect disruptions caused by the pandemic.

Next, bring out the concerns associated with e-Courts. Need for performance audits and sandboxing measures to carefully understand and gauge the potential and risks.

Write about additional measures that are required to realise the full potential e-courts

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

The Covid-19 pandemic continues to challenge traditional services’ delivery, including access to justice and effective justice delivery. Given the worrying situation in terms of pendency and time taken for resolution of disputes, the pandemic has led to introspection and an immediate pivot to fast-tracking innovation led by technology.

Body

Background

Dr. Justice Dhananjaya Y. Chandrachud joined an event organised by the High Court of Orissa to inaugurate e-filing 3.0 for the High Court and District and Subordinate Courts of the State, Vulnerable Witness Deposition Centres with Virtual Courtrooms in District Court Establishments and Odisha Judicial Workflow Automation System (OJWAS) for paperless office in the High Court.

Advantages of online dispute resolution to the Indian judiciary:

  • The key advantages of establishment of Electronic Courts in India is bringing in a justice serving mechanism that is transparent, efficient, affordable, time saving, protects the interests of witnesses, reduces the backlog of pending cases and most importantly reduces the number of unscrupulous activities.
  • Entire information related to a particular case would be available online. It would be available to the attorneys, parties and the general public through the help of internet.
  • Registered attorneys can file their case document directly from their home or office. They do not have to worry about postage, traffic congestion or messenger services. They can create a docket sheet and update it immediately, when the documents are filed.
  • With the help of internet, the documents of a case can be accessed easily from anywhere at anytime.
  • E-courts would help in the computerization of work flow management in courts. Thus, it would help to create a better court and case management. Video conferencing facilities would be installed in every court complex. Evidence of eyewitness, who are unable to attend the court can be recorded through this method.
  • The information would not be misplaced as all the information regarding the case would be carefully recorded and stored. Data keeping would include maintaining the records of e-file minute entries, bail orders, warrants etc.
  • In many cases, the witnesses are not able to come to the court and make their statement as the other party is too strong and scares them of the consequences. e-Courts can help in dealing with such cases.

Limitations of online dispute resolution in judiciary:

  • E-courts in India is an endless and complicating process. The process of e-filing a document is a difficult process. All the evidence cannot be produced in a digital format.
  • Lack of techno legal expertise is the main reason for the poor status of e-courts in India. With the absence of techno legal expertise, electronic courts cannot be established in India. The country requires more techno legal e-court centers so that the project of e-court can achieve success.
  • The project of e-court involves a lot of expenditure. It involves the use of a lot of computers and infrastructures. In the long run, e-courts may face the issue of lack of funds.
  • Hackers are getting stronger with every passing day. The possibility of e-Courts getting hacked in such a case cannot be denied.

Measures needed:

  • It is critical to draw up a well-defined and pre-decided framework as it can help in laying a concrete roadmap and direction to the e-courts scheme of India.
  • To achieve this, the government must establish an effective task force consisting of judges, technologists, court administrators, skill developers and system analysts to draw up a blueprint for institutionalizing online access to justice.
  • Such a task force must be charged with the responsibility of establishing hardware, software and IT systems for courts; examining application of artificial intelligence benefiting from the data base generated through e-courts projects; establishing appropriate e-filing systems and procedures.
  • Creating skill training and recognition for paralegals to understand and to help advocates and others to access the system to file their cases and add to their pleadings and documents as the case moves along.
  • Once the blueprint is ready, the High Courts across the country may refer the same to the Rule Committee of the High Court to frame appropriate rules to operationalise the e-court system.
  • One aspect that needs to be focused on is the deployment of a robust security system that provides secure access to case information for appropriate parties. The security of e-courts infrastructure and system is of paramount importance.
  • Also, user friendly e-courts mechanism, which is simple and easily accessible by the common public will encourage litigants to use such facilities in India.
  • The government must also make dedicated efforts in the training of personnel to maintain all the e-data.
  • Also, conducting training sessions to familiarize the Judges with the e-courts framework and procedure can give a huge impetus to the successful running of e-courts.

