Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2022] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 01 March 2022

 

 

InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

 

current affairs, current events, current gk, insights ias current affairs, upsc ias current affairs

 

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar.

2. Another bomb cyclone over the North Atlantic.

 

GS Paper 2:

1. Bombay High Court judgement related to Anti-defection law.

2. Can Turkey use the Montreux Convention to block Russian warships?

3. International Court of Justice (ICJ).

 

GS Paper 3:

1. National Science Day 2022.

 

Facts for Prelims:

1. Antonov AN-225 or ‘Mriya’.

2. International Monsoons Project Office (IMPO).

3. Operation Ganga.


 

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar:

GS Paper 1:

Topics Covered: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

 

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar:

Context:

Veer Savarkar was born on May 28, 1883, at Bhagur village of Nashik district in Maharashtra and died on February 26, 1966, in Mumbai.

 

Things you should know about Veer Savarkar:

  • Formed a youth organization- Mitra Mela. This organization was put into place to bring in national and revolutionary ideas.
  • He was against foreign goods and propagated the idea of Swadeshi.
  • He championed atheism and rationality and also disapproved orthodox Hindu belief. In fact, he even dismissed cow worship as superstitious.
  • He also Worked on abolishment of untouchability in Ratnagiri. Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar also compared his work to Lord Buddha.

 

Organizations/institutions he was associated with:

  • He was a president of Hindu Mahasabha from 1937 to 1943.
  • When congress ministries offered resignation on 22nd oct 1939, Hindu mahaasabha under his leadership cooperated with Muslim league to form government in provinces like Sindh, Bengal and NWFP.
  • In Pune, Savarkar founded the “Abhinav Bharat Society”.
  • He joined Tilak’s Swaraj Party.
  • He founded the Free India Society. The Society celebrated important dates on the Indian calendar including festivals, freedom movement landmarks, and was dedicated to furthering discussion about Indian freedom.

 

Important works:

  1. Book- The History of the War of Indian Independence.
  2. An armed revolt against the Morley-Minto reform.
  3. Two-nation theory in his book ‘Hindutva’.

 

Insta Curious:

A quote attributed to Savarkar has been going around in academic circles which shows that Savarkar supported Jinnah’s two nation theory. Read this article to know if it’s true.

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Who founded Mitra mela, Abhinav Bharat Society and Free India society, what are the objectives?
  2. Books written by Savarkar?
  3. Savarkar’s book which was published by Madam Bikaji Cama?
  4. Morley- Minto reforms- key changes.
  5. Savarkar’s views on use of arms to free India.
  6. Hindu Mahasabha- key achievements.

Mains Link:

Discuss Veer Savarkar’s contributions to social reforms in the country.

Sources: Indian Express.

Another bomb cyclone over the North Atlantic:

GS Paper 1:

Topics Covered: Important Geographical phenomenon.

 

Context:

Another violent bomb cyclone is grazing north just west of Ireland and UK with violent, hurricane winds and major waves.

  • Thanks to still a very powerful southern lobe of the Polar Vortex aloft, the North Atlantic is yet to produce more dangerous storms this week.

 

What is a Bomb Cyclone?

Bombogenesis is the technical term. ‘Bomb cyclone’ is a shortened version of it.”

  • It is a mid-latitude cyclone that intensifies rapidly.
  • It has low pressure at its center, weather fronts and an array of associated weather, from blizzards to severe thunderstorms to heavy precipitation.

Generally, a bomb cyclone happens when atmospheric pressure in the middle of the storm drops at least 24 millibars over 24 hours, quickly increasing in intensity. The lower the pressure, the stronger the storm.

 

Why is it called a bomb?

Most cyclones don’t intensify rapidly in this way. Bomb cyclones put forecasters on high alert, because they can produce significant harmful impacts.

Things you should know about a bomb cyclone:

  • Occurs over midlatitudes.
  • Have cold air and fronts.
  • Form during winter.

 

What exactly is a polar vortex?

It is described as a whirling cone of low pressure over the poles that is strongest in the winter months due to the increased temperature contrast between the polar regions and the mid-latitudes, such as the US and Europe.

 

Features:

  • The polar vortex spins in the stratosphere.
  • Usually, it forms a wall that protects the mid-latitudes from cold Arctic air.
  • When the vortex weakens, the stratosphere warms sharply in an event known as sudden stratospheric warming, in just a few days, miles above the Earth’s surface.
  • The warming weakens the polar vortex, shifting its location somewhat south of the pole or, in some instances, ‘splitting’ the vortex up into ‘sister vortices’.

 

Insta Curious:

Did you know that all bomb cyclones are not hurricanes? Know the differences between these two here.

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. What is a cyclone?
  2. Differences between cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons.
  3. What is a Bomb Cyclone?
  4. What is Polar Vortex?
  5. Where is it formed?
  6. Movement of winds in Polar Vortex.

Mains Link:

What is a Bomb Cyclone? How is it formed?

Sources: the Hindu.

Bombay High Court judgement related to Anti-defection law:

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

 

Context:

The High Court of Bombay at Goa in its judgment, delivered on February 25, held that the former members of the Congress Legislature Party (CLP) in the Goa assembly who had defected to the BJP are exempt from disqualification under paragraph 4(2) of the Constitution’s Tenth Schedule, referred to commonly as the anti-defection law.

 

Why did the High Court rule so?

The court said that under sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph (4), the merger of this group of Congress MLAs with the BJP is deemed to be a merger of the original political party (Indian National Congress) with the BJP. Therefore, these members are protected under paragraph (4).

 

Provisions in this regard under the 10th schedule of the Indian Constitution:

Paragraph (4) of the Tenth Schedule exempts defectors from disqualification if their original political party merges with another party and two-thirds of the members of that party in the legislature agree with the merger.

  • Here, in the case of Goa, Ten of the 15 MLAs of the CLP in the Goa Assembly — two-thirds of the party’s strength in the House — had joined the BJP.

 

But, this judgement has raised a concern. What is it?

Paragraph (4) of the Anti- defection law contemplates the factual merger of the original political party.

  • However, in the latest judgment, Bombay High Court has held that a factual merger of the original political party is not necessary to seek exemption. And the merger of the 10 MLAs of the CLP with the BJP should be regarded as the Congress itself merging with the BJP.
  • The court has said, erroneously, that the two sub-paragraphs 1 and 2 of paragraph 4 should be seen as independent entities.
  • But, this opinion goes against the letter and spirit of the Tenth Schedule, paragraph (4) in particular.

 

How does this opinion go against the letter and spirit of the Tenth Schedule, paragraph (4) in particular?

Under this provision, for a member to seek exemption from disqualification, the merger of the original political party has to take place first, followed by two-thirds of the MLAs agreeing to such merger.

  • The words “such merger” make it clear beyond any shadow of doubt that the merger of the original political party has to take place before two-thirds of the members agree to such a merger.
  • The HC seems to have missed the significance of the words “such merger”. In fact, the members of the legislature cannot agree among themselves to merge as the court has said, but they can agree to a merger after it takes place.

 

Need of the hour:

The anti-defection law was designed to eliminate political defection. However, the judgment of the Bombay HC seems to assume that paragraph (4) of the 10th schedule is meant to facilitate defection. This judgment is likely to open the flood gates to defection. The Supreme Court must intervene quickly.

Read more about Anti – defection law here.

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Names of various committees and commissions with regard to Anti Defection law.
  2. Committees vs Commissions.
  3. Decision of presiding officer vs Judicial review.
  4. Merger vs Split of political parties.
  5. Is anti- defection law applicable to the presiding officer?
  6. Relevant Supreme Court cases and verdicts.

Mains Link:

Examine the provisions of Anti- defection law. Has this law largely failed to meet its objective? Discuss.

Sources: Indian Express.

Can Turkey use the Montreux Convention to block Russian warships?

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Important International institutions.

 

Context:

Turkey is set to implement the Montreux Convention, an international convention on naval passage through two of its strategic straits, which would allow them to limit the movement of Russian warships between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea.

 

On what grounds can such limitations be announced?

  • In the event of a war, the pact gives Ankara the right to regulate the transit of naval warships and to block the straits to warships belonging to the countries involved in the conflict.
  • Turkey’s foreign minister said that the situation in Ukraine had become a war. This declaration authorises Ankara to activate the Montreux Convention and ban Russian war vessels from entering the Black Sea through the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits.

 

Significance of the move and its implications on Russia:

The Bosporus and Dardanelles straits, also known as the Turkish Straits or the Black Sea Straits, connect the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea via the Sea of Marmara.

  • It is the only passage through which the Black Sea ports can access the Mediterranean and beyond.
  • Over three million barrels of oil, about three per cent of the daily global supply, mostly produced in Russia, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan, pass through this waterway every day.
  • The route also ships large amounts of iron, steel, and agricultural products from the Black Sea coast to Europe and the rest of the world.

 

Challenges before Turkey now:

Russia’s location on the Black Sea complicates the situation.

Article 19 of the treaty contains an exception for the countries on the Black Sea that can effectively undermine Turkey’s power in blocking the Russian warships entering or exiting the Black Sea:

  • “Vessels of war belonging to belligerent powers, whether they are Black Sea Powers or not, which have become separated from their bases, may return thereto,” it says.

That means warships can return to their original bases through the passage and Turkey cannot prevent it.

 

About Montreux Convention:

  • The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits, often known simply as the Montreux Convention, is an international agreement governing the Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits in Turkey.
  • Signed on 20 July 1936 at the Montreux Palace in Switzerland, it went into effect on 9 November 1936 and addressed the long-running Straits Question over who should control the strategically vital link between the Black and Mediterranean Seas.

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. About Black sea.
  2. Mediterranean sea.
  3. Montreux Convention.
  4. Bosporus and Dardanelles straits.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of the convention.

Sources: Indian Express.

International Court of Justice (ICJ):

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

 

Context:

Ukraine has filed an application before the International Court of Justice (ICJ), instituting proceedings against the Russian Federation concerning “a dispute relating to the interpretation, application and fulfilment of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide” (the “Genocide Convention”).

 

What’s the issue?

Ukraine has accused Russia of falsely claiming that “acts of genocide have occurred in the Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts of Ukraine”, and of using that as a pretext to recognise the independence of these regions and of going to war against Ukraine.

 

About ICJ:

  • ICJ was established in 1945 by the United Nations charter and started working in April 1946.
  • It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, situated at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands).
  • Unlike the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not located in New York (USA).
  • It settles legal disputes between States and gives advisory opinions in accordance with international law, on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.

 

Structure:

  • The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. These organs vote simultaneously but separately.
  • In order to be elected, a candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes in both bodies.
  • In order to ensure a measure of continuity, one third of the Court is elected every three years and Judges are eligible for re-election.
  • ICJ is assisted by a Registry, its administrative organ. Its official languages are English and French.

 

The 15 judges of the Court are distributed in following regions:

  1. Three from Africa.
  2. Two from Latin America and Caribbean.
  3. Three from Asia.
  4. Five from Western Europe and other states.
  5. Two from Eastern Europe.

 

Independence of judges:

Unlike other organs of international organizations, the Court is not composed of representatives of governments. Members of the Court are independent judges whose first task, before taking up their duties, is to make a solemn declaration in open court that they will exercise their powers impartially and conscientiously.

 

Jurisdiction and Functioning:

  • ICJ acts as a world court with two fold jurisdiction i.e. legal disputes between States submitted to it by them (contentious cases) and requests for advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by United Nations organs and specialized agencies (advisory proceedings).
  • Only States which are members of the United Nations and which have become parties to the Statute of the Court or which have accepted its jurisdiction under certain conditions, are parties to contentious cases.
  • The judgment is final, binding on the parties to a case and without appeal (at the most it may be subject to interpretation or, upon the discovery of a new fact, revision).

 

The Genocide Convention:

The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention) is an instrument of international law that codified for the first time the crime of genocide.

According to the Genocide Convention, genocide is a crime that can take place both in time of war as well as in time of peace.

  • The Genocide Convention was the first human rights treaty adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 9 December 1948 and signified the international community’s commitment to ‘never again’ after the atrocities committed during the Second World War.
  • The definition of the crime of genocide, as set out in the Convention, has been widely adopted at both national and international levels, including in the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC).
  • The Rome Statute established four core international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. Those crimes “shall not be subject to any statute of limitations”.
  • Importantly, the Convention establishes on State Parties the obligation to take measures to prevent and to punish the crime of genocide, including by enacting relevant legislation and punishing perpetrators, “whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals” (Article IV).

 

Insta Curious:

ICJ is the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ), which was brought into being through, and by, the League of Nations, and which held its inaugural sitting at the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, in February 1922.

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Differences between ICJ and ICC.
  2. Geographical locations of these organisations and overview of surrounding countries.
  3. Doha accord between US and Taliban.
  4. What is Rome statute?

Mains Link:

Write a note on ICJ.

Sources: the Hindu.

National Science Day:

GS Paper 3:

Topics Covered: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

 

Context:

28th February is celebrated as National Science Day (NSD) in India.

NSD is celebrated to commemorate discovery of the ‘Raman Effect’, which led to Sir C.V. Raman winning the Nobel Prize.

  • The first National Science Day was celebrated on February 28, 1987.

 

Theme: ‘Integrated Approach in Science and Technology for a Sustainable Future’.

What is the Raman Effect?

A phenomenon in spectroscopy discovered by the eminent physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman in 1928.

Raman Effect is a change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules.

  1. When a beam of light traverses a dust-free, transparent sample of a chemical compound, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than that of the incident (incoming) beam.
  2. Most of this scattered light is of unchanged wavelength. A small part, however, has wavelengths different from that of the incident light; its presence is a result of the Raman Effect.

 

Sources: the Hindu.

Facts for Prelims:

Antonov AN-225 or ‘Mriya’:

The world’s largest cargo aircraft, the Antonov AN-225 or ‘Mriya’, has been destroyed by Russian troops during an attack on an airport near Kyiv.

  • It was 84 meters long and could transport up to 250 tonnes of cargo at a speed of 850 kilometres per hour.

 

International Monsoons Project Office (IMPO):

Union Minister of Science & Technology has launched the International Monsoons Project Office (IMPO).

  • IMPO will be hosted at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, an institution under the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt of India, initially for five years.
  • It would encompass activities and connections related to international monsoon research that would be identified and fostered under the leadership of the World Climate Research Programme.

 

Operation Ganga:

The Government of India has launched a ‘multi-pronged’ initiative named ‘Operation Ganga’.

  • It is an evacuation mission to bring back all the Indian nationals who are currently stranded in Ukraine.
  • There were around 20,000 Indians including students stuck in Ukraine.

 

Avalokiteshvara Padmapani (Buddha):

Prominent artefact that went missing two decades ago, the idol of Avalokiteshvara Padmapani (Buddha) at the Devisthan Kundalpur temple in Bihar, was handed over to the Indian consulate in Milan.

  • The statue was created between the 8th and 12th centuries, and smuggled out of the country around the year 2000.
  • Avalokiteshwara means one who can see all. He represents infinite compassion and mercy. He is the most popular Bodhisattva of all. He represents the ideal of welfare in which he postpones his own transformation into Buddha to help others.

A bodhisattva is someone who has compassion within himself or herself and who is able to make another person smile or help someone suffer less.

 

 

Articles to be covered tomorrow:

1. IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report.

2. India’s First Dugong Reserve in Palk Bay.

 


Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates

Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos