Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 3 March 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Society: Role of women and women’s organization

1. The male domination of the ‘new and modern women’ is being done through a novel system of neo-patriarchy. What is ‘Neo-Patriarchy’ and analyze its impact on Indian society with relevant examples. (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The study, titled ‘How Indians View Gender Roles in Families and Society’ was released by Pew Research Centre.

Key Demand of the question:

‘Neo-Patriarchy’ and its impact on Indian society

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief meaning of Neo-Patriarchy with example

Body:

Show with the help of examples how modern women had to face this form of patriarchy in a subtle way in every aspect of life.

e.g. While Indians accept women as political leaders, they mostly favour traditional gender roles in family life, says a report released by the Pew Research Center, a Washington DC-based non-profit. 

Nine-in-ten Indians agree with the notion that a wife must always obey her husband

Suggest how this form of patriarchy be tackled.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the futuristic way forward.

Introduction

Patriarchy is a complex and a mystifying institution of power and control in the society. Patriarchy signifies a male dominated structure which has a long history and has existed in every society in the world. Neopatriarchy is the new form of power and control structure which is guided by women, but supervised by men in the family. Eg: Nine-in-ten Indians agree with the notion that a wife must always obey her husband”. Indian women were only slightly less likely than Indian men to agree with this sentiment (61% versus 67%).

Body

Modern patriarchy in India

  • Women as political leaders: As per Pew research centre report, while Indians accept women as political leaders, they mostly favour traditional gender roles in family life.
  • Childcare responsibilities: Even today most burden of child care is borne by women; who even leave their jobs to become full-time moms. Traditional norms still held sway, with 34% convinced that child care “should be handled primarily by women”.
  • Wage and employment: Similarly, while a “slim majority (54%) says that both men and women” should be responsible for earning money, as many as 43% believed that earning an income is mainly the obligation of men.
    • Also, 80% of Indians agreed with the idea that when there are few jobs, men should have more rights to a job than women.
    • This is the reason for a very low labour force participation amongst women in India (21% vs 53% global median)
  • Son meta-preference: While Indians valued both sons and daughters, nearly 94% said it is very important for a family to have at least one son, with the corresponding figure for daughters being 90%.

Need of the hour

  • Behavioral Nudge: For instance, by using taxes to incentivize fairly sharing child-care responsibilities, or by encouraging women and girls to enter traditionally male-dominated sectors such as the armed forces and information technology. Eg Supreme Court in India declared that women could now hold commanding positions in Army.
    • Paternity leaves for men, to share the responsibility of child rearing.
    • Incentivizing companies to employ women, and reach 50% target.
  • Gender Justice at Work
    • Bridging the wage gap for equal work.
    • Making work places safer through strong laws. India has enacted Sexual Harassment at workplaces act.
    • Promote diversity and anti-bias courses for all employees.
    • Comprehensive leadership training for women to excel in their fields.
  • Gender sensitization: Breaking the social barriers by gender sensitization and education at families, schools and workplaces. Eg : In the NCERT Books, gender roles, bias and prejudice inducing writings were removed.
  • Social security and financial literacy: Formalization of jobs should be pushed to avail benefits to many women. Until then, social security benefits should be provided to women in unorganized sector. Eg : Self Help Group-Bank Linkage Programme in India
    • Embedding financial literacy in programmes where women have significant representation could be a good starting point.
  • Strong laws and policies wrt equal pay for equal work, maternity benefits are needed to promote women’s representation in economy.
  • Political Representation: India has provided 33% reservation for women in the Panchayats and Local Bodies. Capacity Building and training can increase their capabilities further.

Conclusion

Gender equality is a human right which entitles all persons irrespective of their gender to live with dignity and with freedom. Gender equality is also a precondition for development and reducing of poverty. Gender shouldn’t be an unreasonable determining factor curbing the potential of women.