Way forward for Indian litigation and arbitration:

  • In India, a significant amount of time is spent in resolving disputes which has been the real bane of the Indian judiciary system.
  • The e-courts project, if implemented, would go a long way in saving costs and time for the litigants.
  • The present government is taking active steps to establish e-courts all over India. All these government efforts will result in providing quick and cost effective solutions to the litigants.
  • The judiciary system in India with the help of e-courts can overcome the challenges and make the service delivery mechanism transparent and cost efficient.
  • Further, the e-court project also requires the executive and the judiciary to reaffirm their resolve to support a speedy, efficient and quality justice delivery in the country.
  • It is also important to discuss steps required to surmount the various challenges facing the justice system.

Value addition

e-Courts project as part of virtual judiciary was conceptualized on the basis of the “National Policy and Action Plan for Implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Indian Judiciary – 2005” submitted by eCommittee, Supreme Court of India with a vision to transform the Indian Judiciary by ICT enablement of Courts.

e-Courts objectives:

  • To provide efficient & time-bound citizen centric services delivery as detailed in eCourt Project Litigant’s Charter.
  • To develop, install & implement decision support systems in courts.
  • To automate the processes to provide transparency in accessibility of information to its stakeholders.
  • To enhance judicial productivity, both qualitatively & quantitatively, to make the justice delivery system affordable, accessible, cost effective, predictable, reliable and transparent.

 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

 

3. The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) has to carefully balance the recovery phase of economic growth and manage rising inflationary tendencies in the uncertain geopolitical climate. Examine. (250 words)

 

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: livemint

 

Why the question: Inflation worries are rapidly spreading across the world. Price pressures are not the same across countries, despite the fact that all of them have been hit by very similar supply shocks over the past two years.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the great balancing act that MPC has to done to manage growth and inflation in uncertain geopolitical climate.

Directive word:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the answer by writing the aims and objectives of monetary policy committee.

Body:

In the first part, Discuss the concept of Inflation targeting first by Monetary Policy – Inflation control is a legitimate objective of economic policy given the correlation between inflation and macro-economic stability. Discuss the impact of inflation targeting.

Next, in relative to the above, mention the economic growth aspect of monetary policy, preventing slowdown in industrial activity, generating flow of credit etc. Write how the situation becomes more precarious as India recovers from the impact of the pandemic.

Next, write about the geopolitical uncertainty due to the crisis in Ukraine, global supply of crude oil, crisis in Sri Lanka which will affect the inflationary tendencies.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward which summarises that India needs to take steps in order to protect its own interests.

Introduction

The term ‘Monetary Policy’ is the Reserve Bank of India’s policy pertaining to the deployment of monetary resources under its control for the purpose of achieving GDP growth and lowering the inflation rate. The Reserve Bank of India Act 1934 empowers the RBI to make the monetary policy.

Body

Objective of monetary policy

The objectives of monetary policy include ensuring inflation targeting and price stability, full employment and stable economic growth.

Current situation of Indian Economy

  • Rising inflation: India’s inflation based on the consumer price index quickened to 6.01% in January, breaching the central bank’s upper tolerance limit of 6%.
  • Fuel prices: The government has increased taxation of energy to raise resources.
    • Since energy is used for all production, prices of all goods and services tend to rise and push up the rate of inflation.
    • Further, this is an indirect tax, it is regressive and impacts the poor disproportionately It also makes the RBI’s task of controlling inflation difficult.
  • Supply shortage: The lockdowns disrupted supplies and that added to shortages and price rise.
    • Prices of medicines and medical equipment rose dramatically.
    • Prices of items of day-to-day consumption also rose.
    • Fruits and vegetable prices rose since these items could not reach the urban markets.
  • International factors: Most major economies have recovered and demand for inputs has increased while supplies have remained disrupted (like chips for automobiles).
    • So, commodity and input prices have risen (like in the case of metals).
    • Businesses claim increase in input costs underlies price rise.
  • Data collection and methodology: In April and May 2020, data on production and prices could not be collected due to the strict lockdown.
    • So, the current data on prices for April to July 2021 are not comparable with the same months of 2020.
    • As such, the official inflation figures for these months in 2021 do not reflect the true picture.
  • Weak Rupee: The weakening of the rupee also added to inflation.

Measures to keep the inflation under control

  • Commodity prices: GoI needs to remove supply side bottlenecks. For example, GoI can immediately offload 10-20% of its pulses stock with NAFED in the open market.
    • Stocks are currently at 14.6 lakh MT. This may immediately cool down pulses’ price.
  • Fuel prices: The prices of petrol, diesel and LPG has increased drastically crossing Rs 100/- and states/Centre are buck passing the responsibility of cutting taxes.
    • Bringing them under GST would reduce the prices by at least 30 rupees.
    • GST council must agree to this with haste.
  • Policy measures: Navigating out of this will need a fiscal stimulus to shore up consumer spending, an investment revival to increase the productive capacity of the economy, and a careful management of inflationary expectations.
    • Concomitantly, the government will also need to pursue redistribution of income to reduce the widening disparity.
    • This also calls for fiscal prudence to cut wasteful spending, find new revenue through asset sales, mining and spectrum auctions, and build investor confidence.

Conclusion

Economists have pointed at India’s K-shaped recovery where a few have benefitted while others have fallen sharply behind. Big companies have benefitted and increased market share, revenues and profits sharply. They have also taken advantage of low interest rates to decrease the cost of their borrowings. Small and medium companies, struggling with falling revenues and cash flows, have not been able to take advantage of the rates. Hence inflation must also be controlled while growth is focussed upon.

Inflation control is a legitimate objective of economic policy given the correlation between inflation and macro-economic stability. Inflation targeting is needed, in a nation where there are 21% poor people. However, this must be tweaked sufficiently to match the needs of an economy such as India.

 

 


General Studies – 3


Topic:  Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4. Explain the PPP model of investment. What are the limitations of this model? Suggest measures to streamline PPP model for improving investment and reducing bottlenecks. (250 words)

 

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: InstaPedia

 

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive word: 

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining PPP model of investment.

Body:

First, explain the various features of the PPP model and its various types.

Next, write about the various bottlenecks in PPP model – Regulatory hurdles related to Land Acquisition, crony capitalism, wrongful risk allocation, delays and stalled projects and conflicts between the government and the contractor etc.

Suggest steps as to how to overcome them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Public Private Partnership means an arrangement between a government/statutory entity/government owned entity on one side and a private sector entity on the other. It is often done for the provision of public assets or public services, through investments being made and/or management being undertaken by the private sector entity, for a specified period of time. There is well defined allocation of risk between the private sector and the public entity. The private entity who is chosen on the basis of open competitive bidding, receives performance linked payments that conform (or are benchmarked) to specified and pre-determined performance standards, measurable by the public entity or its representative.

Body

need_for_ppp

Challenges faced by PPP in India

  • Construction/implementation risk, arising from delay in project clearance; contractor default; environmental damage.
  • Market risk, arising from insufficient demand; insufficient demand.
  • Finance risk, arising from inflation; changes in interest rates; increase in taxes, Change in exchange rates.
  • Operation and maintenance risk, arising from the termination of the contract; technology risk; labor risk.
  • Legal risk, arising from changes in law; changes in title/lease rights; insolvency of developer/service provider; change in security structure.

Way Forward

  • The success of Public-Private Partnership PPP to a large extent depends on optimal risk allocation among stakeholders, the environment of trust among stakeholders, robust institutional capacity to undertake grooming and implementation of PPP projects.
  • Further to foster the successful implementation of a PPP project, a robust PPP enabling ecosystem including liquid and diversified financial institutions; sound regulatory and arbitration framework; mature developers and experienced consultants etc. is essential.
  • To develop the PPP projects in India, the Kelkar Committee proposed some changes. Some of them are:
  • The PPP model requires the involvement of a private partner to leverage financing and improve operational efficiencies. Therefore, state-owned enterprises or public sector undertakings should not be allowed to bid for PPP projects.
  • PPPs should not be used by the government to evade its responsibility for service delivery to citizens. This model should be adopted only after checking its viability for a project, in terms of costs and risks.
  • Further, PPP structures should not be adopted for very small projects, since the benefits are not commensurate with the costs.
  • Risk allocation and management: Public-Private Partnership PPP contracts should ensure optimal risk allocation across all stakeholders by ensuring that it is allocated to the entity that is best suited to manage the risk. A generic risk monitoring and evaluation framework should be developed covering all aspects of a project’s lifecycle.
  • Strengthening policy and governance: The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 should be amended to distinguish between genuine errors in decision making and acts of corruption by public servants.
  • Strengthening institutional capacity: A national-level institution should be set up to support institutional capacity building activities and encouraging private investments with regard to PPPs. Independent regulators must be set up in sectors that are going for PPPs.
  • An Infrastructure PPP Project Review Committee may be set up to evaluate PPP projects. An Infrastructure PPP Adjudication Tribunal should also be constituted. A quick, efficient, and enforceable dispute resolution mechanism must be developed for PPP projects
  • The government should notify guidelines for auditing of Public-Private Partnership PPPs, only enabling the review of government internal systems. Special Purpose Vehicles (private partners) should follow norms of corporate governance and financial disclosures as per the Companies Act, 2013.
  • Strengthening contracts: The private sector must be protected against such loss of bargaining power. This could be ensured by amending the terms of the Public-Private Partnership PPP contracts to allow for renegotiations.
  • PPP must not be a short cut only to save money or bridge fiscal gaps or transfer risks; it should be used to improve service quality or bring efficiency improvements.

