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Humans rely on wildlife and biodiversity-based resources to meet all our needs from food to fuel, medicines, housing, and clothing. Millions of people are also dependent on nature as the source of their livelihoods and economic opportunities. According to data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, over 8,400 species of wild fauna and flora are critically endangered, while close to 30,000 more are understood to be endangered or vulnerable. As per this data 239 faunal species which are known to occur in India are classified as endangered species which includes 45 species of mammals, 23 species of birds, 18 species of reptiles, 39 species of amphibians and 114 species of fishes. India has a network of 733 Protected Areas including 103 National Parks, 537 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 67 Conservation Reserves and 26 Community Reserves covering approximately 4.89 percent of country’s geographical area.

Several strategies which are adapted for conservation:

  • Legislation’s Of LAWS Environment Protection Act, Fisheries Act, Forest Act, Forest (Conservation) Act etc
  • Stringent Punishment for Violations the Guidelines.
  • Central Government Provides Fund To State Government to strengthening management and protection of infrastructure
  • India’s Team Work With International Conventions Viz CITES,CAWT,IWC,UNESCO-WHC

Volatility In Governmnet’s Steps:

  • Deterioration in the quality of forest administration that causes the increases of POACHING cases.
  • Lack of political will while implementing the government schemes
  • Influence of international conservation paradigms that blindly promote “sustainable use” as a solution, while failing to recognize the overexploited status of the forest resources targeted for such use.

Despite such efforts the progress made by Government has not gone very far:

  • Minimal participation of local communities for wildlife and environment conservation.
  • Corruption at the functional levels leads to unwise spending of government fund and compromise on quality
  • Improper allocation of funds in certain sectors. Priority of the needs are not taken into account.
  • There is need to curb the excessive funds provided to the bodies like NTCA & wildlife sanctuaries.
  • The structure of NTCA needs to be overhauled.
  • Strict implementation of the laws & stringent penalties should be given.

The use of Science:

  • Mapping of vulnerable areas through satellite like CATROSAT & drones.
  • Use of camera traps & other scientific method to get data of the animals & plants.
  • Use of micro-irrigation & other sustainable & scientific agri- practices.
  • Use of PMKSY can be helpful here.
  • R&D to study the long term effects of climate-change & pollution ( Ex- Air Pollution Index)
  • Development of crops which need less pesticides & fertilizers.
  • Development in renewable sector especially Solar Mega Parks & Wind Energy needs to be strengthened.
  • Data on wildlife can be published by digital formats to be accessible for everyone.

Need of the Hour

  • Zoological Survey of India every year records hundreds of species which are confined only in records and books. To enhance an efficient protection we have to bring those recorded species into the mainstream so that they are conserved in an efficient manner.
  • In any healthy ecosystem all the constituent species have to be in a very healthy state and all species have to coexist. The tiger can only exist when the constituent species in the ecosystem exist. There should be equal focus on tiger and other species in the ecosystem.
  • The wildlife is huge and important subject. Even the small countries which have wildlife sustain their economy through tourism and they conserve their wildlife. In India despite we have a stringent law and rather than celebrating the Wildlife day as a one day event the Wildlife protection has to be sustained throughout the year.
  • As part of the policy the government can enhance the scale of awareness, run awareness campaign at the state level, district level and at the local level. People do not know whom to approach whenever any crime takes place which have to be addressed. The talks about environment conservation in schools are confined only to the syllabus and textbooks. The school management should take the children to the forest and biodiversity areas and enhance their learning experience.
  • Man-animal conflict takes place due to unplanned urbanisation. It is not the fault of wild animals. Rather than protecting only the protected areas, National parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves we need to conserve the landscapes in entirety. The problem of man-animal conflict also gets reduced and the larger biodiversity is also protected.


  • There is a need for greater awareness, stricter penalties under Wildlife Protection Actand if we can get children to the wildlife heritage we will be looking at the next Wildlife day in a positive note.
  • The government needs to focus on landscape protection rather than focusing only on National parks and protected areas because 60% of the countries wildlife exists outside the protected areas.