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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 25 February 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Puppetry is one of the most ancient forms of entertainment that combines all the elements of performing arts as well as visual art such as painting, sculpture, music, dance, drama etc. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write puppetry as an art from which borrows and combines elements from other art forms.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start with what Indian puppetry is and its diversity across Indian states.

Body:

Write in detail about how puppetry draws from painting, sculpture, music, dance, drama and other visual arts. Cite examples to substantiate your points. The diverse forms of Indian puppetry and its various types.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about importance of puppetry as visual art.

Introduction

A puppet is one of the most remarkable and ingenious inventions of the man. Puppetry is a type of narrative theatre; at the crossroads between bardic storytelling and theatre plays. Shows include live music, narration and gestures taken from dance. Puppetry throughout the ages has held an important place in traditional entertainment. Like traditional theatre, themes for puppet theatre are mostly based on epics and legends. Puppets from different parts of the country have their own identity. Regional styles of painting and sculpture are reflected in them.

Body:

Puppetry in India

  • The earliest reference to the art of puppetry is found in Tamil classic ‘Silappadikaaram’ written around the 1st or 2nd century B.C.
  • In Sanskrit terminology Puttalika and Puttika means ‘little sons’.
  • Ancient Hindu philosophers have paid the greatest tribute to puppeteers. They have likened God Almighty to a puppeteer and the entire universe to a puppet stage.
  • Srimad Bhagavata, the great epic depicting the story of Lord Krishna in his childhood say that with three strings-Satta, Raja and Tama, the God manipulates each object in the universe as a marionette.
  • Natyashastra, the masterly treatise on dramaturgy written sometime during 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD., does not refer to the art of puppetry but the producer-cum-director of the human theatre has been termed as ‘Sutradhar’ meaning the holder of strings.
  • Stories adapted from puranic literature, local myths and legends usually form the content of traditional puppet theatre in India which, in turn, imbibes elements of all creative expressions like painting, sculpture, music, dance, drama, etc.
  • For instance, theKathputli of Rajasthan is accompanied by a highly dramatised version of the regional music. In Kundhei of Odisha, the music is drawn from the popular tunes of the region and is sometimes influenced by the music of Odisha dance.
  • Almost all types of puppets are found in India. Puppetry throughout the ages has held an important place in traditional entertainment. Like traditional theatre, themes for puppet theatre are mostly based on epics and legends.
  • g.: In Tholu Bommalatta of AP, the music is dominantly influenced by the classical music of the region and the theme of the puppet plays are drawn from the Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas. Episodes enacted in Gombeyatta of Karnataka are usually based on Prasangas of the Yakshagana plays. The music that accompanies is dramatic and beautifully blends folk and classical elements.
  • Puppets from different parts of the country have their own identity.
  • g. In Thogalu Gombeyatta of Karnataka, the puppets however differ in size according to their social status, for instance, large size for kings and religious characters and smaller size for common people or servants.
  • Regional styles of painting and sculpture are reflected in them.
  • g.: the traditional glove puppet play is called Pavakoothu. It came into existence during the 18th century due to the influence of Kathakali, the famous classical dance-drama of Kerala, on puppet performances. The face of the puppets are decorated with paints, small and thin pieces of gilded tin, the feathers of the peacock, etc. The theme for Glove puppet plays in Kerala is based on the episodes from either the Ramayana or the Mahabharata.

However, the art of puppetry is dying due to the following reasons:

  • Lack of patronage in the modern age.
  • Competition from Electronic media which is a preferred mode of entertainment. People find it more appealing to watch mythological stories of Ramayan and Mahabharat on electronic media rather than in Puppetry.
  • Puppetry Art is usually confined to only devotional and mythological stories.
  • With changing times, Puppetry does not take up modern social issues.
  • Puppetry lacks modernization in terms of script, lighting, sound and other stage effects.

Conclusion:

Besides traditional puppetry, India is home to a lively contemporary scene. Independent India opened up to artistic exchange, and new forms and techniques affected puppetry, introducing new styles and giving origin to a refined urban puppet theatre. The birth of modern troupes and the opening to the international scene created new contexts for traditional puppetry to flourish. Several festivals organized in the last decades offer the stage to traditional troupes. So far modernity threatened the very survival of traditional puppetry, but a more conscious use of contemporary means and opportunities is actually the key to preserve this rich heritage of India.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Folk art forms of India are a manifestation of cultural diversity with regional specializations. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about Harappan art and its relation with Harappan society.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief about folk art in India with examples.

Body:

Mention the major elements of folk art in India. Elaborate how they are manifestation of cultural diversity as well as regional specializations. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarize with respect to folk art of India.

Introduction

India had always been known as the land that portrayed cultural and traditional vibrancy through its conventional arts and crafts. The states and union territories sprawled across the country have their own distinct cultural and traditional identities, and are displayed through various forms of art prevalent there. Every region in India has its own style and pattern of art, which is known as folk art. It consists of paintings, music, dance, drama, martial arts etc.

Body

The folk and tribal arts of India are very ethnic and simple, and yet colourful and vibrant enough to speak volumes about the country’s rich heritage. Folk art generally reflects the creative energy found in rural areas that acts as an undercurrent to the craftsmanship of the tribal people. They are intertwined with the lifestyle and activities of the people. Every social event of their lives is linked to one or the other folk art form, making it an imperative part of life.

  • Folk Paintings:
    • The rural folk paintings of India bear distinctive colourful designs, which are treated with religious and mystical motifs.
    • Some of the most famous folk paintings of India are the Madhubani paintings of Bihar, Patachitra paintings from the state of Odisha, the Nirmal paintings of Andhra Pradesh, Kangra painting from Himachal Pradesh and Warli paintings from Maharashtra and other such folk art forms.
    • Each school has its distinct style of colour combinations or figures and its features.
    • Folk art is however not restricted only to paintings, but also stretches to other art forms such as pottery, home decorations, ornaments, cloths-making, and so on.
    • Folk paintings have a relationship with household ceremonies of marriage, birth; worship/ reverence for nature; religious occasions and worships etc.
    • Warli artists are animists living in the rugged part of the isolated Sahyadri range. Their traditional art forms were in the past restricted to images of the mother-goddess and can be traced back to the Neolithic period. Their Tarpa dance reflects the cooperation of the villagers as they join hands and sway in quick circles to the steady bass drone of a wind instrument called the tarpa.
  • Folk Dances:
    • The regional dances of India, such as the Bhangra dance of Punjab, the Dandiya of Gujarat, the Bihu dance of Assam, etc, which project the cultural heritage of those regions, are prominent contenders in the field of Indian folk art.
    • These folk dances are performed by people to express their exhilaration on every possible event or occasion, such as the arrival of seasons, the birth of a child, weddings, festivals, etc.
  • Folk Theatres:
    • India has a longest and richest tradition in theatre going back to at least 5000 years.
    • The origin of Indian theatre is closely related to ancient rituals and seasonal festivities of the country.
    • The actors of Bhand Pather in J&K are mainly from the farming community and the impact of their way of living, ideals and sensitivity in the drama is discernible. Swang in Haryana, where Religious stories and folk tales are enacted by a group of ten or twelve persons in an open area or an open air theatre surrounded by the audience.
    • Ramman: It is celebrated every year in Baisakh month (april) in the courtyard of the temple of Bhumiyal Devta situated in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand. Jatra in Bengal refers to the musical plays performed at fairs in honour of gods, or religious rituals and ceremonies. Mudiyettu is a traditional ritual theatre and folk dance drama from Kerala that enacts the mythological tale of a battle between the goddess Kali and the demon Darika. The ritual is a part of the Bhagavathi or bhadrakali cult.

Conclusion

The folk and tribal arts of India speak volumes about the country’s rich heritage. Art forms in India have been exquisite and explicit. Local fairs, festivals, deities, heroes (warriors), myths and legends play a vital role in these art forms. The Governments, as well as other societies and associations, have therefore made all efforts to promote such art forms, which have become an intrinsic part of India’s cultural identity.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3. Ties between India and Germany have been strengthening over the years but there is still vast potential that remains untapped which can be mutually beneficial for both the countries. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

There’s a lot that unites India and Germany. Both are leading democracies and share a passion for liberal thought, ingenuity and social inclusivity.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about key aspects of Indo-German cooperation and mutual interest and how the two nations are natural partners making joint efforts for prosperity.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about evolution of Indo-German relationship especially in the post-Merkel ere.

Body:

First, Discuss the commonalities between the two countries. E.g Both share common values and constitutional principles, and the bilateral relationship has always been based on great mutual respect and understanding. Today, India is one of the biggest and fastest-growing economies, and Germany is the biggest economy in Europe. Both are natural partners making a joint effort for prosperity, while ensuring that they safeguard the environment etc.

Next, suggest areas where countries can further cooperate for mutual benefits – clean energy, trade, climate change etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about taking forward Indo-German relations forward in post Merkel era.

Introduction

India was one of the first countries to grant diplomatic recognition to the Federal Republic of Germany; this March, the two countries celebrated 70 years of diplomatic relations.

For the first time in 16 years, Germany has a government without the Christian Democratic Union. India must seek continuity and expansion of ties from the new government.
Body

Indo-German relations

  • Bilateral Trade: Despite the pandemic, Indo-German trade increased by 19% in the first 11 months of 2021 over 2020. Germany is India’s 6th largest trade partner.
    • Among the significant Indian exports to Germany are chemicals, textiles, apparel and machinery.
    • Important German imports to India include machinery, vehicles and chemicals. Bilateral ties are on the upswing in almost every area.
    • Germany’s role in reviving the India-EU free trade talks i.e. Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) will be very crucial.
  • Terrorism: India and Germany have shown their firm commitment to fight against the terrorism.
    • Germany supports India led movement for the adoption of Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.
  • Connectivity projects: Germany is keen to implement connectivity projects, through the European Union, to counter China.
    • In this, the EU-India connectivity partnership announced at the EU-India leaders meeting in May 2021 is acknowledged.
  • Green Tech partnership: There is much green content in the Indo-German engagement at present, including in the fields of solar power, transportation, smart cities, metros and the Namami Gange.

Untapped potential in Indo-German ties

  • Trade relations
  • IGCC believes that Germany will soon emerge among India’s top three trade partners.
  • The exchange of know-how and talent, especially, is expected to deliver transformational change, propelling greater growth.
  • Various programmes have been set up to facilitate business opportunities in India, such as the Fast-Track-System for German companies or the Make-in-India Mittelstand programme.
  • Technology
  • Technology expertise has always been the hallmark of German companies, with top brands like Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, BMW, Bosch and Siemens and more.
  • Both countries are poised to drive further cutting-edge innovation.
  • The High Technology Partnership Group plays a major role in developing international supply chains and boosting cyber security, both vital to growth.
  • Cultural relations
  • Indians are wowed by the open-air concerts, exhibitions, architecture and heritage walks of Germany, Bollywood is among India’s biggest cultural exports to the EU country.
  • Traditional healing practices appeal to people in both countries. Germany and India have pacts to promote ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, unani, siddha and homoeopathy (Ayush).
  • According to a study by market research institute Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung, there are over 3 million yoga practitioners in Germany.
  • Education
  • German universities already attract the highest number of Indian students among European countries.
  • Besides world-class education, Indian students have multiple work opportunities in an ecosystem that welcomes diversity and encourages critical thinking.
  • Tourism
  • Germany offers a host of activities for Indian travellers, more than 25,000 castles, assorted nature trails, harbour towns, and a wide range of culinary and hospitality experiences.
  • Technology expertise has always been the hallmark of German companies, with top brands like Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, BMW, Bosch and Siemens and more. Both countries are poised to drive further cutting-edge innovation. The High Technology Partnership Group plays a major role in developing international supply chains and boosting cyber security, both vital to growth.