Value addition

Need for PPPs in nation building:

  • Better infrastructure: It is a fact that most governments face the problem that public financing is not enough to bridge the gap between infrastructure need and available funds. In this respect, infrastructure development has to rely increasingly on private markets to leverage and mobilize capital.
  • Risk sharing: The private sector is considered to be more proficient in resource acquisition and utilities deliverance than the government, and, therefore, it is further bolstering government’s good fortune to impart the related risks to the private segment.
  • Optimum allocation of resources: PPPs can help in the optimum allocation of public resources for the development of infrastructure. Though conventional models of public acquirement concentrate on accomplishing the most reduced forthright expenses in conveying infrastructural ventures infrastructural projects, PPPs concentrate on delivering cost-effectiveness over the duration.
  • Innovations: Development is another imperative idea that the private segment can convey to public utilities. As a rule, people in the public sector may not be as inventive similar to the private area. The private division is constantly hunting down new items and utilities to expand its aggressive edge and to save costs.
  • Aid in growth of other sectors: To the government, PPP frees up fiscal funds for other areas of public service and improves cash flow management as high upfront capital expenditure is replaced by periodic service payments and provides cost certainty in place of uncertain calls for asset maintenance and replacement.
  • The catalyst for the economy: To the private sector participants, PPP provides access to public sector markets. If priced accurately and costs managed effectively, the projects can provide reasonable profits and investment returns on a long-term basis.
  • More employment generation: Development of infrastructure will need manpower at various levels and hence it will generate more employment opportunities for the people.
  • Improves the image of the country: There will be more development of better physical infrastructure and services through PPP and it will create a good impact on tourism and other enthusiast investors.
  • Attract FDI: Scope for investment by the private sector in infrastructure will also provide the opportunities to foreign investors to participate and the financial crunch can be meted out easily. The better infrastructure is also a major boost to foreign direct investment (FDI).

 

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

 

5. What is metaverse? Discuss the potential applications of metaverse. What are factors that needs to be considered for creation of a seamless and accessible metaverse ecosystem in India? (250 words)

 

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: TimeOfIndia

 

Why the question: Over the past few months, there’s been growing excitement about the ‘metaverse’. Microsoft was the first major tech company to work towards it and followed by Facebook.

Key Demand of the question: To write about technological and regulatory preparations that India must ensure for developments of new virtual environments like metaverse.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the concept of metaverse.

Body:

Elaborate on the various components of the metaverse and its possible applications. Substantiate with examples.

Next, write about the factors that India needs to consider – Infrastructure development, interoperability, Payments system, Preventing Cartelization by big companies, Security, Privacy and regulatory issues that must be put in place.

Conclusion:

End the answer with a way forward which summarises need to make most of the opportunity of technology of metaverse.

 

Introduction

The term “metaverse” is used to describe the vision whereby the internet will evolve into a virtual world. The idea was first conceptualised in 1992 by the American novelist Neal Stephenson in his science fiction classic, Snow Crash. It foresees the internet as a 3D virtual living space, where individuals dip in and out, interacting with one another in real time.

