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Bengal Coast faces most Erosion:

GS Paper 3:

Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.

 

Context:

According to the Ministry of Earth Sciences:

Of the 6,907.18 km long Indian coastline of the mainland:

  • About 34% is under varying degrees of erosion.
  • 26% of the coastline is of an accreting nature, and the remaining 40% is in a stable state.
  • West Bengal, located on the eastern coast of the country, with a 534.35 km-long coastline, suffered erosion along about 60.5% of the coast (323.07 km) over the period from 1990 to 2018.
  • This is followed by Kerala on the west coast, which has 592.96 km of coastline and 46.4% of it (275.33 km) faces erosion.
  • Tamil Nadu, with a long coastline of 991.47 km, recorded erosion along 42.7% of it (422.94 km).
  • Gujarat, with the longest coastline of 1,945.60 km, recorded erosion along 27.06% (537.5 km) of it.
  • In the Union Territory of Puducherry, with a 41.66 km-long coastline, about 56.2% of its coast (23.42 km) recorded erosion.

 

15th Finance Commission recommendations:

  1. Create a National Disaster Risk Management Fund (NDRMF) and State Disaster Risk Management Fund (SDRMF) comprising a Mitigation Fund at the National and State-levels (NDMF/SDMF).
  2. Create a Response Fund at the National and State level (NDRF/SDRF) for the award NDMA may develop suitable norms for mitigation measures to prevent erosion and both the Union and the State Governments develop a policy to deal with the extensive displacement of people caused by coastal and river erosion.

 

Preparedness:

Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) has prepared and published an atlas of Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) maps for the entire coastline of India at a 1:100000 scale using data on sea level rise, coastal slope, shoreline change rate, coastal elevation, coastal geomorphology, tidal range and significant wave height.

 

What is Coastal erosion?

  • It is the process by which local sea-level rise, strong wave action, and coastal flooding wear down or carry away rocks, soils, and/or sands along the coast.
  • There are four main processes of coastal erosion. These are corrosion, abrasion, hydraulic action and attrition.
  • Coastal erosion structures Seawalls, revetments, bulkheads, groins and breakwaters may reduce erosion in the short term.

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Coastal Vulnerability.
  2. CVI.
  3. Sea Level Rise.
  4. INCOIS.
  5. Coastal Multi-Hazard Vulnerability Mapping.
  6. Disaster Management.
  7. Environmental Pollution & Degradation.
  8. Coastal Vulnerability Index and Its Significance.

Sources: the Hindu