InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
1. Savitribai and Jyotirao Phule.
2. Women’s day 2022.
3. ‘Kanya Shiksha Pravesh Utsav’ scheme.
GS Paper 2:
1. Governor’s address.
2. Donate a Pension initiative.
GS Paper 3:
1. Promoting Inland Waterways in the Country.
Facts for Prelims:
GS Paper 1:
Topics Covered: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
- He said in a video, “Savitribai was married off at the age of 10 and her husband was 13 years old at that time. Now think about it, what must girls and boys be thinking after getting married”.
About Savitribhai Phule:
- Born in Naigaon in Maharashtra on January 3, 1831, Phule is widely regarded as one of India’s first generation modern feminists for her significant contributions in ensuring equal education opportunities under the British raj.
- She became the first female teacher in India in 1848 and opened a school for girls along with her husband, social reformer Jyotirao Phule.
- The two also worked against discrimination based on caste-based identity, something vehemently opposed by the orthodox sections of society in Pune.
- The couple set up ‘Balyata Pratibandak Gruha’, a childcare centre for the protection of pregnant widows and rape victims.
- Phule also played a pivotal role in directing the work of the Satyashodhak Samaj, formed by her husband with the objective to achieve equal rights for the marginalised lower castes.
- As an extension, they started, ‘Satya Shodhaka Marriage’ where the marrying couple has to take a pledge to promote education and equality.
- Savitribai opened a clinic in 1897 for victims of the bubonic plague that spread across Maharashtra just before the turn of the century.
- She also set up “Balhatya Pratibandhak Griha”.
- She organised a boycott by barbers against the tradition of head tonsuring of widows.
- In her honour, University of Pune was renamed Savitribai Phule University in 2015.
About Jyotirao Phule:
Born in 1827 in Satara district of Maharashtra.
Phule was given the title of Mahatma on May 11, 1888, by Vithalrao Krishnaji Vandekar, a Maharashtrian social activist.
His famous works:
Tritiya Ratna (1855), Gulamgiri (1873), Shetkarayacha Aasud, or Cultivator’s Whipcord (1881), Satyashodhak Samajokt Mangalashtakasah Sarva Puja-vidhi (1887).
Need of the hour:
Complete women’s empowerment is still a distant dream in India. While celebrating her legacy, we must also remember the contributions of her husband Jyotiba, who dreamt of equity for women and people of lower castes.
- Important literary works of Mahatma Phule.
- Who gave him the title Mahatma?
- Objectives of Satyashodhak Samaj.
- Which state has launched a scheme on Jyotirao Phule and what is it related to?
- Notable contributions of Savitribai Phule.
Sources: Indian Express.
GS Paper 1:
Topics Covered: issues related to women.
Women’s Day is celebrated every year around the world on March 8.
Theme for International Women’s Day, 2022 (IWD 2022) is ‘Gender equality today for a sustainable tomorrow’.
- It attempts to recognise the “contribution of women and girls around the world, who are leading the charge on climate change adaptation, mitigation, and response, to build a more sustainable future for all”.
IWD 2022 campaign theme is ‘#BreakTheBias’.
- It intends to promote a “gender equal world”, which is “free of bias, stereotypes, and discrimination”. “A world that is diverse, equitable, and inclusive”, and where “difference is valued and celebrated”.
History and significance:
IWD has been celebrated for over a century now, but many people think of it purely as a feminist cause. Its roots, however, are found in the labour movement, wherein it was first organised in 1911 by the early 20th century Marxist from Germany Clara Zetkin.
What colors symbolize International Women’s Day?
Purple, green and white are the colors of International Women’s Day.
- Purple signifies justice and dignity.
- Green symbolizes hope.
- White represents purity, albeit a controversial concept.
The colors originated from the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) in the UK in 1908.
Need for an International Women’s Day:
According to the World Economic Forum, sadly none of us will see gender parity in our lifetimes, and nor likely will many of our children. Gender parity will not be attained for almost a century.
- Women, especially young women, are at the forefront of diverse and inclusive movements online and on the streets for social justice, climate change and equality in all parts of the world.
- Yet, women under 30 are less than 1 per cent of parliamentarians worldwide.
- This is why, this year’s International Women’s Day is a rallying cry for Generation Equality, to act for an equal future for all.
- Brief overview of various days of international importance.
- Key themes.
- Special campaigns wrt women in India and around the World.
- Schemes for women in India.
Write a note on International Women’s Day.
Sources: Indian Express.
GS Paper 1:
Topics Covered: Issues related to women.