The metaverse is a form of mixed reality that is fast becoming commonplace in everyday tech products. The combination of augmented and virtual reality will not only introduce digital elements in the real world, but it will also merge Internet with the virtual world.

Body

Potential of Metaverse

  • Metaverse will incorporate current Meta products, like WhatsApp and Messenger, but also offer plenty of new tools like virtual homes, offices, and ecommerce opportunities for businesses and content creators.
  • In Meta’s metaverse imagining, users will have complete creative control over their virtual worlds, designing everything from waterfront homes to space stations where you can work collaboratively, chat with friends, or study.
  • Using VR, AR, and our current tech tools, the metaverse will combine both the physical and digital worlds.
  • Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg believes augmented reality glasses will eventually be as widespread as smartphones. If that is the case, this will be a very big market.
  • Huge scope in the development of software applications to support the meta-verse ecosystem.
  • Heightened sales of physical goods and services will be linked to the virtual ecosystem in the future.
  • Immersive Learning is a training methodology that uses Virtual Reality (VR) to simulate real-world scenarios and train students in a safe and engaging immersive training environment.
  • Decentralized commerce (dCommerce) in-world transactions to happen peer-to-peer.
  • Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) – the claim of ownership for a unique, non-interchangeable digital asset that is stored on a blockchain – may be widely adopted.

Factors that needs to be considered for creation of a seamless and accessible metaverse ecosystem in India:

  • To achieve this, we will need to agree on a set of open standards that govern its essential aspects, ensuring interoperability across environments.
  • We may ultimately need to pass regulation to ensure that other aspects of the metaverse—the devices we use to interface with it, the payment systems that drive its economy and the portals that connect the virtual world to the physical—comply with open protocols framed to ensure that we are not locked into any single device or service provider.
  • India needs to put in place regulations that encourage the development of these new virtual environments while ensuring that they can still function in an open, interoperable manner.
  • The government’s involvement in Metaverse is also a significant aspect as it may change the whole dynamic of the Metaverse since cryptocurrency is one of its driving forces.
  • The metaverse is being seen as the Internet 2.0 and for a smooth transition to it, new tech infrastructure needs to be created and protocols written. Today’s internet as a file-sharing protocol will need to be re-imagined for the metaverse.
  • If this is the next evolution of internet technology, we should ensure that the many features it is likely to offer are deployed to our advantage.
  • Educating visitors about what constitutes potentially criminal behaviour would help mitigate harassment, too.
  • India’s digital payments platforms, on the other hand, have demonstrated that they can operate at population scale—processing 10 billion transactions a month without breaking a sweat.
  • Digital Indiaand the components under it such as – Aadhar, Digital Health IDs and Digital Payments System, therefore, is the preparatory infrastructure that is needed for the transition to a digital economy and to the metaverse.

Conclusion

A new iteration of the internet is being worked on and this will have massive implications for society. Marketing, communications, and branding professionals will face new challenges but also new opportunities. This new era of the metaverse will unleash amazing creativity and open up new frontiers and horizons for brands and businesses.

India was a relatively late adopter of the internet, and, as a result, was unable to take advantage of its many features until much later. We have an extraordinary opportunity now to actively participate in the development of the metaverse. We would do well to dive right in.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

 

6. The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing. Explain with examples. (150 words)

 

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving a simple understanding of the meaning of the quote.

Body:

Mention the morality of conscious inaction, its consequences. No action resulting in injustice. Cite examples from history and current happenings to substantiate. Write about the aspect of communitarian ethics where the good men have the responsibility to speak out and act in the face of evils, to preserve their community.

Conclusion:

Conclude by underscoring injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere and hence calls for ‘good men’ to take responsibility.

Introduction

The phrase or quote; “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.” is famously attributed to Edmund Burke. The other distinguished man, Albert Einstein, also said that: “The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil but by those who watch them without doing anything.”

The quote means that if you allow something to happen that was inherently bad or evil when you had knowledge or experience that the event happening was wrong morally, then you would have let “evil” win and have its way and it will have “triumphed”.

Body

Conscious inaction

For instance, when you see an old person getting mugged or a girl being eve teased and you chose inaction about it during the incident.

