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InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:


GS Paper 1:

1. Citizens look forward to a colourful Holi


GS Paper 2:

1. Ujjwala Yojana: Over 1.5 lakh lives saved in a year, 13% reduction in air pollution deaths

2.Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

3. IAF to employ ‘direct tactical planning’ for S-400

4. India unveils its Arctic policy, focusses on combating climate change

5. Competition Commission of India (CCI)


GS Paper 3:

1. Ukraine war could cut 1% off global growth: OECD


Facts for Prelims:

1.Daylight Saving Time (DST)

2.Dishaank app

3.Kamikaze drones

4.India’s first hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric car project

Citizens look forward to a colourful Holi

GS Paper: 1

Topics Covered: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.



President of India extended his greeting to the citizens in India and abroad on the auspicious occasion of Holi which is being celebrated in India today.

About Holi

  • It is also famously called as ‘Festival of colours’
  • Holi falls on the full moon day in the month of Phalgun
  • The festival marks the end of winter and the beginning of the season of spring and also marks the harvesting of the crop in the country during this time.
  • In various regions of the country, Holi is also called as- Dhulendi, Lathmar Holi, Mohhalla Hola, Basant Utsav, Rangpanchami
  • People during Holi play with bright organic colours as part of the festivities
  • Some of the sweets associated with Holi are: Gujiyas, Malpuas and Bhang
  • Holi is associated with myths relating to events from the lives of Prahlada and Lord Krishna
  • Holika Dhan custom is an important part of the ritual which symbolizes the death of the demon Holika who planned to kill Prahlada (triumph of good over the evil)


 Insta curious

Know more about the myths associated with Holi

Insta links

Prelims link

  • Various months in a Hindu calendar
  • Different names of Holi
  • In which month is Holi celebrated?

Mains link

Explain by giving examples as to the various festivals associated with climate or the local environment of the place. (15M)

Ujjwala Yojana

GS Paper: 2

 Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.


Ujjwala Yojana: Over 1.5 lakh lives saved in a year, 13% reduction in air pollution deaths


What to study?

For Prelims: Key features of the scheme.

For Mains: Significance and performance analysis of the scheme.

Context: The first independent impact assessment of the Ujjwala programme has highlighted its benefits in terms of saving of lives and reduction in air pollution

Key observations:

  • Reduction in Death: Greater penetration and usage of LPG as a cooking fuel is estimated to have prevented at least 1.5 lakh pollution-related premature deaths in the year 2019 alone.
  • Reduction in pollution: It also avoided at least 8 million tonnes of PM2.5 emissions in 2019 (13% reduction in air pollution deaths)

Other Study by researchers from IIT Kanpur: It had shown a vast improvement not just in prevalence of respiratory diseases but also in general health conditions in villages with high coverage of Ujjwala connections.

  • The survey had found 50 per cent improvement in general health conditions in villages of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar with high coverage of Ujjwala connections.

Previously government report had said:

  • Three States have become kerosene free. These include- Haryana, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Union Territories that have become kerosene-freeare the Union Territories of Delhi, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Dadar & Nagar Haveli, Andaman & Nicobar Island and Puducherry.

Limitations of the Study:

  • The study has not estimated health or emission benefits of reduction in outdoor air pollution due to the scheme
  • Biomass burning in household cooking could be contributing 30-40 per cent of outdoor air pollution.
  • Benefits have been estimated for the year 2019 only.
  • Study found that only 65 per cent of the households in 2019 were using LPG as the primary cooking fuel.


About Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana:

Launched in May 2016.

Aim: To provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households and reduce health risk associated with burning biomass.

Key features: A deposit-free LPG connection is given to eligible with financial assistance of Rs 1,600 per connection by the Centre.

Achievement: Government data shows that by January 2022, 9 crore new LPG connections had been rolled out under this scheme, and that 99.8 per cent of the over 28 crore households in India now have access to LPG, up from 61.9 per cent in 2015.