Measures to reinvigorate Indo-German ties

  • India and Germany must realise the cooperative goals of the IP guidelines. These must involve businesses.
  • German companies must be encouraged to use the liberalised PLI scheme to establish manufacturing hubs in India, which can export to ASEAN and Africa.
  • The two nations may also initiate an Africa vaccine production facility. Germany has committed 250 million euro in loans to Africa for this.
    • If implemented with India, as in the Quad initiative, such a facility can be established in the underserved East African region.
  • India and Germany must think afresh to engage more closely in areas of complementarity.

Conclusion

In multipolar world order, convergence of India and Germany will be a win-win situation for both the countries due to uncertainties created by US policies and increasing assertiveness of Sino-Russian political axis. Post Brexit, Germany will become a more important player in European Union. Therefore, engaging Germany is not just about India’s bilateral relations with it. It is about collaborating with the Germany led EU as a whole.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. The fallout from the Ukraine crisis will directly and indirectly impact the Indian economy. Analyze. What steps are needed to protect the Indian economic interests? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian ExpressLive Mint

Why the question:

India’s trade with Russia has not yet been severely impacted by the rising tensions in the border region of Russia and Ukraine, but there is looming prospect that it could be impacted if wider sanctions on Russia are announced.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about economic impact due to the Ukraine crisis and steps needed to mitigate it.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context regarding the economic fallout from the Ukraine crisis.

Body:

First, direct impact from the crisis – fuel prices, India’s gas requirements and price fluctuations.

Next, write about indirect impact from the crisis – Indian exports to Russia, Indian investments in Russia and impact of sanctions etc.

Next, write about the systemic measures that India must take to mitigate and reduce the negative fallouts from the crisis.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

As Russia declares war on Ukraine, the impact will also be on the recovering economies around the world, including India, which is still struggling with the pandemic. India’s trade with Russia has not yet been severely impacted by the rising tensions in the border region of Russia and Ukraine, but there is looming prospect that it could be impacted if wider sanctions on Russia are announced.

Body

Impact on Indian economy

  • Erosion of household savings: The crisis will send cooking gas, petrol and other fuel bills soaring for Indian households and businesses.
    • Crude prices could remain above $100 per barrel in the near to medium term unless the Opec decides to increase output materially.
  • Inflation: Retail inflation quickened to 01% in January, breaching the upper tolerance level set by New Delhi. And for the 10th straight month, wholesale inflation remained in double digits, coming in at 12.96% for January.
    • The war will put more pressure on already high inflation.
  • Fiscal calculations: Depending on how long global oil prices remain elevated, the tensions could put a question mark on the RBI’s credibility in making inflation projections and upset the government’s budget calculations. Fiscal deficit will widen largely.
  • Investment climate: For investors, the world markets are already taking a knocking, and an all-out war will freeze investment and growth.
  • India’s defence requirements: Though India has cut back on Russian arms imports, Moscow is still at the top.
    • Curtailing of defence supplies will impact India’s ability to respond to China.

Measure to be taken to mitigate the crisis

  • Diversifying crude basket: India must diversify its crude oil basket and try to reach our to Latin American nations which are not a part of OPEC cartel.
  • Reducing taxes: Governments both Central and State must cut the VAT on fuel to ease pressure of rising prices on households.
  • Diplomatic trust: As both Russia and Ukraine are reaching out to India, India can take a lead in making the nations negotiate peace terms without a full-fledged war.
  • Reducing fiscal deficit through disinvestment: Governments must achieve their targets of disinvestment by strategic sale of government companies. Government has no business in doing business as per the Prime Minister himself.
  • Trade helpdesk: This has already been done by DGFT to ensure smooth movement of cargo between India-Russia and India-Ukraine.

Conclusion and way forward

  • By ordering a full-scale invasion of Ukraine, Russia might be planning a unilateral restructuring of Russia’s external environment, focused squarely on Ukraine.
  • If Russia can succeed in dismembering and destabilizing Ukraine, it might emerge from this war satisfied that Russia has been made somewhat more secure, powerful, and feared across Europe.
  • Russia may still be determined to impose a wide-ranging settlement on the West that includes its maximalist goals of limiting NATO deployments and barring future expansion.
  • Today, the balance of power is once again in flux, and as China develops a strategic partnership with Russia, the future of the West-led global order will be defined by how effectively it responds to the crisis in Ukraine.

 

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. What is Quantum Key Distribution? What are the various applications of Quantum Technology? Evaluate the steps taken to promote Quantum technology in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

In a crucial development for quantum technology in India, a joint team of experts from the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi demonstrated Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) link for a distance of over 100 kilometres.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the applications of Quantum Technology and evaluate the steps taken to promote it.

Directive word: 

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining is Quantum Key Distribution and its application.

Body:

First, write about the various applications of is Quantum technologies – Cybersecurity, Drug Development, Financial Modeling, weather Forecasting and Climate Change and Solar Capture etc.

Next, write about steps taken to promote Quantum technology in India – Quantum-Enabled Science & Technology (QuEST), National Mission for Quantum Technologies and Applications (NM-QTA) and Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) solution etc.

Next, write about the pros and cons of the above steps in furthering Quantum technology in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward to overcome limitations to enable growth of Quantum technology in India.

Introduction

Quantum computing refers to a new era of faster and more powerful computers, and the theory goes that they would be able to break current levels of encryption. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) works by using photons — the particles which transmit light — to transfer data. QKD allows two distant users, who do not share a long secret key initially, to produce a common, random string of secret bits, called a secret key. Using the one-time pad encryption this key is proven to be secure to encrypt and decrypt a message, which can then be transmitted over a standard communication channel.

Recently, a joint team of experts from the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi demonstrated the Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) link for a distance of over 100 kilometres.

Body

Current Affairs

 

Significance of QKD

  • QKD is essential to address the threat that rapid advancement in Quantum Computing poses to the security of the data being transported by various critical sectors through the current communication networks.
  • It will enable security agencies to plan a suitable quantum communication network with indigenous technology backbone.

Applications of Quantum technology

Applications:

  • Secure Communication:
    • China recently demonstrated secure quantum communication links between terrestrial stations and satellites.
    • This area is significant to satellites, military and cyber security among others as it promises unimaginably fast computing and safe, unhackable satellite communication to its users.
  • Research:
    • It can help in solving some of the fundamental questions in physics related to gravity, black hole etc.
    • Similarly, the quantum initiative could give a big boost to the Genome India project, a collaborative effort of 20 institutions to enable new efficiencies in life sciences, agriculture and medicine.
  • Disaster Management:
    • Tsunamis, drought, earthquakes and floods may become more predictable with quantum applications.
    • The collection of data regarding climate change can be streamlined in a better way through quantum technology. This in turn will have a profound impact on agriculture, food technology chains and the limiting of farmland wastage.
  • Pharmaceutical industry:
    • India’s interest in the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry is huge.
    • Quantum computing could reduce the time frame of the discovery of new molecules and related processes to a few days from the present 10-year slog that scientists put in.
    • For instance, tracking protein behaviour or even modelling new proteins with the help of quantum computers could be made easier and faster.
    • Tackling chronic diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s and heart ailments is a big possibility of the technology.
  • Augmenting Industrial revolution 4.0:
    • Quantum computing is an integral part of Industrial revolution 4.0.
    • Success in it will help in Strategic initiatives aimed at leveraging other Industrial revolution 4.0 technologies like the Internet-of-Things, machine learning, robotics, and artificial intelligence across sectors will further help in laying the foundation of the Knowledge economy.

Steps taken to promote Quantum technology in India

  • In 2018, the Department of Science & Technology unveiled a programme called Quantum-Enabled Science & Technology (QuEST)and committed to investing Rs. 80 crore over the next three years to accelerate research.
  • The government, in its Budget 2020, had announced a National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA) with a total budget outlay of Rs 8000 Crore for a period of five years to be implemented by the Department of Science & Technology (DST).
  • In December 2021, the Indian Army, with support from the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) established the Quantum Lab at Military College of Telecommunication Engineering, Mhow to spearhead research and training in this key developing field.
  • In 2021, Government also inaugurated C-DOT’s Quantum Communication Laband unveiled the indigenously developed Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) solution.
  • The Ministry of Defence (MoD) said Wednesday that a joint team of scientists and engineers from DRDO and IIT Delhi successfully demonstrated Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) link for a distance of over 100 km between Prayagraj and Vindhyachal in Uttar Pradesh.

 Way forward 

  • Both private funding and philanthropic funding should be attracted towards quantum computing. For example, Funds can be used to attract and retain high quality manpower and to build international networks.
  • Connections with Indian industry from the start would help quantum technologies to become commercially successful.
  • Investing manpower and retaining them as quality human resource is very mobile.
  • Participate in development of global standards and requirements for quantum computers.

Conclusion

It would be prudent to develop a regulatory framework for quantum computing before it becomes widely available. It will be better to regulate it or define the limits of its legitimate use, nationally and internationally before the problem gets out of hand like nuclear technology. Further, connections with Indian industry from the start would also help quantum technologies become commercialised successfully, allowing Indian industry to benefit from the quantum revolution. We must encourage industrial houses and strategic philanthropists to take an interest and reach out to Indian institutions with an existing presence in this emerging field.

 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

6. India faces new and growing national security threats and challenges as space-based assets became hubs of controlling terrestrial, underwater and aerial combat leading to weaponization of space. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

China’s latest demonstration of physically moving one of its disabled satellites into the graveyard orbit was bringing in newer threats in the race to weaponize the space domain.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the attempts at weaponization of space and its implications for India.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the race among nations to establish domination in the outer space leading to weaponization of space.

Body:

First, give a few instances of weaponization of space and its impact on India. Especially the Chinese attempts at weaponizing the space domain.

Next, mention about the threats to India from the weaponization of space and steps that India should take to protect its interests.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Delhi’s new strategic interest in outer space is based on a recognition of two important trends. One is the centrality of emerging technologies in shaping the 21st-century global order. The other is about the urgency of writing new rules for the road to peace and stability in outer space.

There is proliferation of space exploratory missions today, raising issues of space debris, weaponization and also space dominance turning space into tragedy of commons problem.

Body

Challenges due to increasing space-based assets

  • Astro politics: The US has traditionally dominated outer space in the commercial domain. Its military competition with Russia set the norms in the security field.
    • China’s emergence as a major space power — in both civilian and military is reshaping Astro politics.
  • China factor: The dramatic expansion of Chinese space capabilities and Beijing’s ambition to dominate outer space have lent a new urgency for democratic powers to come together to secure their national interests as well as promote sustainable order in the skies
  • No global rules: Space is a common, where any nation’s decision to test an anti-satellite weapon, in the process creating gobs of junk, is unpunishable.
  • Multiple entities and debris: Both private and government satellite owners have an incentive to protect their equipment while it’s operating—but not thereafter.
    • Space junk is pollution, and as we have learned on earth there must be a clear line of responsibility for pollution, or public spaces will be ruined.
  • National and commercial interests are increasingly tied to space in political, economic and military arenas.
    • Beyond fanciful notions of solar energy satellites, fusion energy and orbiting hotels, contemporary political issues such as nuclear non-proliferation, economic development, cybersecurity and human rights are also intimately tied to outer space.

Need for space legislation in India

  • India has invested enormous resources in its space programme through the Indian Space Research Organisation.
  • More importantly, our space assets are crucial for India’s development.
  • The proposed involvement of private players and the creation of an autonomous body IN-SPACe for permitting and regulating activities of the private sector are welcome efforts.
  • However, the space environment that India faces requires us to go beyond meeting technical milestones.
  • We need a space legislation enabling coherence across technical, legal, commercial, diplomatic and defence goals.

Conclusion

As outer space becomes a location for lucrative business as well as a site of military competition between states, the salience of space cooperation needs to increase in the coming years. The scale of the challenges and opportunities in outer space, however, demand more urgent and sweeping reform. That can only be mandated by the highest political level.

Space must be used only for peaceful purposes and any weaponisation of Outer Space cannot be tolerated in the larger interest of people. The safety and security of space-based assets should be ensured through international cooperation.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: case study.

7. You are appointed as the S.P of a district. In the first month of your posting, there is a protest organized by Gandhian followers against the mining mafia for which the district is notoriously known for. The protest is primarily against Mr Gabbar who has amassed ill-gotten wealth due to illegal mining and has deep political connections. Not a single FIR has been registered against him so far.

There is political pressure on the administration to keep the status quo along with ensuring that the protest dissipates quickly. The nature of protest is peaceful and as per Gandhian ideals of Satyagraha. However, the protestors are adamant that they will not budge unless action against Mr Gabbar is taken as per the law.

After two weeks of relentless protest, the leader of the protest is killed by some miscreant and this issue becomes a national issue. Protests spread to other districts and states like a wildfire. There is immense public pressure on the administration to act. (250 words)

    1. What will be your course of action as the S.P?
    2. What measures will you take that such inadvertent lapses do not happen in the future?
    3. Do you think the inaction by administration makes it ethically complicit in the attack on the leader?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Case study Fridays in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by mentioning about the facts of case study and relevant stakeholders.

Body:

  1. Mention the ethical and right course of action you will take as the S.P to ensure justice and to end criminal illegal mining.
  2. Write about preventive steps you will take to ensure that such incidents do not happen in future.
  3. Debate whether the inaction of administration was complicit in the attack – present arguments on the both sides and present a balanced opinion in this regard.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting steps to overcome inaction.

Introduction

The case involves peaceful protest turning violent due to death of a Gandhian protester. There is also politico-criminal nexus due to which the individua; responsible for mining mafia is let off the hook, which shows that those with muscle and money power can bend the rule of law.

Body

Ethical values involved

  • Gross injustice and violation of rule of law
  • Corrupt officials who cannot bring a criminal to justice
  • Impacting Right to Life of people who are affected by mining.

Stakeholders

  • People of the district
  • Politicians and other officials involved
  • State government
  • Myself as SP
  • Mr Gabbar who is a major criminal

Course of action

There are two cases involved. One is bringing Mr Gabbar behind bars which is a tough job as he has the support of political leaders. Second is the death of innocent protester, which leads to widespread protests to other places.

Firstly, I as an SP will gather a team of officers who can be trusted and all non-corrupt. The task at hand is to collect evidence against Mr Gabbar to make a solid case for trial. This will require a lot of agility and speed or else there is chance of interference.

Next, simultaneously I would ensure that the person responsible for death of the protester is behind bars and also make a case with sufficient evidence to bring the person to justice.

Once this is done, there is a need to ensure that protests do not become violent. Will make people convince that the mining mafia will be put to an end and also work towards it. I will assure people of ensuring law and order in the district and request them to stop the protests. Meanwhile, as long as there are people who are peacefully protesting, enough police protection will be needed to those people.

Measures to ensure no repetition of lapses in future

  • Making sure that peaceful and legal protests have enough reinforcements and police protection.
  • Ensure that each and every corner of the district has a CCTV which is connected to central monitoring system.
  • Safety audit of the district to be done, and careful patrolling of risky areas.
  • Finding out those officials involved who have vested interest in protecting the accused.
  • Busting the mining mafia by public exposure and writing to higher authorities.
  • Deploying youth volunteer through recruits nearing mining areas to get intelligence info.

Inaction of administration is ethically complicit

On one hand, such an incident was not anticipated, especially leading to a murder. However, it is the nature of police job to ensure that no untoward activities happen during a peaceful protest. And it is the foremost responsibility of the police to bust any mining mafia and bring people to justice.

If the administration was proactive in handling the mafia and putting a stop to it, there would be no question of protests. Due to extraneous reasons of political intervention in protecting the accused, there was a breakdown in law and order. It only goes to say that ‘Big fish don’t fry’ in India. But as civil servants who have taken an oath to serve the nation with all our integrity, it is our duty to ensure no such activity Is taking place under our watch.

Conclusion

As reiterated before the mining mafia needs to be taking down in entirety by making a huge case against them with all evidence intact. The job is to do complete justice and not let miscreants breakdown the rule of law and the law of the land. Weeding out corrupt officials and exposing corrupt politicians is the first step in this case. Though the task may seem difficult, if we do not try then we are trying to fail.


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