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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 2 March 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

1. Elaborate upon the roles and contributions of Morarji Desai towards nation-building in post-independent India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Business Standard

Why the question:

PM Modi pays homage to former PM Morarji Desai on his birth anniversary

Key Demand of the question:

The varied role played by Morarji Desai as a nation builder and his peace activism.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate them with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief about Morarji Desai and his contribution to India’s freedom struggle.

Body:

Write about the role played by Morarji Desai in post-independent India – as a leader, as a peace activist, as an opposition leader, etc.

Also, enumerate various contributions towards nation building e.g. fight for political rights during emergency, stabilising after emergency and undoing its wrong, providing an alternative to congress, Against Inequality etc.

Next, write about his efforts as a peace activist – efforts to initiate peace between, Pakistan and India, restoring friendly relations with China and Pakistan and vowed to avoid armed conflict.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising his contributions.

Introduction

Morarji Desai was the 4th Prime Minister (1977-79) and the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India. The 125th birth anniversary of former Prime Minister Morarji Desai was observed in 2021.

In December 2021, Union Ministry for culture announced a project of building a ‘Museum for PMs’ at the Teen Murti house, New Delhi which houses artefacts used by former PMs.

Body

Roles and Contributions of Morarji Desai towards nation-building in post independent India

  • Before the independence of India, he became Bombay’s Home Minister and later was elected as Chief Minister of Bombay State in 1952.
  • Considered as a tough leader, Desai was also known for pioneering beliefs and enforcing strict discipline and authority and thus possessed a radical mindset.
  • Although a staunch Gandhian, Desai was socially conservative, pro-business, and in favour of free enterprise reforms, as opposed to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s socialistic policies.
  • In a petition filed by veteran socialist leader Raj Narain, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was convicted in June 1975 of wrongfully using government machinery for election work and corruption, Desai joined Jaya Prakash Narayan and Raj Narain in organising mass protests throughout the country calling for her resignation.
  • In a show of intolerance towards any sort of opposition, Indira Gandhi declared Emergency and had all the opposition leaders including Desai arrested.
  • Morarji Desai finally came into office as the Prime Minister when Jaiprakash Narayan picked him as the man most likely to keep the coalition united.
  • Controversial trials of prominent Congress leaders, including Indira Gandhi over Emergency-era abuses worsened the fortunes of his administration.
  • His government undid many amendments made to the constitution during emergency and made it difficult for any future government to impose national emergency.
  • According to him, unless the poor and the under privileged living in villages and towns enjoy a decent standard of life, the talk of socialism will not have much meaning.
  • He gave concrete expression to his anxiety by enacting progressive legislation to ameliorate the hardships of peasants and tenants.
  • Sardar Patel deputed him to conduct meetings of farmers in Kaira district which finally led to the establishment of the AMUL Cooperative movement.
  • During his rule, he withdrew intervention in Public Distribution System and rationing shops were literally lost due to cheap sugar and oil available in the market.

Desai was known for his “Peace activism”

  • Desai worked to improve relations with neighbour and arch-rival Pakistan and restored normal relations with China, for the first time since the 1962 war.
  • He communicated with Zia-ul-Haq and established friendly relations and diplomatic relations were also re-established with China.
  • Since India’s first nuclear test in 1974, Desai kept India’s nuclear reactors stating “they will never be used for atomic bombs, and I will see to it if I can help it”.
  • In 1977, the Carter administration sold India, heavy water and uranium for its nuclear reactors but required American on-site inspection of nuclear materials.
  • Desai declined, seeing the American stance as contradictory, in light of its own nuclear arsenal.
  • He closed down much of the R&AW, and reduced its budget and operations.

Conclusion

A stubborn man with a stern demeanour, a man who stuck to his ideas and principles regardless of the situation and a man of obstinacy and discipline that lived almost a century. This is how history remembers Morarji Desai.

 

Topic: geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2. ‘Climate change is adding to complexities of monsoon predictions at regional and local levels’. In this context, briefly describe how the Monsoon mission will help improve the overall understanding of Monsoon. (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

India will soon lunch the third phase of the Monsoon Mission

Key Demand of the question:

Details of Monsoon mission and its contributions

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief introduction of Indian Monsoon and how IMD predicts it.

Body:

Give reason for erratic and late withdrawal of monsoon e.g. La Nina, positive IOD, warming sea surface temperature of Arabian and Bay of Bengal Sea

Briefly describe Monsoon Mission: First launched in 2012, the Monsoon Mission has been a flagship project undertaken by the MoES to improve the overall understanding of Indian monsoons.

Bring out its role for improving monsoon understanding and mitigating the impact of climate change.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarizing the above.

Introduction

Under the Monsoon Mission, Ministry of Earth sciences has developed the state-of-the-art weather and climate prediction models, which are now in operational use. These models include models for short range to medium range (1-10 days), extended range (10days to 30 days) and seasonal (up to one season). The models developed under the National Monsoon Mission (NMM) have shown very high skill in predicting important weather events on different time scales during the last 3years.

With climate change it has become more and more unpredictable to accurately estimate the arrival of monsoon, and other vagaries of monsoon.

Body

Issues with climate change and monsoon prediction

  • The available records of climate and rainfall in India have aided scientists to reconstruct the behaviour of Monsoon in the past six decades and the results have been surprising as well as complex.
  • But with climate change and events such as La nina, El nino, it is becoming increasingly difficult to predict weather conditions such as cloudbursts etc.

About National Monsoon Mission:

  • The National Monsoon Mission was launched in 2012.
  • It aims to develop a state-of-the-art dynamical prediction system for monsoon rainfall on different time scales.
  • The mission falls under the aegis of Ministry of Earth Sciences.
  • The responsibility of execution and coordination of the mission is bestowed upon the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune.
  • Climate Forecast System (CFS) of NCEP, USA has been identified as the basic modelling system for providing long range forecasting (seasonal prediction of Indian Monsoon). Further, the Unified Model (UM), developed by the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), UK has been identified for short to medium range prediction
  • Targets: Development of a seamless prediction system using monsoon mission model, on different time scales, like Seasonal (for whole Monsoon season), Extended range (up-to 4 weeks), Short range prediction (up-to 5days).
    • Initiate and coordinate working partnership between Indian and foreign institutes to develop a system for prediction of extremes and climate applications
    • Develop and implement system for climate applications having social impacts (such as agriculture, flood forecast, extreme events forecast, wind energy, etc.)
    • Advanced data assimilation system for preparing high quality data for model predictions.

Significant achievements due to monsoon mission

  • Setting up of an advanced prediction system for Seasonal prediction; Extended range prediction and Very high-resolution Short-range prediction.
  • Commissioning of a Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) for short and medium range prediction at 12km.
    • The Cyclone track and intensity prediction has also shown a steady improvement over the last three years.
  • The operationalization of Monsoon Mission dynamical model (MMCFS) to prepare operational seasonal forecast of monsoon rainfall and temperatures during the hot and cold weather seasons over India.
  • Use of MMCFS and extended range prediction system for preparing regional seasonal forecast outlook for south Asia under WMO recognised Regional Climate Center and South Asia Seasonal Climate Outlook Forum (SASCOF)activities.
  • Development of an algorithm to monitor and predict the Monsoon Intra-seasonal Oscillations (MISO) and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the extended range.
  • Development of an index to predict the genesis and evolution of tropical cyclones and other cyclonic disturbances over the north Indian Ocean.
  • Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecast over all the Indian river basin have been operationally implemented.
  • Probabilistic (percentile based) forecast for extreme wind, precipitation have been established.
  • GFS/GEFS forecasts have been extensively used to provide guidance to Forest fire possibility and also to Renewable Energy Sectors namely, wind and solar.
  • Development of a high-resolution regional re-analysis product, IMDAA at very high resolution of 12km.

Conclusion

Several scientists have been trained for modelling & forecasts through Monsoon Mission Program and capacity building activities have been done through targeted trainings. A remarkable improvement in the skill of the forecasts especially in the short to medium range has been noticed.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

3. The endemic delay in Indian courts is one of the most discussed topics in judicial reform. Examine. Also, mention the efforts needed to improve the Judicial Institutions on this front. (250 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The issues relating to the Indian Judiciary have been in news, and often more because of Pandemic induced delays

Key Demand of the question:

Mention the reasons for delays in Indian courts, and reforms needed in this perspective

Directive word:

Examine– When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on the present status relating to delays and pendency in Indian Courts

Body:

First, the mention the reasons for delays in Indian courts, highlighting the key facts and issues  

Further, mention the efforts needed to improve the Judicial Institutions on this front, focusing on particular recommendations if any

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

The justice system in any democracy is set up, under the Constitution to serve the public without “fear or favour, affection or ill-will” as far as judges are concerned. The Indian Judiciary plays an increasingly important role in the life and the governance of this country. A measure of the justice delivery system is the pendency of cases in courts across the country. There has been a significant deterioration in this aspect.

Body

Statistics about pending cases in India (as of 31st Dec 2021)

  • In January 2021, 65,086 cases were pending at the Supreme Court.
  • By December 2021, pendency increased by 7.3 percent.
  • There are about 73,000 cases pending before the Supreme Court and about 44 million in all the courts of India.
  • Pendency of cases at the SC had increased in 2021 by 7.3%.
  • Cases that have been in the courts for more than 30 years, as of January 2021: 1,05,560.
  • According to a 2018 Niti Aayog strategy paper, at the then-prevailing rate of disposal of cases in our courts, it would take more than 324 years to clear the backlog. And the pendency at that time was 29 million cases.

Causes for huge pendency of cases:

  • Shifting role of SC:
    • The key reason for the mounting of pending cases can be attributed to shifting the role of the Supreme Court from adjudicating cases of constitutional significance into a regular court of appeals.
    • According to legal experts, most of the cases that the Supreme Court was handling daily are either appeals from various high courts or cases of gross violation of individual’s fundamental rights. But this role was never meant for the apex court.
  • Shortage of judges:
    • From 1950 to 1921, the number of Supreme Court judges has increased nearly four times. Even then, case pendency has steadily kept rising.
    • Around 5,580 or 25% of posts are lying empty in the subordinate courts, which leads to poor Judges to Population Ratio, as India has only 20 judges per million population. Earlier, Law Commission had recommended 50 judges per million.
  • Frequent adjournments:
    • The laid down procedure of allowing a maximum of three adjournments per case is not followed in over 50 per cent of the matters being heard by courts, leading to rising pendency of cases.
  • Low budgetary allocation leading to poor infrastructure:
    • India spends only about 09% of its GDP to maintain the judicial infrastructure.
    • Infrastructure status of lower courts of the country is miserably grim due to which they fail to deliver quality judgements.
    • A 2016 report published by the Supreme Court showed that existing infrastructure could accommodate only 15,540 judicial officers against the all-India sanctioned strength of 20,558.
  • Burden of government cases:
    • Statistics provided by LIMBS shows that the Centre and the States were responsible for over 46% of the pending cases in Indian courts.
  • Special leave petition:
    • cases in the Supreme Court, currently comprises to 40% of the court’s pendency.
    • It is because of frivolous PILs and various government policies which are challenged by the people that takes up most of judiciary’s time
  • Judges Vacation:
    • Supreme Court’s works on average for 188 days a year, while apex court rules specify minimum of 225 days of work.
  • Lack of court management systems:
    • Courts have created dedicated posts for court managers to help improve court operations, optimize case movement and judicial time.
    • However, only few courts have filled up such posts so far.
  • Inefficient investigation:
    • Police are quite often handicapped in undertaking effective investigation for want of modern and scientific tools to collect evidences.

Measures needed:

  • Improving infrastructure for quality justice:
    • The Parliamentary Standing Committee which presented its report on Infrastructure Development and Strengthening of Subordinate Courts, suggested:
    • States should provide suitable land for construction of court buildings etc. It should undertake vertical construction in light of shortage of land.
    • Timeline set out for computerization of all the courts, as a necessary step towards setting up of e- courts.
  • Addressing the Issue of Vacancies:
    • Ensure the appointments of the judges be done in an efficient way by arriving at an optimal judge strength to handle the cases pending in the system.
    • The 120th Law Commission of India report for the first time, suggested a judge strength fixation formula.
    • Supreme Court and High Courts should appoint efficient and experienced judges as Ad-hoc judges in accordance with the Constitution.
    • All India Judicial Service, which would benefit the subordinate judiciary by increasing quality of judges and help reduce the pendency.
  • Timeframe to dispose of cases:
    • Having a definite time frame to dispose the cases by setting annual targets and action plans for the subordinate judiciary and the High Courts. The judicial officers could be issued a strict code of conduct, to ensure that the duties are adequately performed by the officials.
    • Strict regulation of adjournments and imposition of exemplary costs for seeking it on flimsy grounds especially at the trial stage and not permitting dilution of time frames specified in Civil Procedure Code.
  • Better Court Management System & Reliable Data Collection:
    • For this categorization of cases on the basis of urgency and priority along with bunching of cases should be done.
  • Use of Information technology (IT) solutions:
    • The use of technology for tracking and monitoring cases and in providing relevant information to make justice litigant friendly.
    • All the courts in the country must switch to a hybrid virtual mode immediately and start disposing cases.
  • Process reengineering:
    • Involves redesigning of core business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in productivity and quality by incorporating the use of technology in court rules. It will include:
    • Electronic filing of cases: e-Courts are a welcome step in this direction, as they give case status and case history of all the pending cases across High courts and Subordinate courts bringing ease of access to information.
    • Revamping of National Judicial Data Grid by introducing a new type of search known as elastic search, which is closer to the artificial intelligence.
  • Alternate dispute resolution (ADR):
    • As stated in the Conference on National Initiative to Reduce Pendency and Delay in Judicial System- Legal Services Authorities should undertake pre-litigation mediation so that the inflow of cases into courts can be regulated.
    • The Lok Adalat should be organized regularly for settling civil and family matters.
    • Gram Nyayalayas, as an effective way to manage small claim disputes from rural areas which will help in decreasing the workload of the judicial institution.
    • Village Legal Care & Support Centre can also be established by the High Courts to work at grass root level to make the State litigation friendly.

Conclusion

The fundamental requirement of a good judicial administration is accessibility, affordability and speedy justice, which will not be realized until and unless the justice delivery system is made within the reach of the individual in a time bound manner and within a reasonable cost. Therefore, continuous formative assessment is the key to strengthen and reinforce the justice delivery system in India.

 

Topic: Indian Constitution– historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions, and basic structure

4. Despite India adopting Secularism as a core philosophy of its Constitution, it is still fraught with challenges. Analyse. (150 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The issues relating to Secularism have been in news recently

Key Demand of the question:

The perspective of Secularism in India, and the related challenges

Directive word:

Analyze- here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and presenting them as a whole in a summary

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on Secularism in the Indian context

Body:

First, mention how Secularism is a core philosophy of Indian constitution – Preamble, Article, Judgements

Then, mention the challenges associated with Secularism in India

Recommendations to better realise a secular India

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

Secularism is the “indifference to, or rejection or exclusion of, religion and religious considerations.” As a philosophy, secularism seeks to interpret life on principles taken solely from the material world, without recourse to religion. In political terms, secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries. Under a brief definition, secularism means that governments should remain neutral on the matter of religion and should not enforce nor prohibit the free exercise of religion, leaving religious choice to the liberty of the people.

Body

Secularism in India

  • Secularism has been discussed in India primarily as a state policy towards religious groups.
  • The debate on secularism began by pointing to the difference of the Indian variation to its Western counterpart, either by pointing to an idea of a ‘principled distance’ or samadharma samabhava, where all religions are treated as equal.
  • Our Constitution acquire its secular character from the words in the Preamble, collective reading of many of its provisions, particularly the various fundamental rights.

Important features of Secularism in India:

  • Secularism in India refers to the equal status and treatment of all religions.
  • Secularism in India is a positive, revolutionary and comprehensive concept which takes within its sweep all the communities in India following several religions.
  • Indian secularism recognizes the importance of religion in human life.
  • Diversity can only be effective with secularism as a foundational value.
  • India’s survival as a multi-religious, multilingual, multiracial, multicultural society will depend on how successful it is in working its secularism
  • Indian Secularism equally opposed oppression of Dalits and women within Hinduism. It also opposes the discrimination against women within Indian Islam or Christianity and the possible threats that a majority community might pose to the rights of the minority religious communities.
  • Indian Secularism has made room for and is compatible with the idea of state- supported religious reform. For example- Indian constitution bans untouchability under Article 17. There is also abolition of child marriage and lifting the taboo on inter-caste marriage sanctioned by Hinduism.
  • Indian Secularism deals not only with religious freedom of individuals but also with religious freedom of minority communities i.e. individual has the right to profess religion of his /her choice. Likewise, religious minority also have a right to exist and to maintain their own culture and educational institutions.

Challenges posed to Secularism

  • Uniform Civil Code:
    • No progress has been made in the evolution of a uniform Civil Code.
    • There are deep religious sentiments prevailing among different religious communities.
    • It limits the path to a truly secular society in India
  • Politics and Religion:
    • The Supreme Court had observed in the Bommai case that if religion is not separated from politics, the religion of the ruling party tends to become the state religion.
    • During the time of elections most of the political parties completely forget the noble ideal of secularism and woo the voters on communal or cast lines.
  • Communalism:
    • Increasing violence between people of different communities or religions.
    • Rise of fringe elements threatens India’s history of communal harmony and peace.
    • Instances like demolition of the Babri Masjid, anti-Sikh riots in Delhi and other places in 1984 are on the rise.
  • Rise of fundamentalism and obscurantism:
    • Religious entities have taken up the radicalisation of youths to promote their religion.
    • This poses grave threat to the harmony and security of the nations.
  • Failure of the Government in Evolving a Just Economic Order:
    • The failure of the government to evolve a just economic order and eliminate poverty also is a setback to secularism.
  • Cultural Symbols and Secularism:
    • Many public rituals like Bhoomi puja, breaking of coconuts on inaugural occasions, performing of ‘aarti’ and applying ‘tilak’ are perceived by Hindus as cultural or nationalistic expressions, but to non-Hindus these are manifestations of Hindu culture.
    • Such rituals are performed even on state functions and therefore, create unnecessary misgivings about the neutrality of the State.
  • Schools today have become havens of social isolation where children of similar economic and social backgrounds are unaware of the kind of social diversity that exists outside their little worlds.

Way forward

  • Since secularism has been declared as a part of the basic structure of the Constitution, governments must be made accountable for implementing it.
  • Define the word “minority”. The concept of secularism is based on recognition and protection of minorities. The two cannot be separated.
  • Setting up of a commission on secularism for ensuring adherence to the constitutional mandate on secularism.
  • Separation of religion from politics. It is of such urgency that no time should be wasted in bringing this about.
  • It is the duty of the secular and democratic forces to rally behind those political forces that really profess and practice secularism.
  • In a secular state, religion is expected to be a purely personal and private matter and is not supposed to have anything to do with the governance of the country.

Conclusion

Supreme Court rulings over the years have also ensured that the secular ethos of India is maintained, and that religion does not interfere or impinge upon the fundamental rights guaranteed to the individuals. Indian secularism is a unique concept that has been adopted and devised keeping in mind the unique needs and characteristics of the Indian culture. It denotes the core principles of tolerance and respect that have been ingrained into the Indian conscience since millennia.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic -Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Explain what is GDP and GVA and how are they useful in growth calculation? (250 words) 

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Basic Economy, NCERT

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what GDP and GVA are and how are they useful in the calculation of the growth of a country.

Structure of the answer

Introduction

Explain what GDP and GVA are.

GVA is the measure of total output and income in the economy. It provides the rupee value for the amount of goods and services produced in an economy after deducting the cost of inputs and raw materials that have gone into the production of those goods and services. It also gives a sector-specific picture like what is the growth in an area, industry or sector of an economy. GDP is the economic output from the consumers’ side. It is the sum of private consumption, gross investment in the economy, government investment, government spending and net foreign trade

Body

Explain how GDP differs from GVA. While GVA gives a picture of the state of economic activity from the producers’ side or supply side, the GDP gives the picture from the consumers’ side or demand perspective. Both measures need not match because of the difference in treatment of net taxes.

Explain how they are useful for the calculation of growth- A sector-wise breakdown provided by the GVA measure can better help the policymakers to decide which sectors need incentives/stimulus or vice versa. Some consider GVA as a better gauge of the economy because a sharp increase in the output, only due to higher tax collections which could be on account of better compliance or coverage, may distort the real output situation.

Mention the new method of calculation of GDP introduced in 2015.

Conclusion:

Keep a balanced view as both GVA and GDP are important for growth calculation

Introduction

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the total monetary or market value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period. As a broad measure of overall domestic production, it functions as a comprehensive scorecard of a given country’s economic health.

Gross value added (GVA) is a measure of total output and income in the economy. It provides the rupee value for the amount of goods and services produced in an economy after deducting the cost of inputs and raw materials that have gone into the production of those goods and services. It also gives sector-specific picture like what is the growth in an area, industry or sector of an economy. GVA is important because it is used to adjust GDP, which is a key indicator of the state of a nation’s total economy.

Body

How GDP differs from GVA

  • While GVA gives a picture of the state of economic activity from the producers’ side or supply side, the GDP gives the picture from the consumers’ side or demand perspective.
  • Both measures need not match because of the difference in treatment of net taxes.
  • At the macro level, from a national accounting perspective,GVA is the sum of a country’s GDP and net of subsidies and taxes in the economy. Gross Value Added = GDP + subsidies on products – taxes on products

GDP and GVA in growth calculation

  • Gross Value Added makes up a significant part of the total GDP of the country.
  • When goods are produced, the final value attached before taxes and subsidiaries are charged, is the contribution that the said producer has made.
  • GDP, while is a substantial value that measures the growth and development of the country, GVA provides the same picture, albeit more objectively and includes all the primary incomes.
  • A sector-wise breakdown provided by the GVA measure helps policymakers decide which sectors need incentives or stimulus and accordingly formulate sector-specific policies.
  • From a global data standards and uniformity perspective, GVA is an integral and necessary parameter in measuring a nation’s economic performance.
  • But GDP is a key measure when it comes to making cross-country analysis and comparing the incomes of different economies.

Conclusion

While India had been measuring GVA earlier, it had done so using ‘factor cost’ and GDP at ‘factor cost’ was the main parameter for measuring the country’s overall economic output till the new methodology was adopted in 2015. In the new series, in which the base year was shifted to 2011-12 from the earlier 2004-05, GVA at basic prices became the primary measure of output across the economy’s various sectors and when added to net taxes on products amounts to the GDP.

 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

6. Briefly discuss the major criticisms of planning in India, as well as the measures/actions by the government to do away with them in later decades. (250 Words)

Reference: NCERT Class XI

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key demand of the question:

Criticism of planning in India

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Give a brief introduction about the planning process in India

Body:

Mention major criticisms e.g. lack of perspective planning, failure to promote balanced growth, centralized nature of planning, etc.

In each, mention the action that has been taken to correct it.

Conclusion:

Despite the shortcomings in the planning process, India with its focus on inclusive development and timely interventions has, however, been able to weather the crisis better than many other countries.

Introduction

The term economic planning is used to describe the long term plans of the government of India to develop and coordinate the economy with efficient utilization of resources. Planning Commission of India, an extra-constitutional and non-statutory body formed by the resolution of the Government of India in March 1950. Economic planning in India started after independence in the year 1950 when it was deemed necessary for economic growth and development of the nation.

Body

Major criticisms of planning in India

  • Slow Growth
    • The planning process in India has been able to achieve considerable increase in the national income and per capita income.
    • Yet, the rate of increase has been slow as compared to developing countries like China, which have been able to achieve more than 10 percent growth rate consistently.
    • India was able to achieve a growth rate of only about 4 to 5 percent during the pre-reform period.
    • It was only during the post reform period that is after 1991, that the country could experience a growth rate of over 7 percent.

Measures undertaken:

  • Important steps need to be taken like framing policies to improve health, nutrition and education.
  • Labour market reforms and reforms of direct taxation will have redistributive effects on the system.
  • MSMEs were given a boost with various support schemes to increase employability, productivity.
  • Neglect of Agriculture
    • The five year plans failed to pay attention to the agricultural sector except for the first five-year plan.
    • As a result, the agricultural growth rate declined from 3.62 percent in 1991-92 to 0.81 percent during 2009-10.
    • And the share of agriculture in GDP declined from about 50 percent during 1950-51 to about 16 percent of the GDP in 2015.

Measures undertaken:

  • Green Revolution was started with usage of HYV seeds, fertilisers, mechanization etc which increased the yield output in few states.
  • Farming Techniques such as Organic farming, Natural Farming, Precision Agriculture are being promoted to ensure the soil fertility is not lost and more output is gained from minimal inputs.
  • Schemes such as RKVY, PM FASAL BIMA Yojana, PM KISAN etc are being implemented to ensure farmer’s welfare and agricultural productivity.
  • Unemployment
    • The plans have failed to address the problem of unemployment which is a cause of many social evils.
    • The unemployment rate has marginally reduced from 8.35 percent during 1972-73 to about 6.53 percent in 2009-10. It was about 4.19 percent in 2013.
    • The growth rate of employment has recorded a decline from 2.61 percent in 1972-73 to 1.50 percent during 2009-10.
    • The employment in primary sector recorded a negative growth rate of 0.13 percent in 2009-10.

Measures undertaken:

  • Lowering the incidence of poverty and inequality requires a comprehensive strategy.
  • Poverty alleviation and Employment schemes like PM Rozgar Yojana, MGNREGA, JAM Trinity etc was implemented to ensure security of livelihood of the poor.
  • Right to education was made a fundamental right which has ensured free education to all children between 6 to 14years of age.
  • Skill India was introduced to hone the skills, upskill and reskill individuals who could be leveraged in attaining the demographic dividend of India.
  • Widespread Poverty
    • Failure to address the problem of unemployment has resulted in widespread poverty in the country.
    • The first four plans failed to address the problem of poverty.
    • It was only during the fifth five-year plan that measures were taken to tackle poverty directly by introducing various poverty alleviation programmes.
    • These programmes, however, have achieved only limited success.
    • The poverty rate in India declined from about 26.1 percent in 2000 to 21.9 percent in 2011.

Measures undertaken:

  • Poverty alleviation and Employment schemes like PM Rozgar Yojana, MGNREGA, JAM Trinity etc was implemented to ensure security of livelihood of the poor.
  • To ensure food security, National Food Security Act was implemented in 2013 and schemes like Antyodaya Anna Yojana for the poorest of the poor was carried out.
  • Inflation
    • Poverty is aggravated under the situation of inflation.
    • The five-year plans have not been able to stabilise the prices due to which there has been a steep rise in the general prices.
    • The inflation rate was around 10 percent in 2012.

Measures undertaken:

  • Supply side interventions like scientific technologies for agriculture, bottlenecks like Supply chain was tackled through strengthening transport and storage infrastructure of farm produce.
  • Schemes like TOPS, Prize deficiency support scheme was implemented to fight the sudden price rise due to crop failure or glut in the market.
  • Rising Inequality
    • With rapid economic growth, the country has been witnessing a rise in the level of inequality.
    • It has been estimated that the richest 1 percent own about 58 percent of the country’s wealth.
    • Poor performance of the agricultural sector and lack of investments in rural infrastructure are cited as the primary reason for such rising inequalities.

Measures undertaken:

  • Employment schemes like PM Rozgar Yojana, MGNREGA, JAM Trinity etc was implemented to ensure security of livelihood of the poor.
  • To ensure food security, National Food Security Act was implemented in 2013 and schemes like Antyodaya Anna Yojana for the poorest of the poor was carried out.
  • Political Instability
    • Political instability and inefficient administration are the major hurdles in successful implementation of the plans.
    • Though the plans are formulated after complete analysis of the economic situation, most of the plans fail to achieve the targets due to inefficient administration, corruption, vested interests and red tapism.

Measures undertaken:

  • Anti-Defection law was enacted to curb the practice of rampant defection in the decades of 70s and 80s.
  • Election commission of India undertook reforms such as Elector Photo Identity Card, Electoral Voting Machines etc. to reduce the malpractices in Election.

Conclusion

Indian government along with the state governments and local governments should continue to focus on eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development in order to improve the lives of India’s people. Through innovative partnerships with an international organization, civil societies, and private companies, inclusive and equitable growth can be targeted. Inclusive growth will help in the empowerment of vulnerable and marginalized populations, improve livelihoods, and augment skill-building for women.

 


General Studies – 4


 

7. “Feelings can’t be ignored, no matter how unjust and ungrateful they seem”- Anne Frank (150 Words)

 

Introduction

Humans tend to seek solutions to problems like climate change, terrorism, poverty etc which is both macro and micro, simple and complex through a short-term, external perspective that doesn’t obligate individual participation.

In the West, the dominant approach to tackling the challenges we face has been to amputate emotion from our decision-making whenever possible and instead opt for cold, technical solutions. This hyper-rational perspective is at least as old as Aristotle, who described passions as capricious, dangerous roadblocks on the path to becoming fully human.

Body

Being rational is good because emotions can be exploited. Lynch mobs and market bubbles can occur when our emotions run away with themselves and feelings spread like contagions through crowds. Propagandists can exploit our emotions to stir up loyalty among their supporters and belligerence towards outsiders.

However, lynch mobs and market bubbles can occur when our emotions run away with themselves and feelings spread like contagions through crowds. Propagandists can exploit our emotions to stir up loyalty among their supporters and belligerence towards outsiders.

Emotions provide us with quintessential information about what’s important and what to do next and how to do it and who to do it with. For instance, emotions and feelings can also prevent war and begin a war. For the good of the humanity, there wasn’t a major war in Europe for 80 years. However, against good rationale, Russia-Ukraine war still happened.

Humanity is in a period of great upheaval. For people and organisations attempting to thrive in this tumultuous time, old mindsets and approaches no longer work. To create a better future where everyone can flourish, leaders and organisations need to find ways to engage and encourage emotions more fully.

Conclusion

Emotions can be geared toward long-term thinking and behaviour and are essential to the evaluation of simulated possible futures, known as “pragmatic prospection”.

If we are to truly shift course, to make individual commitments that allow us to build better futures, we need to find ways of using emotion to our advantage. For as Anne Frank said, “…feelings can’t be ignored, no matter how unjust or ungrateful they seem.” They are and will always be a part of us and we need to learn how to leverage them for the betterment of ourselves and the generations to come.

 


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