Eligibility criteria:

  1. Applicant must a woman above the age of 18 and a citizen of India.
  2. Applicant should belong to a BPL (Below Poverty Line) household.
  3. No one in the applicant’s household should own an LPG connection.
  4. The household income of the family, per month, must not exceed a certain limit as defined by the government of the Union Territories and State Government.
  5. Applicant must not be a recipient of other similar schemes provided by the government.

Objectives of the scheme are:

  1. Empowering women and protecting their health.
  2. Reducing the serious health hazards associated with cooking based on fossil fuel.
  3. Reducing the number of deaths in India due to unclean cooking fuel.
  4. Preventing young children from significant number of acute respiratory illnesses caused due to indoor air pollution by burning the fossil fuel.

Insta Link:

Prelims Link:

  1. LPG Composition; Difference between LPG LNG CNG.
  2. How are urban and semi- urban areas differentiated?
  3. Differences between central sector, centrally sponsored schemes.
  4. Targets and goals under the scheme.
  5. States and UTs which became kerosene- free under the scheme.

Mains Link:

  1. PM Ujjwala programme aimed at saving lives, and contributing to improvement of health, especially women’s health. How far has this been achieved? Analyze (15M)

Sources: Indian Express

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

GS Paper: 2

Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

What to study?

For Prelims: Overview, implementation and bodies established under the act.

For Mains: Significance of the law, performance analysis and ways to improve.

Context: A Parliamentary Standing Committee has asked the Rural Development Ministry to replace caste-based NREGS payment with the earlier mechanism of generation of single Fund Transfer Order


Key observations:

  • Parliament’s Standing Committee on Rural Development and Panchayati Raj has asked the government to roll back the system of caste-based wages, under which NREGS workers are paid based on whether they belong to a Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, or Others.
  • It wants government to revert back to the earlier system by which a single Fund Transfer Order was generated without “any sort of segregation on the basis of caste”.
  • Create caste rift: NREGS workers are part of the “economically weak populace and can come from any religion/caste, [and] creation of such payment system wherein one specific community is preferred over the other solely on the ground of caste will only give rise to resentment and create rift among the beneficiaries of MGNREGA”


What is the caste-based payment system?

  • Under the new system, if 20 individuals (say, six SCs, four STs and 10 others) work together at a site under MG-NREGA, a single muster roll would be issued, but payment would be done by issuing three separate Fund Transfer Orders (FTOs), one for each of the three categories.
  • It came into force on April 1, 2021.
  • Beneficiaries in the ‘Others’ category, which includes the ‘General’ and Other Backward Classes (OBC) categories, especially complained of delays.


Why was the system of caste-based wage payment introduced?

According to the Ministry, the system of category-wise payment of wages was introduced to “accurately reflect on the ground flow of funds to various population groups”. Last October, a process of “streamlining” of the new system was taken up.



The scheme was introduced as a social measure that guarantees “the right to work”. The key tenet of this social measure and labour law is that the local government will have to legally provide at least 100 days of wage employment in rural India to enhance their quality of life.

Key objectives:

  1. Generation of paid rural employment of not less than 100 days for each worker who volunteers for unskilled labour.
  2. Proactively ensuring social inclusion by strengthening livelihood base of rural poor.
  3. Creation of durable assets in rural areas such as wells, ponds, roads and canals.
  4. Reduce urban migration from rural areas.
  5. Create rural infrastructure by using untapped rural labour.

The following are the eligibility criteria for receiving the benefits under MGNREGA scheme:

  1. Must be Citizen of India to seek NREGA benefits.
  2. Job seeker has completed 18 years of age at the time of application.
  3. The applicant must be part of a local household (i.e., application must be made with local Gram Panchayat).
  4. Applicant must volunteer for unskilled labour.

Key facts related to the scheme:

  1. The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Govt of India is monitoring the entire implementation of this scheme in association with state governments.
  2. Individual beneficiary-oriented works can be taken up on the cards of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, small or marginal farmers or beneficiaries of land reforms or beneficiaries under the Indira Awaas Yojana of the Government of India.
  3. Within 15 days of submitting the application or from the day work is demanded, wage employment will be provided to the applicant.
  4. Right to get unemployment allowance in case employment is not provided within fifteen days of submitting the application or from the date when work is sought.
  5. Social Audit of MGNREGA works is mandatory, which lends to accountability and transparency.
  6. The Gram Sabha is the principal forum for wage seekers to raise their voices and make demands.
  7. It is the Gram Sabha and the Gram Panchayat which approves the shelf of works under MGNREGA and fix their priority.

