Topic: Disaster and disaster management.
6. With a rise in the frequency of devastating cyclones, India needs to look at adopting cost-effective, long-term mitigation measures, including building cyclone-resilient infrastructure. Discuss. (250 words)
Difficulty level: Moderate
Why the question: Cyclone Asani is likely to skirt Andaman and Nicobar Islands on Monday night and might result in heavy rainfall and strong winds, the India Meteorological Department has said.
Key Demand of the question: To write about the need of a long-term mitigation measures for cyclones.
Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.
Structure of the answer:
Begin by providing context and the increasing frequency of cyclones in India.
In first part, cite the data and write the reasons for increasing frequency of cyclones on both the eastern and western coast of India. Increasing sea surface temperatures in the northern Indian Ocean and the changing geo-climatic conditions in India etc.
Next, bring out the economic costs and human costs as a result of devastation caused by the severe cyclones.
Mention the measures that are needed – installing a disaster warning system in the coastal districts, and construction of evacuation shelters in cyclone-prone districts etc. Mention long term measures – Embankments that are resilient to storm surges, improved prevention of flooding from swollen rivers and coastal mangrove habitats regeneration etc.
Conclude with a way forward.