You may have felt you could not interfere because “it was none of your business”. Or you were afraid that you will be the next target. Or maybe, you assumed somebody else would step up and say something. Or you thought you could not spare the time. Or you may even think that perhaps you were misjudging the situation. Or someone will take action or say something for you.

In spite of every possible reason on earth, we allow evil to prevail because we are afraid to be unpopular, scared or plainly, do not care.

The case of Afghanistan:

This is the exact replication of events that has happened in Afghanistan with the Taliban taking over the control of Kabul. What the world has been witnessing with the Taliban victory and people trying to escape from Afghanistan and many getting killed in this effort is indeed pure evil. One cannot justify it in any way, shape, or form. We cannot sit idly by and watch it on our computer screens and TV screens. It must be confronted or it will grow like a cancer throughout the world.

President Biden said his hands were tied to a withdrawal given the awful peace deal negotiated between the Trump administration and the Taliban. But there was still a way to pull out American troops while giving Afghans a better chance to hold the gains US made with them over the last two decades.

Biden chose otherwise. The way he announced the drawdown and eventual departure of American troops — at the start of the fighting season, on a rapid timeline and sans adequate coordination with the Afghan government — has in part gotten us into the current situation.

At the very least, the United States should have continued to support the Afghans through this period to help them blunt the Taliban’s latest offensive and buy time to plan for a future devoid of American military assistance.

American diplomats could have used this time to negotiate access to regional bases from which to continue counterterrorism operations. Simultaneously, the American military should have prepared contingencies in case those negotiations failed.

Reasonable people can disagree about the wisdom of keeping American military forces in Afghanistan indefinitely, even at very low numbers. A responsible withdrawal needed more time and better preparation.

Conclusion

As another famous philosopher, John Stuart Mill, said: ‘Let not any one pacify his conscience by the delusion that he can do no harm if he takes no part, and forms no opinion. Bad men need nothing more to compass their ends, than those good men should look on and do nothing.’

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators.

 

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth” -Gautama Buddha.


Difficulty level: Easy

 

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Directive word: 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the quote in your word.

Body:

The sun sets, but we all know it will rise again in the morning. The moon rises when the sun sets and sets when the sun reappears. In other words, something that exists can be hidden for a certain period of time, but it will always reappear and the truth is the same. You can manipulate, distort the truth, hide it, but at some point, the truth will be known. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by emphasising on the importance of leading a truthful life.

Introduction

The above statement highlights the importance of truth and how truth alone triumphs no matter how hard one tries to suppress or hide it. It is like the Sun and the moon, no matter what they will rise and come up in the sky even when the clouds seem to mask them for a while.

Body

It is said that Gandhiji was greatly influenced by Raja Harish Chandra’s play where the protagonist walked on the path of truth no matter what. This is what inspired him to take up the path of truth in his life. Eventually his ideologies came in influence a lot of people and he was successful in turning out British from our country

Today’s society places a high value on truth and the person who speaks the truth. Truth serves as a foundation of a fair and just society. In court, witnesses are required to swear to tell the truth – in this way, and justice can be delivered. Most modern religions have an opinion on the matter, and they place a high value on the principles of truthfulness. Broadly, there are two aspects of truthfulness: being true to others and being true to oneself. The two are not wholly the same thing; however, they are closely linked.

Providing false information is wrong. Some people tend to lie to get themselves out of a situation or not hurt anyone’s feelings. However, in some scenarios, it becomes necessary to lie. Just like any other quality, in truthfulness finding the balance is essential. One should neither overplay nor underplay their weaknesses or their virtues. It is as bad to pretend that one is less good in something than they are as to exaggerate about their abilities.

Truth is what corresponds with the available facts and pieces of evidence. Truth does not change just because we learn something about it. However, it is not good to always tell the truth. If the main purpose of telling the truth is to hurt someone, it is then considered to be terrible than the most terrible lie. This is why many people keep in mind other people’s sentiments and beliefs before telling the truth. Sometimes, not telling the truth doesn’t necessarily mean someone has to lie. It can also be keeping from them a few details that they don’t need to know.

Conclusion

Truth is the virtue by which all your sins can be averted.  Honesty is the one thing that holds the power to change hearts. Truthfulness is not only in the case of honesty towards others but it is also about how true we are to our own selves. We all need to realize our potential and learn to stay true to our own conscience.

 


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos