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Bengal Coast faces most Erosion:

GS Paper 3:

Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.



According to the Ministry of Earth Sciences:

Of the 6,907.18 km long Indian coastline of the mainland:

  • About 34% is under varying degrees of erosion.
  • 26% of the coastline is of an accreting nature, and the remaining 40% is in a stable state.
  • West Bengal, located on the eastern coast of the country, with a 534.35 km-long coastline, suffered erosion along about 60.5% of the coast (323.07 km) over the period from 1990 to 2018.
  • This is followed by Kerala on the west coast, which has 592.96 km of coastline and 46.4% of it (275.33 km) faces erosion.
  • Tamil Nadu, with a long coastline of 991.47 km, recorded erosion along 42.7% of it (422.94 km).
  • Gujarat, with the longest coastline of 1,945.60 km, recorded erosion along 27.06% (537.5 km) of it.
  • In the Union Territory of Puducherry, with a 41.66 km-long coastline, about 56.2% of its coast (23.42 km) recorded erosion.


15th Finance Commission recommendations:

  1. Create a National Disaster Risk Management Fund (NDRMF) and State Disaster Risk Management Fund (SDRMF) comprising a Mitigation Fund at the National and State-levels (NDMF/SDMF).
  2. Create a Response Fund at the National and State level (NDRF/SDRF) for the award NDMA may develop suitable norms for mitigation measures to prevent erosion and both the Union and the State Governments develop a policy to deal with the extensive displacement of people caused by coastal and river erosion.



Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) has prepared and published an atlas of Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) maps for the entire coastline of India at a 1:100000 scale using data on sea level rise, coastal slope, shoreline change rate, coastal elevation, coastal geomorphology, tidal range and significant wave height.


What is Coastal erosion?

  • It is the process by which local sea-level rise, strong wave action, and coastal flooding wear down or carry away rocks, soils, and/or sands along the coast.
  • There are four main processes of coastal erosion. These are corrosion, abrasion, hydraulic action and attrition.
  • Coastal erosion structures Seawalls, revetments, bulkheads, groins and breakwaters may reduce erosion in the short term.



Prelims Link:

  1. Coastal Vulnerability.
  2. CVI.
  3. Sea Level Rise.
  4. INCOIS.
  5. Coastal Multi-Hazard Vulnerability Mapping.
  6. Disaster Management.
  7. Environmental Pollution & Degradation.
  8. Coastal Vulnerability Index and Its Significance.

Sources: the Hindu