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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 1 March 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic :  Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. The journey of Indian literature is rooted in diversity and marked with a shift in theme, ideas and styles. Substantiate with examples (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Difficult

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

Write about shifting themes and directions of Indian literature.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief intro to Indian literature

Body:

Trace the evolution of Indian Literature with focus on changing themes, ideas and styles.

E.g. Earliest literature: There were no rules and no separation between singing, poetry, dance and philosophy etc. Poetry dominated prose. Themes were mainly religious.

Medieval times: Newer forms of literature developed (e.g. Dohas by Kabir), languages diversified, Use of Persian languages and poetry.

Modern times: Indian writers tried to emulate West, emergence of reformation literature e.g. Ram Mohan Roy’s ‘Precepts of Jesus’

Conclusion:

Rapidly advancing technology and the digital world have reduced the gap between the author and the reader. It has encouraged many youngsters to take up literature in a serious way. Self-publication and digital platforms, new avatars like science fiction, flash fiction, Instagram poetry has got evolved in the present times

Introduction

The Indian literary tradition is one of the oldest in the world. While a significant amount of the Indian literature is written, a lot more is propagated orally in regional languages, all of which have received an enormous reception worldwide. The hallmark of Indian literature over the past 3000 years or so is diversity. The key to this diversity is the linguistic density of the Indian sub-continent and the willingness to absorb all wonderful things from any language or culture that people came across.

Body

Journey of Indian literature

Ancient period

  • In the initial days, there were no hard and fast rules and hence no separation between singing, poetry, dance, philosophy etc.
  • We find that the writers mainly sages wrote most astonishing poetry and music as in Sama Veda, highest philosophy as in Rig Veda etc.
  • During the time of Vedas in the northern plains region, exotic poetry and grammar were being developed in Southern regions as well, in Tamil.
  • We see early Sangam poetry that not only reflects the poet’s thoughts and emotions but also provide a large number of clues to the highly civilised society that was in existence at that time.
  • The corpus of Sangam literature includes Tolkappiyam, Ettutogai, Pattuppattu, Pathinenkilkanakku, and the two epics- Silappathigaram and Manimegalai.
  • The Bhakti reformers adopted the common language of the people and preached in it instead of preaching either in Sanskrit or in Persian. In this way a great impetus was given to the development of the vernaculars.
  • For instance, Basavanna and Akka Mahadevi wrote several Vachanas in Kannada language. The Vira-Saivas contributed the most for the development of Kannada literature.

Medieval period

  • The emergence of a variety of literature in a large number of languages during die medieval period and almost on all the subjects of human endeavour marks the medieval period as Golden One for India.
  • The literature during the Gupta period varied from topics of Science, astronomy, medicine to Ayurveda by noted writers and poets.
  • Sanskrit literature is as vast as the human life. Sanskrit literature refers to texts composed in Sanskrit language since the 2nd-millennium BCE. Many of the prominent texts are associated with Indian religions, i.e., Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and were composed in ancient India.
  • Development of Sanskrit grammar began with Panini in 400 B.C. with his book Asthadhyayi being the oldest book in Sanskrit grammar. Sanskrit literature reached its peak with works by greats like Kalidasa, Vishnu Sharma etc.
  • Persian became the official languageof Delhi sultanate. The development of Persian literature in the sub continent entered a new era in the writings of Amir Khusrau. The court chronicles were an important feature of the literature during the period of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • The Mughal period constitutes a brilliant epoch in the cultural history of India. The period witnessed outburst of many-side cultural activities, of which, very significant strides were made in the development of literature.
  • Both original works and translations were produced in large numbers in Persian. Hindi also saw important developments and so did Punjabi, Urdu. Moreover, many other regional languages also found a period of growth during this period.
  • Vijayanagaraliterature was produced in the Vijayanagara Empire during a golden age of literature in South India in general. The rulers patronised Kannada, Telugu, Sanskrit and Tamil scholars who wrote in the Jain, Virashaiva and Vaishnava traditions. The period produced hundreds of works on all aspects of Indian culture, religion, biographies, Prabhandas (stories), music, grammar, poetics and medicine.

Pre- independence

  • In the late 19th and early 20th century many writers across the languages tried to emulate their Western counterparts, especially when it came to stories and novels. That is no surprise given the amount of success these two genres had in the West.
  • Raja Ram mohan Roy’s prose works is noteworthy.
  • Indian writers have huge contribution in awakening the masses for freedom struggle. Many freedom fighters were also writers or vice-versa or both. Their writings, poem made people aware about atrocities of British Raj.
  • Bankim Chandra, Rabindranath tagore, Munshi Premchand, Subramania Bharthi are few noted writers who stirred the minds of people.
  • The trend of Indian romanticism ushered in by three great forces influenced the destiny of modern Indian literature. These forces were Sri Aurobindo’s search for the divine in man, Tagore’s quest for the beautiful in nature and man, and Mahatma Gandhi’s experiments with truth and non-violence.  Jawaharlal Nehru’s prose works, The Discovery of India and Glimpses of World History, are famous.

Post independence

  • Post-independence India did see greater awareness on the part of the reading public as well as the government of the existence of many more and richer languages and literatures, beyond the limited periphery of one’s own mother-tongue or province.
  • Writers received the opportunity of visiting new places and publicise their works. All this, with all its limitations, did stimulate a literary climate. Further, the industrial and scientific advancement throughout the country after independence also had an impact on Indian literature. In spite of the new vistas opened to the writers in the form of writing for the new mass media like the film, the Radio and TV, the character of Indian literature continues to remain feudal, romantic, pastoral, idyllic and medievalist.
  • Dalit literature is literature written by Dalits about their lives. Dalit literature emerged in the 1960s in the Marathi language, and it soon appeared in Bangla, Hindi, Kannada, Punjabi, sindhi, and Tamil languages, through narratives such as poems, short stories, and autobiographies, which stood out due to their stark portrayal of reality and the Dalit political scene.
  • In contemporary times, many new genres and sub-genres have come into existence- Fantasy, Science Fiction, Flash Fiction, Mythology in a new avatar, Instagram poetry etc.
  • Rapidly advancing technology and the digital world have reduced the gap between the author and the reader. In fact, it has encouraged many youngsters lo take up literature in a serious way. Self-publication and digital platforms have also helped in this cause.

Conclusion        

                Indian literature always had its own, unique style from the beginning. Contrary to the popular perception two decades ago, Indian literature did not go the Western way and taking up of Mythology in a significant way in many languages and presenting the same to suit the sensibilities of the 21 century is one example.

 

Topic:  Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Assess the role played by Rabindranath Tagore and Abanindranath Tagore in the emergence of the Bengal School of Art. (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: NCERT

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

Contributions of each in the genesis of Bengal School of Art

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly introduce Bengal School of Art

Body:

Write about the emergence of Bengal School of Art, its features and contribution of each –

E.g. Emergence: As a reaction to the company paintings promoted by British

Features: Based on Indian Traditions, Influence of Ajanta Paintings, Linear Delicacy, etc.

Contribution of Abanindranath Tagore: Creator of ‘Indian society of Oriental Art’, promoted National Indian Styles withing colonial art institutions.

Contributions of Rabindranath Tagore: He opened up his house to young artists, and started the ‘vichitra club’. He created ‘Kala Bhavan’ at Viswa Bharati University in 1919.

Conclusion:

Thus, both played a major role in the emergence and development of Bengal School of Art.

Introduction

Originating in Calcutta and Shantiniketan, the Bengal School of Art promoted a distinctly Indian modernism which blossomed throughout India during the British Raj of the early 20th century. Founded by Abanindranath Tagore, this movement was associated with Indian Nationalism more specifically by the Swadeshi movement as a revolt against the tyranny of the British that posed a threat to Indian sensibilities and to revive traditional art forms. The Bengal school of art paved the way for the Progressive Artists Group which now constitutes a major portion of the Modern Indian artists.

Body

Characteristic features of Bengal School of art

  • Based on Indian Traditions : The Bengal School is fully based on the Indian traditional style as the subject matter of this school is based on Indian culture. The paintings based on Indian theme like ‘Mahakali, ‘Shiva Parwati’Krishna and Gopis etc. prove the Bengal School’s Indian mentality.
  • Influence of Ajanta Paintings : Bengal school is influenced from Ajanta Art. The qualities of Ajanta Art like rhythm, grace, harmony etc. are visible in Bengal School.
  • Linear Delicacy : The lines of Bengal School resemble the Ajanta Paintings. Lines are delicate and rhythmic.
  • Softness and Rhythm in Figures : The figures of Bengal School give soft effect and no hardness is there. They are graceful and have delicacy. They are rhythmic and provide pleasant experience to eyes.
  • Beautiful Colour Scheme : The colours of Bengal School are very attractive. Wash technique is used and colours are not bright and gaudy at all.
  • Influence of Mughal and Rajasthani Schools : Mughal and Rajasthani Schools’ influence can also be seen at some places.
  • Light and Shade : The softness in the paintings of Bengal School is due to its quality of brilliant light and shade.
  • Impressive and Indian Subject Matter : The subject matter of Bengal School is very impressive and Indian in character. Themes used are historical, religious, literary etc.

Role of Rabindranath Tagore

  • Santiniketan was a path breaking educational institution Rabindranath Tagore set up in rural Bengal in early twentieth century.
  • Tagore’s radical ideas of basing education in freedom and in the midst of nature played a central role in ushering the radical modernism that emerged from its art department, Kala Bhavana, set up in 1919.
  • Rabindranath liked Nandlal Bose’s work and asked him to look after Kala Bhavan in 1922. With Bose at the helm, the Bengal art movement flourished with Binode Bihari Mukherjee and Ramkinker Baij as his students
  • However, Rabindranath Tagore began painting relatively late in his career —in his 60s.
  • Nevertheless, he produced thousands of works and was the first Indian artist to exhibit his works across Europe, Russia and the United States in 1930s.
  • His style was characterised by simple bold forms and a rhythmic quality.
  • Gaganendranath and Abanindranath, who were Rabindranath’s nephews, were deeply involved in painting.

Role of Abanindranath Tagore

  • Abanindranath first created the ‘Indian Society of Oriental Art’and later went on to establish Bengal school of art.
  • He believed that Indian art and its art forms gave importance to spirituality as opposed to the West which stressed on materialism, thus rejecting it.
  • His idea of modernizing Mughal and Rajput paintings eventually gave rise to modern Indian painting, which took birth at his Bengal school of art.
  • Most of his works revolved around Hindu philosophy and other things Indian.
  • A series of paintings titled ‘Arabian Nights’, which depicted Calcutta’s emerging cosmopolitanism but used the stories from Arabian Nights as its trope.
  • In his later works, Abanindranath started integrating Chinese and Japanese calligraphic traditionsinto his style. The intention behind this move was to construct an amalgamation of the modern pan-Asian artistic tradition and the common elements of Eastern artistic and spiritual culture.
  • His works reflected his ideologies and since they were simple in nature, his paintings were a hit among Indian art lovers.
  • Ganesh Janani, Bharat Mata, The Victory of Buddha, The Passing of Shah Jahan, Journey’s End, Birds and Animals series are few of his master-pieces.

Conclusion        

                With the spread of modernist ideas in the 1920s, the influence of the Bengal School began to decline. But there is no doubt that the revolutionary movement fuelled artists to look for a distinct Indian identity, and in that sense, the Bengal School was the harbinger of Modern Art in India. The other artists of this group were Gaganendranath Tagore, Asit Kumar Haldar, M.A.R Chughtai, Sunayani Devi (sister of Abanindranath Tagore), Kshitindranath Majumdar, Nandalal Bose, Kalipada Ghoshal, Sughra Rababi and Sudhir Khastgir.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these

3. The anti-defection law that was designed to eliminate political defection, is rather being misused to facilitate defection. Do you agree? Comment (150 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: The Indian Express

Why the question:

A recent judgment relating to defection in Goa Assembly is in news, and hence the interpretation of related schedule

Key Demand of the question:

Mention the purpose, issues and recommendations relating to Defection provisions

Directive word:

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the topic and form an overall opinion thereupon

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on the constitutional provisions-Article Numbers, schedule relating to defection

Body:

First, mention in brief the provisions in the Indian constitution relating to defection

Then, highlight the instances where it has facilitated defection, rather than preventing it

Further, mention the issues associated with the provision, with the relevant way forward

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

Defection is “desertion by one member of the party of his loyalty towards his political party” or basically it means “When an elected representative joins another party without resigning his present party for benefits”. The institutional malaise is defection and party-hopping is state- neutral, party-neutral, and politics-neutral.

Thus, in 1985, to curb the evil of political defections, the 52nd constitution amendment act on Anti-defection law was passed and the 10th Schedule was added in the Indian Constitution. The main intent of the law was to combat “the evil of political defections” which may be due to reward of office or other similar considerations.

Body

Background and deviation from the Anti-defection law

  • The High Court of Bombay at Goain its judgment, delivered on February 25, held that the former members of the Congress Legislature Party (CLP) in the Goa assembly who had defected to the BJP are exempt from disqualification under paragraph 4(2) of the Constitution’s Tenth Schedule, referred to commonly as the anti-defection law.
  • Under this provision, for a member to seek exemption from disqualification, the merger of the original political party has to take place first,followed by two-thirds of the MLAs agreeing to such merger.
  • The words “such merger”make it clear beyond any shadow of doubt that the merger of the original political party has to take place before two-thirds of the members agree to such a merger.
  • The HC seems to have missed the significance of the words “such merger”.In fact, the members of the legislature cannot agree among themselves to merge as the court has said, but they can agree to a merger after it takes place.
  • The anti-defection law was designed to eliminate political defection. However, the judgment of the Bombay HC seems to assume that paragraph (4) of the 10th schedule is meant to facilitate defection.This judgment is likely to open the flood gates to defection.

Criteria for merger to be not considered as defection

  • Merger alone is not enough:The opening words of sub-paragraph (2) — “for the purposes of sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph” — clearly mean that to exempt a member from disqualification on account of defection, and for considering this member’s claim that he has become a member of the party with which the merger has taken place, a merger of two political parties alone is not enough.
  • Not less than 2/3rd members should also agree:Not less than two-thirds of the members should also agree to such a merger.

Steps to be taken

  • Intra-party democracy: 170thLaw Commission report underscored the importance of intra-party democracy by arguing that a political party cannot be a dictatorship internally and democratic in its functioning outside.
    • Thus, the parties should listen to the opinions of the members and have discussions on the same. This would give the freedom of speech and expression to its members and promote inner-party democracy.
  • Non-partisan authority:Various commissions including National Commission to review the working of the constitution (NCRWC) have recommended that rather than the Presiding Officer, the decision to disqualify a member should be made by the President (in case of MPs) or the Governor (in case of MLAs) on the advice of the Election Commission.
  • Independent committee for disqualification:Justice Verma in Hollohan judgment said that tenure of the Speaker is dependent on the continuous support of the majority in the House and therefore, he does not satisfy the requirement of such independent adjudicatory authority.
    • Also, his choice as the sole arbiter in the matter violates an essential attribute of the basic feature.
    • Thus, the need for an independent authority to deal with the cases of defection.
  • Limiting Speaker’s discretion: Recent Supreme Court Judgement ruled that Speaker must decide on disqualification within three months of receiving application. It cannot be the discretion of the Speaker to take no action.
  • To be used for major decision making:Several experts have suggested that the law should be valid only for those votes that determine the stability of the government. e.g. passage of the annual budget or no-confidence motions as recommended by Dinesh Goswami Committee.

Conclusion

There is a need to prevent unholy defections that lead to instability in the governance system of the nation. The current law is clearly flawed and has not effectively curbed defection due to lure of power and money. There is a need for a more rationalised version of anti-defection laws which will help establish a truly representative democracy.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests

4. Considering the current diplomatic relations, do you think India should remind Russia of its violations during the course of war? Analyze the statement, highlighting the course India should take, in relation to its Foreign Policy prepositions. (250 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The actions of India in response to the Russia-Ukraine war are in the news

Key Demand of the question:

The holistic analysis of India’s actions in response to the war and the course it should take with its actions

Directive word:

Analyze- here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and presenting them as a whole in a summary

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on situation and what has been India’s response to it.

Body:

First, focus on India-Russia relations and in what possible ways India can guide Russia, while still keeping up the relations

Analysis of India’s recent responsive actions, can also be provided

Considering the values that India abides by, when it comes to shaping its foreign policy, suggest what course of action India should take in alignment with these values

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

As India abstained on a US-sponsored UN Security Council resolution that “deplores in the strongest terms” Russia’s “aggression” against Ukraine, one must look at the reasons behind India’s decision to be quiet on the international forum of security council.

India’s statement at the UNSC that appealed for diplomacy and de-escalation, while making no critical comment about Mr. Putin’s announcement is a reflection of the difficult position New Delhi finds itself in over the conflict, which appears to have now entered a new phase.

Body

Background: Russia-Ukraine war

  • The increasing aggression on part of Russia started with news of eastward expansion of NATO, especially Ukraine’s membership to NATO. This would mean deployment of western missiles and weapons in Russia backyard and its borders.
  • Russian President Vladimir Putin has played a major move by announcing formal recognition for the Donbas region enclaves (Oblasts) of Donetsk and Luhansk in Eastern Ukraine, one which changes the course of the present diplomatic efforts.
  • Post this, Russian troops have started full scale invasion and have reached the capital city Kyiv.
  • The recognition of the two separatist groups that control parts of the Donbas region as governments signals that Russia is no longer interested in talks on the basis of the “Minsk accords”. The agreements — negotiated in 2014 and 2015, but never fully implemented — had secured a “special status” for the Donbas enclaves.

India-Russia relations in backdrop of Russia-Ukraine war

  • Beyond all weather friendship: For India, Russian ties are important. It must be recalled that Ukraine was against India during 1998 nuclear tests and had spoken against India with issue of Kashmir.
    • India’s Russia tilt should be seen not just as a product of its time-tested friendship with Moscow but also as a geopolitical necessity.
    • If in the future there is Chinese aggression or Pakistan tries adventurism on India, India will need all hands on the deck. Russia being the most important.
  • Russia’s support to solve continental problems: There is an emerging dualism in contemporary Indian strategic Weltanschauung: the predicament of a continental space that is reeling under immense pressure from China, Pakistan and Taliban-led Afghanistan adding to its strategic claustrophobia; and, the emergence of a maritime sphere which presents an opportunity to break out of the same.
  • Defence supplies: New Delhi needs Moscow’s assistance to manage its continental difficulties through defence supplies, helping it ‘return’ to central Asia, working together at the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) or exploring opportunities for collaboration in Afghanistan.
    • Russia, to put it rather bluntly, is perhaps India’s only partner of consequence in the entire Asian continental stretch.
    • Therefore, having Russia on its side is crucial for India, more than ever.
    • Moscow may or may not be able to moderate Chinese antagonism towards New Delhi, but an India-Russia strategic partnership may be able to temper New Delhi’s growing isolation in a rather friendless region.

Analysis of India’s response

  • India did not endorse the harsh language used in the resolution condemning Russia’s actions. It wants to maintain a balance between the Western bloc led by the US, and Russia, since it has strategic partners on both sides.
  • India’s past record has been maintaining balance between the West and Russia. On January 31, India abstained on a procedural vote on whether to discuss the issue of Ukraine.
  • New Delhi had then articulated its position on “legitimate security interests” that echoed with a nuanced tilt towards the Russian position, and had abstained along with Kenya and Gabon.
  • Despite abstention, India has reiterated and has called for cessation of violence in no ambiguous terms.
  • India has also quoted the international charter on sovereignty, highlighting that all nations must respect the same, intended towards Russia.
  • For India, Russian ties are important. It must be recalled that Ukraine was against India during 1998 nuclear tests and had spoken against India with issue of Kashmir.

Conclusion

Dialogue is the only answer to settling differences and disputes, however daunting that may appear at this moment. India maintained its “consistent, steadfast and balanced position on the matter”. India has been in touch with all sides, urging the parties concerned to return to the negotiating table. By abstaining, India retained the option of reaching out to relevant sides in an effort to bridge the gap and find a middle ground with an aim to foster dialogue and diplomacy.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

5. Critically analyze the rationale behind divestment of profit-making Public Sector Units (PSUs) and its possible macroeconomic impacts. (250 Words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question

The government is going ahead with the disinvestment of its profitable PSUs e.g. LIC through the market route, despite an economic slowdown due to Ukrainian crisis.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand why Governments go for sale of government owned businesses, including transfer of management and control of profitable PSUs and the economic repercussions of the move.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the recent plan to divest government stakes in Profit making PSUs.

Body:

First, mention the intent behind divestment/strategic sale such as greater administrative efficiency of private management, getting rid of loss-making units, rationalization of resources and manpower etc.

In contrast also bring out the reasons for low performance of PSUs despite being profit-making, such as lack of commercial autonomy, lower pecuniary benefits etc.

Also, some PSUs are strategically important e.g. LIC has always been known to be the investor of last resort, intervening in the market to minimise volatility. It has also been proactive in ensuring that several disinvestment plans of the government are fructified by becoming the buyer.

Next, highlight the macroeconomic impacts such as fiscal stimulus in the economy, more resources with the Government for investment in infrastructure projects, loss of jobs etc

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that divestment/strategic sale must be taken up with utmost caution and only where it is absolutely prudent else it may lead to loss of assets and revenue of the government in the long run.

Introduction

Disinvestment, or divestment, refers to the act of a business or government selling or liquidating an asset or subsidiary or the process of dilution of a government’s stake in a PSU (Public Sector Undertaking).

After Air India privatisation, listing of India’s largest insurer LIC could be another important milestone in the country’s economic reforms agenda. A successful listing of the life insurance behemoth will help expedite the disinvestment of other government-owned assets.

Body

Rationale behind divestment and strategic sale of PSU’s

  • Financing economic recovery:There is a pressure on the government to raise resources to support the economic recovery and meet expectations of higher outlays for healthcare.
    • The increase in public spending in the upcoming Budgetwill have to be financed to a large extent by garnering disinvestment proceeds and monetising assets.
  • Minimum government Maximum governance: To eliminate the need for the government’s involvement in non-strategic areas.
    • Government must not to business, is the rationale behind the divestment.
    • Government presence distorts competitive dynamicsfor private players.
  • Raising efficiency: To diversify the ownership of PSU for enhancing efficiency of individual enterprise. Eg Hindustan Zinc is the world’s second-largest zinc-lead miner and one of the top 10 silver producers. It benefitted from the privatisation.
  • Better economic potential under private players: Economic potential of such entities may be better discovered in the hands of the strategic investors due to various factors, infusion of capital, technology up-gradation and efficient management practices
  • Better utilization of taxpayer money: Loss making PSU’sresults in consumers and taxpayers bearing the brunt of inefficient PSU operations. Instead, government can use the same resources into areas that directly benefit people.

Macroeconomic impact

  • Government has mostly used disinvestment for fiscal reasons rather than growth objectives.
  • Process of disinvestment is not favoured socially as it is against the interests of socially disadvantaged people.
  • Over the years the policy of divestment has increasingly become a tool to raise resources to cover the fiscal deficitwith little focus on market discipline or strategic objective.
  • Sometimes with the emergence of private monopolies consumer welfare will be reduced.
  • Mere change of ownership from public to private does not ensure higher efficiency and productivity.
  • It may lead toretrenchment of workers who will be deprived of the means of their livelihood.
  • Private sector governed as they are by profit motive has a tendency to use capital intensive techniques which willworsen unemployment problem in India.
  • Loss making unitsdon’t attract investment so easily.

Way Forward

  • Monetization of PSU assets instead of disinvestment which yield more.
  • Define the priority sectors for the government based on its strategic interests.
  • Investment in PSUs has to be in terms of generation of adequate social and strategic returns.
  • It should be time bound programme.
  • The government ownership is required for sectors with strategic relevance such as defence, natural resources, etc. The government should, exit non-strategic sectors such as hotels, soaps, airlines, travel agencies and the manufacture and sale of alcohol.
  • The government should look into strengthening the regulatory frameworkthat ensures efficient market conditions.
  • Instead of creating PSUs, the government should create regulations that would ease the entry of new players. The regulations should also ensure that the basic necessities of the consumers are met.
  • Allowing both domestic and foreign buyers to bidfreely for stakes.

Value Addition

Types of Disinvestments

  • Minority Disinvestment: A minority disinvestment is one such that, at the end of it, the government retains a majority stake in the company, typically greater than 51%, thus ensuring management control.
  • Majority Disinvestment: A majority disinvestment is one in which the government, post disinvestment, retains a minority stake in the company i.e. it sells off a majority stake.
  • Complete Privatisation: Complete privatisation is a form of majority disinvestment wherein 100% control of the company is passed on to a buyer. Examples of this include 18 hotel properties of ITDC and 3 hotel properties of HCI.

 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

6. As per the latest IPCC report, India is one of the most vulnerable countries globally in terms of the population that will be affected by sea-level rise. Examine the risk, vulnerabilities and adaptation measures needed to mitigate the impact of climate change in India (250 Words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The IPCC released the second part of its sixth assessment report on Monday. It deals with climate change impacts, risks and vulnerabilities, and adaptation measures.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about Hybrid warfare and measures that are needed to combat it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving facts and figures as given by the latest report esp. for India

Body:

Identify various risks and Vulnerabilities that India may have to go through in face of climate change. E.g. Urban India is at greater risk than other areas with a projected population of 877 million by 2050, nearly double of 480 million in 2020.

Then chart out a few adaptation measures to mitigate the impact. If possible, cite examples where these measures have worked successfully.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward

Introduction

Sea level rise is an increase in the level of the world’s oceans due to the effects of global warming and other factors. According to a report of United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change destructive changes have already been set in motion. The report says that even with most optimistic emission reduction scenario, by the year 2050 many low-lying megacities and small island nations will experience extreme sea level events every year.

Report says that the big four – United States of America, China, India and European Union will face most devastating fall out of the ocean and ice related impacts of climate change.

Alarming rate of sea level rise

  • Sea levels have risen by between 180 to 200 mm since 1900.
  • Nearly5-0.7% of the world’s land area is at a risk of episodic coastal flooding by 2100, impacting 2.5-4.1% of the population assuming there are no coastal defenses or adaptation measures in place.
  • By 2100, the global population potentially exposed to episodic coastal flooding will increase from 128-171 million to 176-287 million.

Consequences of sea-level rise on coastal states

  • Loss of habitat: Almost 3 billion people are living with in 200 km of the coasts and islands all over the world.
    • A sea level rise will lead to loss of habitation and hence leads to de-urbanization.
    • Indonesia is planning to shift its capital from Jakarta, the “world’s fastest-sinking city” owing to sinking of land by 25 cm per year.
    • It may also significantly affect tourism and recreation through impacts on landscapes (e.g., beaches), cultural features etc.
  • Agriculture: SLR will affect agriculture mainly through land submergence, soil and fresh groundwater resources salinisation, and land loss due to permanent coastal erosion, with consequences on production, livelihood diversification and food security.
  • Coastal fisheries and aquaculture: The negative effects of SLR on fisheries and aquaculture are indirect, through adverse impacts on habitats (e.g., coral reef degradation, reduced water quality in deltas and estuarine environments, soil salinisation, etc.).
  • Impact on Small Island Nations: Because of small islands’ high coastline to land area ratio, most of their human settlements, agricultural lands, and critical infrastructure are at or near the coasts.

Vulnerability of India to sea level rise

  • As per the study by Hyderabad-based Indian National Center for Ocean Information Services, Sea levels along the Indian coast are projected to rise between 3.5 inches to 34 inch (2.8 feet) by the end of century due to global warming.
  • India’s coastal regions, home to about 170 million of the country’s 1.4 billion people, are on the front lines of a shifting climate, experiencing sea-level rise, erosion, and natural disasters such as tropical storms and cyclones.
  • The latest evidence of this vulnerability occurred in May 2020, as the strongest storm recorded in decades in the Bay of Bengal—Cyclone Amphan—hit, forcing several million people to evacuate.
  • Climate change is expected to inundate significant sections of Mumbai by 2050, impacting millions of people.
  • India lost 235 square kilometers of land to coastal erosion between 1990 and 2016, placing people’s livelihoods and homes in jeopardy, with flight to safer places occurring voluntarily or, as a last resort, through government intervention.
  • Scientific prediction suggests that 36 million Indians are likely to be living in areas experiencing chronic flooding by 2100.
  • Sea level around Asia in the North Indian Ocean has increased faster than global average, with coastal area loss and shoreline retreat.
  • Similarly, mega cities such as Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata are at high risk of flooding and sea-level rise, with millions living in these urban coastal areas likely to be relocated to safer places in the future.
  • In such circumstances, forced migration and displacement would be inevitable in the absence of well-managed, pre-emptive relocation of populations from high-risk areas.

Adaptation measures

  • Integrated coastal management: It will help in resource management following an integrative, holistic approach and an interactive planning process in addressing the complex management issues in the coastal area.
  • Coastal Regulation Zone notifications issued under Environmental Protection Act, 1986 will help in this integrated management.
  • Community ownership: Policy makers should engage stakeholders in the early stages of decision-making and throughout the entire decision-making process to enhance overall resilience in coastal areas, while supporting community ownership.
  • Barriers to urban areas: Rotterdam has offered a model to other cities seeking to combat flooding and land loss. Rotterdam has built barriers, drainage, and innovative architectural features such as a “water square” with temporary ponds.
  • Adaptation to Sea Level Rise
    • Relocating utility infrastructure, such as treatment plants and pump stations, to higher elevations would reduce risks from coastal flooding.
    • Understanding and modelling groundwater conditions will inform aquifer management and projected water quantity and quality changes.
    • Coastal restoration plans may protect water utility infrastructure from damaging storm surge by increasing protective habitat of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and wetlands.
    • The injection of fresh water into aquifers can help to act as a barrier, while intrusion recharges groundwater resources.
  • Limiting global warming: More use of renewable energy (wind, solar) can help reduce carbon emissions. Nations must act fast to attain their NDC’s and work on carbon sequestration.

Conclusion

The Paris Agreement provides a clear vision on limiting climate change  and thus, Sea level rise. There must be awareness among the representatives of the public, different agencies of the government, scientists, industry and the communities on the threat posed by climate change and the steps to counter it. Sea level rise is a slow disaster that will become magnanimous and all steps must be taken to ensure that such disasters are mitigated.

 


General Studies – 4


 

7. How has ethics promoted your individual happiness and growth? Explain with personal examples (150 Words)

Introduction

Ethics is based on well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. Ethics are the principles that guide us to make a positive impact through our decisions and actions.

Body

Ethical values such as compassion, empathy, integrity, neutrality are time-tested values. Even if there is difficulty in following the path of morality initially, once a person treads the path, there cannot be any looking back. Gandhiji never gave up on his principles of truth and non-violence and was even ready to sacrifice his life for the sake of it. ‘

For me, as a civil servant, empathy is one of the most important virtues. Civil servants have interface to public and the only way to solve their problem is to put oneself in the shoes of the people. From the personal archive of anecdotes, one such instance is memorable. Once an individual came to the office to get certain authorisations redeemed, because of which he was being harassed by another department. Unfortunately, he had lost original license to return and redeem it. It was an old file and my predecessors had not made an effort to find the file from records room and extract the copy to cross verify. On being newly appointed, this case was reassigned to me. I ensured that the file was traced, and personally supervised the clerical staff to bring it to closure after appropriate permissions.

It is necessary to constantly examine one’s standards to ensure that they are reasonable and well-founded. Ethics also means, then, the continuous effort of studying our own moral beliefs and our moral conduct, and striving to ensure that we, and the institutions we help to shape, live up to standards that are reasonable and solidly-based.

Conclusion

Thus, just by doing our work, ethically and with integrity there can be tremendous personal growth as well as individual happiness. We live in a society and we are co-dependent on the people in the society. If everyone individual is ethical, then he or she is respecting the rights of others to live in the society and co-exist peacefully. Thus, ethics not only creates an order but also guides in very difficult circumstances as well.

 


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