On the eve of International Women’s Day, the Ministry of Women and Child Development has launched ‘Kanya Shiksha Pravesh Utsav’ scheme to bring back the out-of-school girls back to the education system.
Key features of the scheme:
- Launched by the Women and Child Development Ministry in partnership with the Education Ministry.
- This scheme will fulfil the target of Right To Education act that says to bring out-of-school girls back to the education system.
Issues in women education:
Gap in upper primary and secondary schooling: While female enrolment has increased rapidly since the 1990s, there is still a substantial gap in upper primary and secondary schooling.
High drop-out rates: Increased female enrolment is, compromised by persistently high rates of drop-out and poor attendance of girls relative to boys. Girls also constitute a large proportion of out-of-school children.
Inter-state variations: There are also considerable inter-state variations in gender parity. While the greatest surges in female enrolment have been achieved in the most educationally disadvantaged states such as Bihar and Rajasthan, these states still have a long way to go to catch up with the better performing states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh.
Son preference: Some studies suggest that girls are over-represented in the government schools, demonstrating continuing son preference where boys (highlighted in economic survey 2018) are educated in private and better schools which are of (perceived) better quality.
Various government efforts towards women education in India:
Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao scheme: It aims to generate awareness and also improve the efficiency of welfare services for the girl child. The initial aim of the campaign was to address the declining child sex ratio but it also include propagating education, survival and protection of the girl child.
Digital Gender Atlas: Ministry of Human Resource Development has prepared a digital gender atlas for advancing girls’ education in India.
National Scheme of Incentive to Girls for Secondary Education (NSIGSE): The objective of the scheme is to establish an enabling environment to reduce the drop outs and to promote the enrolment of girl children in secondary schools.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: In order to ensure greater participation of girls in elementary education, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has targeted interventions for girls which include opening of schools, appointment of additional women teachers, separate toilets for girls, teachers’ sensitisation programmes etc. In addition, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas has been opened in Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs).
Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA): It envisages enhancing the quality of education by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of every habitation, improving quality of education imparted at secondary level, removal of gender, socio-economic and disability barriers.
Udaan: CBSE has launched ‘Udaan’ to provide free online resources to girl students of Class XI and Class XII for preparation. The special focus of the scheme is to address the low enrolment ratio of girl students in prestigious institutions.
STEM education: To increase the participation of women in STEM education, supernumerary seats have been created in the IITs and NITs.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 2:
Topics Covered: Important Constitutional posts.
The customary governor’s address on the opening day of the budget session of a state assembly was mired in controversy recently in West Bengal and Telangana.
What happened in West Bengal?
The governor of West Bengal, Jagdeep Dhankhar, was unable to deliver his address at the Vidhan Sabha on the first day of the budget session, amid sloganeering, chaos and protests.
What happened in Telangana?
In Telangana, the budget session of the state assembly commenced without the customary governor’s address, and the incumbent, Tamilisai Soundararajan, expressed discontent over the state government’s decision to not have the governor’s address at the beginning of the session.
Article 176(1) of the Constitution of India enjoins that the Governor shall Address both the Houses assembled together at the commencement of the first Session after each general election to the Assembly and at the commencement of the first session of each year and inform the Legislature of the causes of its Summons.
What it contains?
The Address of the Governor contains a review of the activities and Achievements of the Government during the previous year and their policy with regard to important internal problems as well as a brief account of the programme of Government Business for the session.
Discussions on Governor’s address:
- On the first day on which the discussion on the Address of the Governor begins, a copy of the Address of the Governor is laid on the table of the House.
- The Speaker, in consultation with the Business Advisory Committee, allots time for discussion of the matters referred to in the Governor’s Address.
- A motion is moved by a member and seconded by another member thanking the Governor for the Address.
- The occasion provided for General Discussion in respect of any aspect of administration and also the matters referred to in the address.
- Members may move Amendments to the Motion of Thanks in such form as may be considered appropriate by the Speaker.
Do you know about the Motion of thanks to the president?
Read this article to understand.
Do you know what happens if the President disagrees with the text of the speech? Are they still bound to read it? Reference: read this.
- What is Motion of Thanks?
- Its passage.
- Provisions governing them.
- About President’s address.
- Constitutional provisions.
- First Constitutional Amendment.
- What procedures follow the address?
- If the President disagrees with the text of the speech, are they still bound to read it?
What is Motion of Thanks? Discuss its significance.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 2:
Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes.
Launched recently by the Labour Ministry.
Key features of the programme:
- Launched under Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan (PM-SYM) for people to contribute to the pension fund of their support staff.
- Under this, citizens can donate the premium contribution of their immediate support staff such as domestic workers, drivers, helpers etc.
It is a 50:50 voluntary and contributory pension scheme in which the beneficiary makes a stipulated age-specific contribution and the Central Government matches it.
Implementation: The Ministry of Labour and Employment will oversee PM-SYM, which will be implemented by Life Insurance Corporation of India and CSC eGovernance Services India Limited (CSC SPV).
Eligibility: Workers working in the unorganised sector in the age group of 18-40 years can register themselves and deposit a minimum of Rs 660 to 2400 every year depending on their age.
- They should not be covered under New Pension Scheme (NPS), Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) scheme or Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO). Further, he/she should not be an income tax payer.
Benefits: After attaining the age of 60 years they will receive the minimum assured pension of Rs 3,000 per month.
The unorganised workers mostly engaged as home based workers, street vendors, mid-day meal workers, head loaders, brick kiln workers, cobblers, rag pickers, domestic workers, washer men, rickshaw pullers, landless labourers, own account workers, agricultural workers, construction workers, beedi workers, handloom workers, leather workers, audio- visual workers and similar other occupations whose monthly income is Rs 15,000/ per month or less.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 3:
Topics covered: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
Pandu in Guwahati recently received the maiden voyage of food-grains from Patna to via Bangladesh, ushering new age for inland waterways in Assam as Brahmaputra (NW2) gets connected with Ganga (National Waterway-1) via Indo Bangladesh Protocol (IBP) route.
- MV Lal Bahadur Shastri carrying 200 MT of foodgrains for Food Corporation of India (FCI) completed the maiden pilot run from Patna.
- The vessel sailed of 2,350 km from Patna on NW-1, passed through Bhagalpur, Manihari, Sahibganj, Farakka, Tribeni, Kolkata, Haldia, Hemnagar; Indo Bangladesh Protocol (IBP) route through Khulna, Narayanganj, Sirajganj, Chilmari and NW-2 through Dhubri, and Jogighopa.
Inland waterways in India:
To promote inland water transport in the country, 111 ‘inland Waterways’ has been declared as ‘National Waterways’ under the National Waterways Act, 2016.
- Inland water transport in the country is being promoted as an economical, environment friendly supplementary mode of transport to rail and road.
Did you know?
- Under Entry 24 of the Union List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, the central government can make laws on shipping and navigation on inland waterways which are classified as national waterways by Parliament by law.
Important National Waterways of India:
National Waterway 1:
- From Allahabad to Haldia with a distance of 1620 km.
- The NW1 run through the Ganges, Bhagirathi and Hooghly river system with having fixed terminals at Haldia, Farrakka and Patna.
- Floating terminals at the riverside cities like Kolkata, Bhagalpur, Varanasi and Allahabad.
- It is the longest National Waterway in India.
National Waterway 2:
- Brahmaputra River from Sadiya to Dhubri in Assam state.
- The NW2 is the third longest Waterway with a total length of 891 km.
National Waterway 3:
- The West Coast Canal or NW3 is in Kerala state and run from Kollam to Kottapuram.
- The 205 km long West Coast Canal is India’s first waterway with all-time navigation facility.
- The NW3 is consisting of West Coast Canal, Champakara Canal and Udyogmandal Canal.
- It runs through Kottappuram, Cherthala, Thrikkunnapuzha, Kollam and Alappuzha.
National Waterway 4:
- NW4 connects Kakinada to Pondicherry.
- The NW4 is the second longest waterway of India.
- Total length of 1095 km in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
National Waterway 5:
- NW5 connects Odisha to West Bengal.
- It runs through the stretch on Brahmani River, East Coast Canal, Matai River and Mahanadi River.
- The 623 km long canal system handle the traffic of cargo such as coal, fertilizer, cement and iron.
National Waterway 6:
- NW6 is the proposed waterway in Assam.
- It will connect Lakhipur to Bhanga at River Barak.
- The 121 km long waterway will boost trade between Silchar (Assam) to Mizoram.
Do you know the locations of NW 1 and NW 2? Which states are connected by NW1? Reference
- Important waterways.
- Their locations.
- About JMVP.
- About IWAI.
Discuss the significance of National Waterways.
Sources: the Hindu.
Facts for Prelims:
Who are Houthis?
Houthis are an armed rebel group belonging to the Zaidi Shia sect fighting against the government of Yemen. Traditionally, the Houthis have been concentrated in the northwestern Saada Province of Yemen.
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