 Value addition

Examples from other nations to quote

  • Iceland: The island nation has a culture of political empowerment, and 39.7% of parliamentarians and 40% of ministers are women. It also became the first country in the world to make the gender pay gap illegal, together with the highest proportion of GDP expanded on childcare.
  • Finland: It has closed 86.1% of gender gap. With further improvement on the economic participation and opportunity sub-index, India should learn to actively include women’s participation in the labour force.
  • Norway: Gender quotas legislate for a 40% female presence in the country’s Parliament and on business boards, resulting in a strong female presence.
  • Sweden: Sweden remains one of the countries offering the most gender-equal conditions for childcare: 78% of annual gross wages are covered during maternity leave with public spending on childcare being 1.6% of GDP

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

2. Examine, why the signs of confrontation between State Governor and the elected government have become frequent in India. How can the Governor’s role be clarified to avert such situations? (250 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The issues relating to Governor’s office in states has been in the news

Key Demand of the question:

The reasons for confrontation and the measures needed in this perspective

Directive word:

Examine– When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on the role of Governor in India, mentioning relevant constitutional Articles

Body:

First, mention the Articles which confer the Governor special powers

Then, the instances of confrontation in recent times

The reasons for such confrontations

Finally, measures are needed to avert such situations; here recommendations by certain commissions can be mentioned as well

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

Article 154 of the Constitution envisages Governor as the executive chief of the state. All executive actions are taken in his name. B R Ambedkar called the office of the Governor as the “office of dignity”. He is not an agent of the Centre, but the governor’s post in an independent Constitutional office. His office is the linchpin of Indian Cooperative Federalism.

The recent tussle between Kerala CM Pinarayi Vijayan and Governor Arif Mohammed Khan,  over several issues in recent times has once again shown the high frequency of confrontations between Governor and Chief Minister in States.

Body

Role of the Governor:

  • The Constitution thus assigns to the Governor the role of a Constitutional sentinel and that of a vital link between the Union and the State.
  • The Governor, on occasions, could also play a useful role as a channel of communication between the Union and the State in regard to matters of mutual interest and responsibility
  • India invented the role of state governor after Independence to act as a conduit between the ceremonial head of state (the president) and the chief minister of each state, as the president’s eyes and ears in the country’s diverse and far-flung states.
  • Their duty is to be neutral guardians of the complex relationship between the federal government and state governments belonging to different political parties.
  • Being the holder of an independent Constitutional office, the Governor is not a subordinate or a subservient agent of the Union Government.
  • The Governor is expected to advance the cause of federalism and democracy in the contemporary constitutional landscape, which form a part of the basic structure of the constitution.
  • As the distinguished constitutional expert, Nani A. Palkhivala explained it “the Constitution intended that the Governor should be the instrument to maintain the fundamental equilibrium of the people of the State and to ensure that the mandates of the Constitution are respected in the State”.
  • In his speech on the constitutional role of Governors, B.R. Ambedkar described how a Governor should use his discretion not as “representative of a party” but as “the representative of the people as a whole”

Tyranny of the unelected in recent times

  • Gubernatorial powers:Misusing the powers of Governor.g.: In Maharashtra, Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari has stalled the election of Speaker since the post fell vacant in February 2021. He had refused to accept the recommendation of the Council of Ministers on the nomination of 12 members to the Legislative Council, until the matter reached the High Court.
  • Locking horns with Government:g.: West Bengal Governor Jagdeep Dhankhar has made allegations of impropriety in welfare schemes, questioned Government claims about investments in the State, and taken up the cudgels for the Opposition BJP. He has been summoning the Chief Secretary and the Director General of Police on a regular basis, and when they do not turn up, taking to Twitter and often tagging the Chief Minister.
  • Governor’s appointmentArticle 155says that governor should be appointed (not elected) from amongst persons of high status with eminence in public. The elected government at the state is not even consulted while making appointment of the Governors. Further successive governments have reduced this important constitutional office to a sinecure and resting place for loyal and retired / about to retired / about to retire politicians apart from docile bureaucrats.
  • Appointment and dismissal of the Chief Minister: Governor appoints Chief Minister, other ministers, Advocate General, Chairmen and members of the State Public Service Commission in the state. After elections in the state, there is a convention to invite the largest party to form government in the state. This convention has been flouted many times at the whim of the governor. E.g.: The recent episode Maharashtra where Governor inducted a new government at 5:00 am without ascertaining the requisite numbers for the government.
  • Reservation of Bills for Consideration of President: As per Article 200of the Constitution, the governor can reserve certain types of bills passed by the State Legislature for the President’s consideration. Centre, through the governor in case of different parties ruling, used this provision to serve partisan interests. g. In Tamil Nadu, Governor R.N. Ravi has not acted upon the T.N. Admission to Undergraduate Medical Degree Courses Bill, adopted by the Assembly in September 2021. the indefinite delay in taking a decision amounts to undermining the legislature, and is unjustifiable.
  • Misuse of Article 356: Article 356is the most controversial article of the Constitution. It provides for State emergency or President’s rule in State if the President, on receipt of report from the Governor of a State. But since the SR Bommai case, this has been sparsely used.
  • Removal of the Governor:Article 156 says that the governor will hold office during the pleasure of the President for five years. The governor has no security of tenure and no fixed term of office. This prevents to uphold neutrality of the governor, fearing retribution. E.g.: The mass changing of the governors of state whenever a new government comes to power at Centre.