Insta Links:

Prelims Link:

  1. Under MGNREGA, what are the roles of Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat, States, State Food Commission, Centre?
  2. What is caste based payment system?
  3. What is Wage employement?
  4. Who conducts social audit?

Mains Link:

Discuss the key features and significance of MGNREGA. What are the recent concerns regarding the implementation of the scheme? (15M)

Sources: Indian Express  

IAF to employ ‘direct tactical planning’ for S-400

GS Paper: 2

Topics Covered: Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.



The S-400 Triumf long-range air defence system, currently being inducted by India, and remains a potent weapon for the neighbour, the Indian Air Force will counter it based on “direct tactical planning”, an IAF representative informed the parliamentary standing committee on defence


What is S400?

In October 2018, India had signed a USD 5 billion deal with Russia to buy five units of the S-400 air defence missile systems,

It is a modern long-range surface-to-air missile (MLRSAM) system developed by Russia which will be delivered to India by 2025

  • Missile system integrates a multifunction radar, autonomous detection and targeting systems, anti- aircraft missile systems, launchers, and command and control centre. It can provide a layered defence as it is capable of firing three types of missiles
  • S-400 Triumf can engage all types of aerial targets such as aircraft, ballistic and cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which are within the range of 400km, at an altitude of up to 30km


S400 and CAATSA

The U.S. State Department spokesperson has said that there will be no “blanket” waiver for India, indicating that even if S-400 Triumf anti-aircraft missiles system deal is not sanctioned, other “significant” military and nuclear transactions between India and Russia could still trigger sanctions under the Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA)


What’s the concern?

There has been unease in Washington ever since 2016 when India announced the deal with Russia, which remains New Delhi’s biggest defence partner.

  • Now, the S-400 deal could attract sanctions under US’ CAATSA law.The US has already sanctioned China and Turkey over similar purchases.


What is CAATSA, and how did the S-400 deal fall foul of this Act? 

  • Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) ‘s core objective is to counter Iran, Russia and North Korea through punitive measures.
  • Enacted in 2017.
  • Includes sanctions against countries that engage in significant transactions with Russia’s defence and intelligence sectors.


What sanctions can possibly be imposed? 

  • Prohibition on loans to the sanctioned person.
  • Prohibition of Export-Import bank assistance for exports to sanctioned persons.
  • Prohibition on procurement by United States Government to procure goods or services from the sanctioned person.
  • Denial of visas to persons closely associated with the sanctioned person


Significance of the deal:

The S-400 decision is a very strong example of how advanced our defence and strategic partnership is, and how strong Indian sovereignty is, to choose its international partners, especially when it comes to issues of national interest and national security.


Current Affairs



Prelims Link:

  • CAATSA is associated with?
  • Powers of US president under CAATSA.
  • Types of sanctions that can be imposed.
  • Significant defence deals between India and Russia.
  • Overview of Iran Nuclear deal.

Mains Link:

  • Discuss the features and significance of CAATSA.
  • India’s signing of S400 Missile deal with Russia, can have implications on defence relations with USA. Analyse

India unveils its Arctic policy, focusses on combating climate change

GS Paper: 2

Topics Covered: Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.



The Centre released India’s Arctic Policy, with the aim of enhancing the country’s cooperation with the resource-rich and rapidly transforming region.


Need for such a Policy

The relevance of Arctic for India can be broadly explained under three categories:

(A)Scientific Research, Climate Change and Environment

  • Monsoons
    • The changes occurring in the Arctic are yet to be understood fully, but it is clear that they have been impacting global weather, climate and ecosystems including the monsoons in India.
    • During the monsoons, India receives over 70 per cent of its annual precipitation. India’s agriculture, which is the primary source of livelihood for about 58 per cent of India’s population and contributes around 20 per cent to the GDP,4 is directly dependent on monsoons
  • Rising Sea Level
    • The ice loss in the Arctic is a major contributor to global sea-level rise6 and it can have a significant impact on India, especially over its 1,300 island territories and maritime features
  • Himalayas
    • The Arctic and the Himalayas, though geographically distant, are interconnected and share similar concerns. The Arctic meltdown is helping the scientific community to better understand the glacial melt in the Himalayas, which has often been referred to as the ‘third pole’ and has the largest freshwater reserves after the North and South poles
    • The study of Arctic is therefore critical to Indian scientists.

(B) Economic and Human Resources

  • Mineral Resources and Hydrocarbons
    • Arctic region has rich deposits of coal, gypsum and diamonds and also substantial reserves of zinc, lead, placer gold and quartz.10 Greenland alone possesses about a quarter of world’s rare earth reserves.
    • India is the third-largest energy-consuming country in the world, the third-largest oil importer (83 per cent) and the fourth-largest importer of gas which caters to almost half of the total gas consumption.
    • Arctic can therefore potentially address India’s energy security needs and deficiency of strategic and rare earth minerals.


Current Affairs


India’s Arctic Policy

The six pillars of the Policy are as follows:

  • Science and Research
  • Economic and Human Development Cooperation
  • Climate and Environmental Protection
  • Transportation and Connectivity
  • Governance and International Cooperation
  • National Capacity Building


Current Affairs


The Objectives of the Policy

  • Strengthening national capabilities and competencies in science and exploration, climate and environmental protection, maritime and economic cooperation with the Arctic region. Institutional and human resource capacities will be strengthened within Government and academic, research and business institutions.
  • Inter-ministerial coordination in pursuit of India’s interests in the Arctic.
  • Enhancing understanding of the impact of climate change in the Arctic on India’s climate, economic, and energy security.
  • Contributing better analysis, prediction, and coordinated policymaking on the implications of ice melting in the Arctic on India’s economic, military and strategic interests related to global shipping routes, energy security, and exploitation of mineral wealth.
  • Studying linkages between polar regions and the Himalayas.
  • Deepen cooperation between India and countries of the Arctic region under various Arctic forums, drawing expertise from scientific and traditional knowledge.
  • Increase India’s participation in the Arctic Council and improve understanding of the complex governance structures in the Arctic, relevant international laws, and geopolitics of the region


Does this India’s Arctic Policy Address the Gaps?

  • Scientific Orientation: India’s Arctic Policy has gone beyond the hithertofore purely scientific approach. While the primary focus is still scientific, the six pillars address all the aspects of Arctic relevant to India, including climate change and environment, economic and human resources and geopolitical and strategic aspects. This would likely make India’s engagement with the Arctic more broad-based and enable a holistic approac
  • Funding: The Policy declares that its implementation will be based on allocation of requisite resources. With the enhancement of a multidisciplinary approach to the Arctic, it is hoped that budgetary support to India’s scientific Arctic endeavours will be substantially augmented.
  • Polar Research Vessel: The intent articulated in the Arctic Policy of acquiring a dedicated ice-class Polar Research Vessel will hasten the process and provide impetus to India’s Arctic Programme.
  • Whole-of-Government Focus: The objectives outlined in India’s Arctic Policy are to be implemented through an Action Plan and a governance and review mechanism consisting of an inter-ministerial Empowered Arctic Policy Group (EAPG)
    • This mechanism is likely to enable better analysis, prediction and coordinated approach in the Government of India, lend policy coherence to the region and will result in better realisation of India’s strategic, military and economic interests.


On the whole, India’s Arctic Policy is timely and is likely to provide a direction to India’s policy-makers on contours of India’s engagement with the region. It is the first step towards developing a whole-of-government approach on India’s engagement with the region.

  • The Policy is likely to have a multiplier effect towards a more synergised and focused scientific research including an enhanced understanding of linkages between monsoons and climate change in the Arctic, and between polar studies and the Himalayas.
  • Thus, India’s Arctic Policy is deftly dovetailed, enmeshed and in synergy with the broader policy framework of the Government of India



Prelims Link:

  • India’s Arctic Policy History
  • Benefits of Arctic Policy

Mains Link:

The recent Arctic Policy has overcome the gaps in earlier related Interventions of India. Do you agree? Comment

Source: The Indian Express

Competition Commission of India (CCI)

GS Paper: 2

Topics Covered: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.


What to study?

For prelims: objectives, composition and functions of CCI.

For mains: issues associated with its functioning and the need for reforms.


Context:  The Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2022 has been introduced that aims to improve regulatory set-up by increasing the CCI’s accountability, giving it flexibility and enforcement efficiency.


Key Changes mentioned in the bill:

Increasing transparency and strengthening the accountability:

  • A board with part-time members to supervise CCI activities.
    • This would bring its regulatory architecture at par with that of financial regulators.
  • CCI to mandatorily issue penalty guidelines and give reasons in case of any divergence.
    • It will give much-needed certainty in regulatory environment.


Enforcement efficiency: 

  • CCI could engage in structured negotiations with parties and arrive at mutually-workable solutions without having to go through lengthy formal proceedings.
    • This will bring powers of CCI on par with Sebi, which has been passing settlement orders for over a decade.
  • Previously CCI was only empowered to take action for abuse of dominance or anti-competitive agreements in the form of final orders in proceedings before it.
  • CCI can make appeals to the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal conditional on a pre-deposit of up to 25% of the penalty imposed by the CCI.
    • This change is likely to deter frivolous appeals.
  • Shortening of the merger review period from 210 to 150 days
  • Introduction of a green channel for merger applications: Certain categories of mergers that had to wait for CCI approval would be allowed to attain full consummation without any standstill obligation under the new green-channel process.


Flexibility: Previously, only those agreements are allowed if agreements made between businesses at the same level of production (such as competitors that form a cartel) or businesses that are in a directly upstream or downstream market (such as agreements between a manufacturer and distributor). If the parties do not fall in either of these brackets, anti-competitive agreements between them can go unchecked.

  • But the bill also recognizes other forms of cartels such as hub-and-spoke cartels, it also has a catch-all provision to enable the CCI to deal with anti-competitive pacts irrespective of the structural relationships between parties.


  • The bill does little to address competition concerns in digital markets. e.g., mergers concern in digital markets between entities that do not have significant assets or turnover, but are still very significant (such as Facebook-WhatsApp). The flexibility to introduce new thresholds will let the CCI review such mergers.
  • No effective clause for regulating anti-competitive conduct by digital platforms.
  • Delayed: It was released for public comments in 2020, and given the rapid developments in digital markets and global regulatory responses, it seems to have got dated already.


 Competition Commission of India:

It is a statutory body of the Government of India, responsible for enforcing the Competition Act, 2002 throughout India and to prevent activities that have an adverse effect on competition.


Current Affairs


Objectives of the Commission:

  • To prevent practices having adverse effect on competition.
  • To promote and sustain competition in markets.
  • To protect the interests of consumers.
  • To ensure freedom of trade.


Functions of the commission:

  • It is the duty of the Commission to eliminate practices having adverse effect on competition, promote and sustain competition, protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India.
  • The Commission is also required to give opinion on competition issues on a reference received from a statutory authority established under any law and to undertake competition advocacy, create public awareness and impart training on competition issues.


Insta Curious:

Comparison of the current bill with 2002 version?

How might cartels be worse than monopolies? Read this.



Prelims Link:

  1. About CCI.
  2. Highlights of the Competition Act and amendments to it.
  3. About NCLT and its jurisdiction.
  4. What is Cartelisation?

Mains Link:

Discuss the roles and functions of CCI.

Sources: Live Mint

Ukraine war could cut 1% off global growth: OECD

GS Paper: 3

Topic Covered: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Ukraine war could cut 1% off global growth: OECD


The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recently reported that the Russian invasion of Ukraine could reduce the global growth rate by a percentage this year and increase inflation by two-and-a-half percentage points.

What were the other important observations made by OECD?

  • War’s impact on European Union could be high because of its high dependence on Russia’s energy imports
  • OECD countries through increased government spending by 0.5% could lessen the impact of inflation on these countries

About OECD


  • Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was founded in 1948 to help administer the Marshall Plan
  • In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states
  • Headquarter — Paris, France
  • It works through consensus to develop policy recommendations and other “soft law” instruments to encourage policy reform in member countries


  • Currently, it has 38 members
  • India is not a member but a key partner
  • It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy
  • Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries
  • It provides a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members.

Resources — funded by contributions from member states at varying rates


  • OECD Council — provide direction and guidance to the work of the Organisation. Each member country is represented.
  • OECD Substantive Committees — oversee all the work on each theme (publications, task forces, conferences, and so on)
  • OECD Secretariat — led by the Secretary-General provides support to Standing and Substantive Committees

Special bodies and entities associated with OECD

  • International Transport Forum (ITF) (formally known as the European Conference of Ministers of Transport)
  • International Energy Agency
  • Nuclear Energy Agency
  • Partnership for Democratic Governance (PDG)
  • Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC)


Insta curious

Know how OECD is helping to usher green and sustainable growth

Insta links

  1. Prelims link
  • About OECD
  • What is inflation?
  1. Mains link

How does the Russia-Ukraine conflict impact the global economy and also the Indian economy? Discuss. (15M)

Facts for Prelims:


1. Daylight Saving Time (DST)

  • S. Senate passed a law (Sunshine Protection Act) to make daylight saving time (DST) permanent. This will scrap the practice of changing clocks forward and back twice a year.
  • Daylight Saving Time (DST), also known as summertime in some countries, is a mechanism to save energy and it involves resetting the clocks.



In summer, the sun rises earlier and sets later, thus there will be more daylight hours. Thus, if the clocks are advanced in the summer months, there will be more usable hours of daylight. Hence, there will be longer evening daytime or an extra hour of daylight for activities, which ensures lower consumption of electricity and other forms of energy.

In fall or autumn, as the duration of daylight becomes shorter, clocks are set back to standard time.

Current Affairs


2. Dishaank app

Dishaank is an application developed by Karnataka to ensure easy access to land records.


  • The Dishaank app is developed under the Geographical Information System (GIS) program of the Karnataka State Remote Sensing Applications Center (KSRSAC).
  • The KSRSAC provides satellite data to agencies such as the SSLR unit for innovative use.
  • Dishaank leverages Karnataka’s decision to digitize land records under the Bhoomi project.
  • The objective of this app is to enable citizens to avail the information about the land and its ownership as recorded in the Bhoomi database



3. Kamikaze drones

  • Also called Switchblade drones, these are small unmanned aircraft that are packed with explosives that can be flown directly at a tank or a group of troops that are destroyed when it hits the target and explodes.


  • Weighing just five-and-a-half pounds, including its small warhead, the Switchblade can be taken into battle in a backpack and fly up to 7 miles to hit a target. They are called Switchblade because their bladelike wings spring out on launch.


  • The Switchblade also has cameras that show a target seconds before impact.
  • Although the Kamikaze might be the most advanced form of this genre of drones, Russia, China, Israel, Iran and Turkey all have some version of it.

Fig: Kamikaze drone



  1. India’s first hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric car project


Recently, Union Ministry for Road Transport and Highways, Nitin Gadkari inaugurated a pilot project for Hydrogen-based advanced Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV).

About the project

Toyota Kirloskar Motor Pvt. Ltd. along with International Center for Automotive Technology (ICAT) initiated this Pilot project to study and evaluate the world’s most advanced FCEV Toyota Mirai which runs on hydrogen, on Indian roads and climatic conditions.

The aim is to spread awareness regarding Hydrogen, Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) technology, and disseminate the benefits to support a hydrogen-based ecosystem.

About FCEV

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) is powered by hydrogen. FCEV is environment-friendly, as it has zero tailpipe emissions. Thus it is one of the best zero-emission solutions.

Current Affairs

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