Need for codification of powers of the Governor

Below committee recommendations must be codified to remove any ambiguity.

  • Rajamannar Committee: Consultation of the CM must become mandatory before the appointment of the Governor.
  • Punchhi Commission: The phrase “during the pleasure of the President” should be deleted from the Constitution.
    • Governor should be removed only by a resolution of the state legislature.
    • Qualification for the post must be laid down in Constitution while giving security of tenure. This will enable the Governor to take impartial and neutral decisions.
  • Sarkaria Commission Report (1988): On appointment of Governor: –
    • Governor should be an eminent person and not belong to the state where he is to be posted.
    • State chief minister should have a say in the appointment of governor
    • Governor should be a detached figure without intense political links or should not have taken part in politics in recent past.
    • Governor should not be a member of the ruling party.
  • Other recommendations: Governor must act at all times in aid and advise of CM, unless as given specifically in the Constitution.
    • He or she must not overpower or assume the role of state government.

Conclusion

In a federal structure, the states cannot function as vassals of the Centre. Governors are a relic of the British past and many of them have downgraded themselves to mere agents of the Centre with utter disregard to constitutional provisions, conventions, precedents and even court verdicts. It is perhaps time to take a re-look at the post of governor itself or at least codify their powers to ensure that tyranny of the unelected does not triumph over popular governments.

 

Topic: Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. The growing scourge of Anti-microbial resistance in India needs urgent attention. Do you agree? Comment. (150 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: The Indian Express

Why the question:

The issues of Anti-Microbial resistance has become a priority after COVID-19

Key Demand of the question:

The factors responsible for the growth of Anti-microbial resistance, and the attention needed 

Directive word:

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the topic and form an overall opinion thereupon

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on Anti-Microbial resistance (AMR)

Body:

First, mention the reasons for growth of AMR in India; followed by implications

Then, highlight the actions of the Government in this perspective

Further, mention the attention needed to address growing AMR in India

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

The WHO defines antimicrobial resistance (AMR) – also known as drug resistance – as a condition wherein microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change in ways that render the medications (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarial, and anthelmintic) used to cure the infections they cause ineffective. When the microorganisms become resistant to most antimicrobials they are often referred to as “superbugs”.

Body

Growing scourge of Anti-microbial resistance in India

  • Ever since the pandemic struck, concerns have been raised about the improper use of antimicrobials amongst Covid-19 patients.
  • The worry is that unnecessary prescription of antimicrobials will lead to a further increase in the already high levels of drug resistance in most parts of the world.
  • A growing list of infections – such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, blood poisoning, gonorrhoea, and foodborne diseases – are becoming tougher, and at times impossible, to treat as antibiotics become less productive, emergence and spread of resistance is made worse because of procurement of antibiotics for animal and human consumption without a doctor’s supervision or a prescription etc.
  • India has been reporting high levels of resistance to fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins and carbapenems across the Gram-negative pathogens that cause almost 70 per cent of infections in communities and hospitals.
  • Burden of infectious disease (Bacterial infections) is high and healthcare spending is low.
  • The National Health Policy 2017 highlights the problem of antimicrobial resistance and calls for effective action to address it.
  • The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW) identified AMR as one of the top 10 priorities for the ministry’s collaborative work with WHO.

Reasons for the spread of AMR:

  • Antibiotic consumption in humans
    • Unnecessary and injudicious use of antibiotic fixed dose combinations could lead to emergence of bacterial strains resistant to multiple antibiotics.
  • Social factors
    • Self-medication.
    • Access to antibiotics without prescription.
    • Lack of knowledge about when to use antibiotics.
  • Cultural Activities
    • Mass bathing in rivers as part of religious mass gathering occasions.
  • Antibiotic Consumption in Food Animals
    • Antibiotics which are critical to human health are commonly used for growth promotion in poultry.
  • Pharmaceutical Industry Pollution
    • The wastewater effluents from the antibiotic manufacturing units contain a substantial amount of antibiotics, leading to contamination of rivers and lakes.
  • Environmental Sanitation
    • Untreated disposal of sewage water bodies – leading to contamination of rivers with antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant organisms.
  • Infection Control Practices in Healthcare Settings
    • A report on hand-washing practices of nurses and doctors found that only 31.8% of them washed hands after contact with patients.

Measures in India

  • National programme on AMR containment was launched during 12thFYP in 2012-17. Under this programme, AMR Surveillance Network has been strengthened by establishing labs in State Medical College. 30 sites in 24 states have been included in this network till 30th March 2021.
  • National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (NAP-AMR) focusing on One Health approach was launched in 2017 with the aim of involving various stakeholder ministries/departments.
  • Delhi Declaration on AMR– an inter-ministerial consensus was signed by the ministers of the concerned ministries pledging their support in AMR containment.
  • ICMR has established AMR surveillance and research network (AMRSN) in 2013, to generate evidence and capture trends and patterns of drug resistant infections in the country. This network comprises of 30 tertiary care hospitals, both private and government.
  • In 2012, India’s medical societies adopted the Chennai Declaration, a set of national recommendations to promote antibiotic stewardship.
  • India’s Red Line campaign demands that prescription-only antibiotics be marked with a red line, to discourage the over-the-counter sale of antibiotics.
  • India has instituted surveillance of the emergence of drug resistance in disease causing microbes in programmes on Tuberculosis, Vector Borne diseases, AIDS, etc.
  • Since March 2014, a separate Schedule H-1 has been incorporated in Drug and Cosmetic rules to regulate the sale of antimicrobials in the country.
  • The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) banned the use of antibiotics and several pharmacologically active substances in fisheries.
  • The government has also capped the maximum levels of drugs that can be used for growth promotion in meat and meat products.
  • ICMR has undertaken a project on an “Integrated One Health Surveillance Network for Antimicrobial Resistance” in collaboration with Indian Council of Agriculture research (ICAR) to assess the preparedness of Indian Veterinary laboratories to participate in integrated AMR surveillance network.
  • ICMR has also created veterinary standard operating procedure (Vet-SOPs) for enabling comparison of antimicrobial resistance patterns in animals and humans.

Way forward

  • India proposed laws to curb the amount of active antibiotics released in pharmaceutical waste
  • In addition to developing new antimicrobials, infection-control measures can reduce antibiotic use.
  • It is critical to ensure that all those who need an antimicrobial have access to it.
  • To track the spread of resistance in microbes, surveillance measures to identify these organisms need to encompass livestock, wastewater and farm run-offs.
  • We need sustained investments and global coordination to detect and combat new resistant strains on an ongoing basis.
  • International alignment and coordination are paramount in both policymaking and its implementation.
  • Solutions in clinical medicine must be integrated with improved surveillance of AMR in agriculture, animal health and the environment

Conclusion

Anti-Microbial Resistance is not a country specific issue but a global concern that is jeopardizing global health security. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major public health problems. Reducing the incidence of infection through effective infection prevention and control.  As stated by WHO, making infection prevention and hand hygiene a national policy priority is need of the hour.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: -Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. “GDP is a poor way of assessing the health of our economies and we urgently need to find a new measure.” Clarifying the statement, Argue why GDP fails as a measure of well-beings and suggest alternative ways. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Basic Economy, NCERT

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key demand of the question

Highlight the limitations of GDP measurement for an Economy.

Structure of the answer

Introduction

Explain what is GDP method of growth measurement.

Body

Explain the limitations of GDP:

GDP leaves out some production in an economy. Even though GDP is frequently used to capture the wellbeing of a society, it was never intended to do that, and as a result, it leaves out important aspects of well-being like pollution or even happiness.

Suggest alternative ways: E.g. Gross National Happiness (used by Bhutan), Gross Environmental Product (adopted by Uttrakhand Government)

Conclusion:

Summerize with a relevant way forward.

Introduction

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the total monetary or market value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period. As a broad measure of overall domestic production, it functions as a comprehensive scorecard of a given country’s economic health.

Samuelson and Nordhaus liken the ability of GDP to give an overall picture of the state of the economy to that of a satellite in space that can survey the weather across an entire continent.

Body

GDP is a poor way of assessing health of our economies

  • Simon Kuznets, who developed concept of GDP, warned it was not a suitable measure of a country’s economic development. He understood that GDP is not a welfare measure, it is not a measure of how well we are all doing. It counts the things that we’re buying and selling, but it’s quite possible for GDP to go in the opposite direction of welfare.
  • In contemporary times, with the changes brought on by the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the measure is even less of a reflection of the things that really matter.
  • GDP counts “bads” as well as “goods.” When an earthquake hits and requires rebuilding, GDP increases. When someone gets sick and money is spent on their care, it’s counted as part of GDP. But nobody would argue that we’re better off because of a destructive earthquake or people getting sick.
  • GDP makes no adjustment for leisure time. Imagine two economies with identical standards of living, but in one economy the workday averages 12 hours, while in the other it’s only eight.
  • GDP only counts goods that pass through official, organized markets, so it misses home production and black market activity. If people begin hiring others to clean their homes instead of doing it themselves, or if they go out to dinner instead of cooking at home, GDP will appear to grow even though the total amount produced hasn’t changed.
  • GDP doesn’t adjust for the distribution of goods. Again, imagine two economies, but this time one has a ruler who gets 90 percent of what’s produced, and everyone else subsists — barely — on what’s left over. In the second, the distribution is considerably more equitable. In both cases, GDP per capita will be the same.
  • GDP isn’t adjusted for pollution costs. If two economies have the same GDP per capita, but one has polluted air and water while the other doesn’t, well-being will be different but GDP per capita won’t capture it.
  • GDP is unable to fully capture the benefits of technology. Think of a free app on your phone that you rely upon for traffic updates, directions, the weather, instantaneous information and so on. Because it’s free, there’s no way to use prices — our willingness to pay for the good — as a measure of how much we value it.

GDP fails as a measure of human well-being:

  • Since the institution of GDP figures and country rankings, other measures of the quality of life have appeared. E.g.:, The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) annually issues a report based on a study of 140 countries, indicating the levels of happiness in those countries. For at least the last decade, European countries such as Denmark, Finland, have ranked at the top and India is nowhere to be seen.
  • Economists have focused too narrowly on the economic side of human aspirations, setting aside human yearnings for belonging to social collectives and nations.
  • The progress is too unequal. g.: The Oxfam report which shows that 1% of the people own about 60% of the wealth in India.
  • GDP is neither a measure of welfare nor an indicator of well-being.
    • That is because it is not set up to recognize important aspects of our lives that are not captured by the acts of spending and investing.
    • There is no room in GDP for volunteering or housework, for example; nor does it recognize that there is value in community or in time spent with families.
    • More measurable things such as damage to our environment are also left out, as is job satisfaction. GDP doesn’t even measure the state of jobs.
  • Capitalist systems founded on a religion of property rights have treated nature that nurtures as an “externality” to be exploited. Thus, it does not take into account the sustainability of future GDP.
  • GDP also ignores important factors like environment, happiness, community, fairness and justice. But these are important aspects of development.
  • It does not allow for the health of children, the quality of their education or the strength of marriages; neither wisdom nor learning; neither compassion nor devotion to country which makes life worthwhile.
  • GDP also assumes all growth is good growth. g.: savings from energy-efficient devices counts as a negative for GDP growth, even though it is a positive for society.
  • GDP does not take into account the value of non-monetized activity. g.: Care activity of women.
  • GDP does not differentiate between more or less productive economic activity (i.e. implicitly assumes that economic activity is the desirable ends rather than a means to an end).
  • All value additions for self-consumption, which are not put out in the market, are not accounted in the GDP.

Way forward

  • Broader, non-monetary measures are required to assess the well-being of citizens.
  • Green GDP could be used which attempts to adjust for environmental factors
  • The other alternative measures include OECD’s “GDP alternatives,” which adjust for leisure; the “Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare,” which accounts for both pollution costs and the distribution of income.
  • The “Genuine Progress Indicator,” which “adjusts for factors such as income distribution, adds factors such as the value of household and volunteer work, and subtracts factors such as the costs of crime and pollution.”
  • There are more direct measures of well-being such as the Happy Planet Index, Gross National Happiness and National Well-Being Accounts.
  • To make the world better for everyone, consumers must learn to be better citizens and to democratically govern the local systems within which they live.

Value addition

Benefits of GDP as a tool to measure the growth of a nation:

  • GDP consists of consumer spending, Investment expenditure, government spending and net exports.
  • It provides an insight to investors which highlights the trend of the economy by comparing GDP levels as an index.
  • GDP is used as an indicator for most governments and economic decision-makers for planning and policy formulation.
  • GDP is not the perfect way to measure growth. But among the alternatives, it is the least “inaccurate” method to compute the growth rate of the country.
  • GDP is also used as an indicator of a nation’s overall standard of living because, generally, a nation’s standard of living increases as GDP increases.
  • If by growth one means the expansion of output of goods and services, then GDP or preferably real GDP which measures growth without the effects of inflation is perfectly satisfactory
  • Calculation of GDP provides with the general health of the economy. A negative GDP growth portrays bad signals for the economy. Economists analyse GDP to find out whether the economy is in recession, depression or boom.
  • GDP growth over time enables central banks and policymakers to evaluate whether the economy is in recession or inflation. In that sense it is still required.
  • GDP has held significance as a universal metric over the years.
  • It is inaccurate to say that GDP does not capture wellbeing. It captures at least the wellbeing that results from the production of goods and services. Indeed, when statisticians quantify the goods and services produced, they take into account their utility to the consumer.

 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Highlighting the meaning of national Income, briefly discuss major methods of calculating National Income in India with help of examples. (250 Words)

Reference: NCERT Class XI

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key demand of the question:

Methods of Income calculation, their importance.

Directive:

Discuss: This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Give a brief introduction about the National Income calculation in India.

Body:

Mention major methods of calculation:

The national income of a country can be measured by three alternative methods: (i) Product Method (ii) Income Method, and (iii) Expenditure Method.

Explain each method with help of examples in simple terms.

Also, highlight the usefulness of each method as well.

Conclusion:

Suggest a relevant way forward.

Introduction

National Income is the total value of all final goods and services produced by the country in certain year. The growth of National Income helps to know the progress of the country. In other words, the total amount of income accruing to a country from economic activities in a year’s time is known as national income. It includes payments made to all resources in the form of wages, interest, rent and profits. However, National income is not the sum of all incomes earned by all citizens, but only those incomes which accrue due to participation in the production process.

Body

The Net National Product at factor cost is known as National Income.

NNP @Factor Cost = National Income = NNP @Market Price – Taxes + Subsidies

However, the Central Statistics Office (CSO) under the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation defines National Income of India as Net National Income at Market Price.

 

Major methods of National Income Calculation

  • Production Method
    • This method is also called as Output Method or Value Added Method
    • The production method gives us national income or national product based on the final value of the produce and the origin of the produce in terms of the industry.
    • All producing units are classified sector wise.
    • Primary sector is divided into agriculture, fisheries, animal husbandry.
    • Secondary sector consists of manufacturing.
    • Tertiary sector is divided into trade, transport, communication, banking, insurance etc.
    • Then, the net value added by each productive enterprises as well as by each industry or sector is estimated.
  • Income Method
    • Different factors of production are paid for their productive services rendered to an organization.
    • The various incomes that includes in these methods are wages, income of self employed, interest, profit, dividend, rents, and surplus of public sector and net flow of income from abroad.
  • Expenditure Method
    • The various sectors – the household sector, the government sector, the business sector, either spend their income on consumer goods and services or they save a part of their income.
    • These can be categorized as private consumption expenditure, private investment, public consumption, public investment etc.

Conclusion

In India, National Income is calculated by the combined method. It combines two methods i.e product or output method and the income method. This is done to overcome the problem of deficiency of statistics. The product method endeavours to find out the net contribution to national income of all producing units. The income method adds up income and payments accruing of factors of production. This method is used in the tertiary  sector like government services banking etc and also in the commodity sector if output data is not available.

 

Topic: Science and Technology: Developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

6. What are cluster bombs and thermobaric weapons and how do they work? Does its use goes against International conventions and be considered a war crime. Discuss (250 Words)

Reference: Deccan Herald, Interesting engineering

Why the question:

Russia has been alleged to have used these weapons against Ukraine

Key demand of the question:

About Thermobaric weapons

Directive:

Discuss: This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Give a brief introduction about these weapons

Body:

Briefly describe their working:

The weapons use a 2-stage explosion mechanism, in which the first stage distributes the fuel in highly-minute aerosol form, creating a cloud, and the second stage ignites the cloud, triggering a fireball and a vacuum which sucks up surrounding oxygen, resulting in massive high-energy explosion.
Mention various treaties banning its use and why it should be considered war crime.

Conclusion:

Suggest a relevant way forward.

Introduction

The 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions defines a cluster munition as a “conventional munition that is designed to disperse or release explosive submunitions each weighing less than 20 kilograms, and includes those explosive submunitions”.

A thermobaric weapon comprises entirely of fuel and relies on atmospheric oxygen to generate the explosion. It is also called vacuum bombs as they suck in oxygen from surrounding areas to generate high-voltage explosions. It differs from most conventional explosives which use a mix of fuel and an oxidiser to cause an explosion.

Ukraine has alleged that Russia has used thermobaric weapons, commonly called “vacuum bombs”, during the ongoing war between the two countries.

Body

Background

Cluster bombs:

  • Cluster bombs are non-precision weapons that are designed to injure or kill human beings indiscriminately over a large area, and to destroy vehicles and infrastructure such as runways, railway or power transmission lines.
  • They can be dropped from an aircraft or launched in a projectile that spins in flight, scattering many bomblets as it travels.
  • Many of these bomblets end up not exploding, but continue to lie on the ground, often partially or fully hidden and difficult to locate and remove, posing a threat to the civilian population for long after the fighting has ceased.
  • The Convention on Cluster Munitions specifically identifies “cluster munition remnants”, which include “failed cluster munitions, abandoned cluster munitions, unexploded submunitions and unexploded bomblets”.

Thermobaric bombs

  • The thermobaric bomb involves a two-stage munition. The first stage converts carbon-based fuel into minute metal particulates, which are discharged as an aerosol.
  • The second part detonates the aerosol, converting it into a huge fireball and simultaneously creating an impactful shock wave. Inside this shock wave, a vacuum is created, which draws in the nearby oxygen and exponentially enhances the severity of the explosion..
  • Thermobaric weapons basically suck the air out of the lungs of anyone unfortunate enough to be within their range of explosion. They function on a combination of heat and pressure and take inspiration from coal mine explosions.
  • While they cannot be used in taking down tanks and other such military vehicles, they can dismantle civilian spaces, like residential or commercial complexes.
  • The weapons are also known as fuel-air explosives (FAE), and they were originally used in the Vietnam war by the USA, which led to the Soviets designing their own version.
  • Russia currently possesses third-generation FAE warheads and has developed variants that can even be launched from an RPG-7.
  • In modern conflicts, the weapons have seen use in the US war against Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, and Russia’s use in Chechnya in 2000, which was condemned by the Human Rights Watch as a “dangerous escalation”.

Usage of Cluster bombs and Thermobaric bombs

  • Cluster weaponry has been banned by the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions;however, neither Ukraine nor Russia were signatories at the convention.
  • Convention on Cluster Munitions is an international treaty that prohibits all use, transfer, production, and stockpiling of cluster bombs, a type of explosive weapon which scatters submunitions (“bomblets”) over an area.
  • Additionally, the Convention establishes a framework to support victim assistance, clearance of contaminated sites, risk reduction education, and stockpile destruction.
  • As of date, there are 110 state parties to the convention, and 13 other countries have signed up but are yet to ratify it.
  • Vacuum or thermobaric bombs are not prohibited by any international law or agreement, but their use against civilian populations in built-up areas, schools or hospitals, could, according to a report in the BBC, attract action under the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907.
  • India is also not a signatory to the Convention on Cluster Munition but the government acknowledges the humanitarian concerns associated with these weapons.

Conclusion

However,  international humanitarian law prohibits the use of inherently indiscriminate weapons such as cluster munitions. Launching indiscriminate attacks that kill or injure civilians constitutes a war crime.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Attitude: Influence of attitude in thought and behaviour, Relation of attitude to thought and behaviour

 7. “A humane approach can solve insurmountable problems where all other measures  have failed”. Elaborate (150 Words )

Difficulty level: Tough

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Abstract Thursdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about tackling problems through a humane approach.

Structure of the answer:

 Introduction:

Begin by addressing what humane approaches are.

Body:

First, with examples mention how other means have failed in addressing various problems prevalent in society as whole. E.g. World Wars, Covid crisis etc.

Next, list down steps that how humane approach has helped in tackling this in a much more understanding manner.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting measures to make these measures more robust and effective.

Introduction

The phenomenon we are facing daily is the “lack of humanity”, which is causing problems for the whole world. The meaning of humanity is a collection of positive traits that humans should have in them. These traits or qualities include kindness, compassion, honesty, courage, tolerance towards differences, empathy, respect, integrity, thoughtfulness, etc.

If humane approach instead of man’s greed had been more dominant, then this world would not have grave history of colonialism, imperialism, slavery, apartheid or even the two world wars that shook this world. If humane approach was indeed taken, Russia would not wage a war over Ukraine and would prefer diplomacy over violence.

Body

Humane approach solves insurmountable problems

  • Unites all humans: Humans from different parts of the world follow different religions and cultures. It means they follow different rituals, have different religious and cultural values. These differences can create a gap among humans in different parts of the world. However, the language of humanity is one force that can unite humans despite their differences.
  • Ensures Peace: One of the factors of humanity is to be tolerant towards those who share different opinions and backgrounds. When we tolerate the differences, there is less chaos in the world, and less chaos means the lack of destruction and establishment of peace. If all humans and governments of every state use the weapon of humanity, there will be peace and happiness in the world.
    • A humane approach would have prevented holocaust against Jews.
    • A humane approach may be the only solution to the clash of civilisations that we see now.
    • Terror organisations like Al-Qaeda, ISIS may not have existed if they had humane-ness in them.
  • Humanity is the Ethic: It is a fact that humanity also means moral values of ethical behavior. We call humane behavior as ethical behavior many times.
    • Many institutes and organizations develop an ethical code of conduct for their employees.
    • Many of the claws are based on the basic traits of humanity. If every human works on developing and polishing one’s human traits then there won’t be a need to forcefully ensure ethical behavior from everyone.
    • Better humanity can eliminate the issues of moral values and ethics from society.
  • Reduced Crime Rate: The increase in the number of crimes in today’s world is mainly because of humanity.
    • Yes, there are some times when the criminal is forced to commit a crime because of whatever conditions life has put.
    • But, the root cause remains the lack of humanity from people in power who are busy with corruption and ignore the needs of the poor segment of the society.
    • If there is humanity, there will be a reduced crime rate in the world.
    • Similarly, humanity can prevent a criminal from committing a crime whether out of need or out of fun.
  • No Wars: If we look at history, even just a couple of decades back, we shall notice numerous wars in different parts of the world. Syria, Afghanistan, Lebonan, and many other countries have been facing worse situations because of proxy wars between some countries.
    • Moreover, there countries like India and Pakistan, which are in a war or war-like situation and have tensions of military nature between them.
    • These wars are a result of poor judgment from the governments and authorities from both countries and a lack of humanity.
    • Countries need to realize the importance of humanity and stop wars. Instead, focus on the real development of people of their countries.

Conclusion

The importance of humanity is a serious matter. The topic is much needed in the world more than ever. No one can deny the impact of humanity in the world. By practicing humanity, the world can become a better place for everyone. However, it requires our efforts to practice humanity, as it may not always seem the essay choice but it is the only right choice that humans can make. The world would have been a nice place to live if there is humanity among us and if humanity is encouraged by others.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos