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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 February 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. The sculptural art of the Indus valley shows that artists of that time surely had fine artistic sensibilities and a vivid imagination. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about sculptural art of Indus valley civilisation.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief about rich art of Indus valley civilisation.

Body:

Mention the various features of Indus valley civilisation that exhibited fine artistry and imagination – seals, bronze dancing girl, steatite images, copper sculptures etc. Elaborate upon their vivid features.

Conclusion:

Conclude by the summarising.

Introduction

Sculpture art is one of the most ancient art forms in India. Archaeological studies have confirmed that Indians were familiar with sculptures about 4000 years before. A flourishing civilisation emerged on the banks of river Indus in the second half of the third millennium BCE and spread across larger parts of Western India. A marked feature if this civilisation was the vivid imagination and artistic sensibilities.

Body

Sculpture art of Indus Valley Civilization:

  • Sculpture representation started with knowledge of Terracotta Deities like bearded man, mother goddess and toy carts, animals were common.
  • Harappan sculptors were adept in chiselling of stones. E.g.: male torso figure in red sandstone and bust of a bearded man in soapstone.
  • Apart from sculpturing in terracotta and stone, ancient Indian artists were masters in bronze sculpting as well.
  • The Lost Wax Technique or the ‘Cire-Perdu’ process has been known from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization itself. This process is in use even today.
  • The statue of the Dancing Girl found from Mohenjo Daro is one of the finest examples of Indus Valley art. It is a bronze statue showing remarkable achievements of the artists of the Indus Valley. The figurine is about 4 inches tall. Datable to 2500 BC. It is said to be in the tribhanga it is one of the oldest bronze sculpture. g.: Bronze dancing girl of Mohenjo-Daro, bronze bull of Kalibangan etc.
  • Bronze is an alloy of basically copper and tin. Sometimes zinc was also added although most of the component is copper.
  • The alloy-making process of mixing metals was known to the ancient Indians.
  • Bronze sculptures and statuettes of various icons of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism have been found from various parts of India dating from the 2nd century CE to the 16th century CE.
  • Most of the images were used for religious and ritualistic purposes.
  • The metal casting process was also used for making articles of daily use like utensils.

Conclusion

Their artistic versatility showed in the range of materials they used and the forms they made out of it. The patterns, motives and designs found on the articles shows the creativity that existed and judging from the excavated evidences, one can only conclude the people of Indus civilization were indeed true art patrons.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Gandhara School sculpture represents Greco-Buddhist art which is fine and realistic as the sculptures display quite a sophisticated iconography in an advanced style. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the various sophisticated features of Gandhara school of art.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief, write about the origins of Gandhara art and its evolution.

Body:

Write in detail about the features of Gandhara school of art. The regions they covered, the patronage, the important characteristics of their sculpture, the material they used, influences on them and type of images produced.

Next, comment further on the sophistication in the iconography of images produced. In detail mention about the nature of predominance of religious art but there are evidences of secular art especially images of natural motifs, various patterns of life etc. Cite examples to substantiate your points.

Conclusion:

Summarize the nature of Gandhara art.

Introduction

Gandhara art, style of Buddhist visual art that developed in what is now northwestern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan between the 1st century BCE and the 7th century CE. The style, of Greco-Roman origin, seems to have flourished largely during the Kushana dynasty and was contemporaneous with an important but dissimilar school of Kushana art at Mathura.

Body

Gandhara art and Buddhism:

  • The Gandharan craftsmen made a lasting contribution to Buddhist art in their composition of the events of the Buddha’s life into set scenes.
  • In its interpretation of Buddhist legends, the Gandhara school incorporated many motifs and techniques from Classical Roman art, including vine scrolls, cherubs bearing garlands, tritons, and centaurs. The basic iconography, however, remained Indian.
  • The materials used for Gandhara sculpture were green phyllite and gray-blue mica schist which in general, belong to an earlier phase, and stucco, which was used increasingly after the 3rd century CE. The sculptures were originally painted and gilded.
  • The Hellenistic influence was nowhere more dramatic than in Gandhara, a term now used to describe the school of semi-classical sculptures of Pakistan and Afghanistan in the early centuries of our era.
  • In contrast with Mathura School, the Gandhara School images are known for their anatomical accuracy, spatial depth, and foreshortening.
  • The Gandhara school drew upon the anthropomorphic traditions of Roman religion and represented the Buddha with a youthful Apollo-like face, dressed in garments resembling those seen on Roman imperial statues.
  • This style of art was closely associated with Mahayana Buddhism and hence the main theme of this art was Lord Buddha and Bodhisattvas.
  • The Buddha and Bodhisattva figures resemble the Greek God Apollo with broad shoulders, a halo around the head. The physical features such as muscles, nails, hair have been done with great detail.
  • All early Bodhisattvas are shown in wearing turbans, jewelry, and muslin skirts, a costume that was an adaptation of the actual dress of Kushan and Indian nobles.
  • Thus, it can be conjectured that in idea and conception this style was Indian and in execution it was foreign. One example of the Gandhara style of art is the Bamiyan Buddha statues.
  • The Gandhara depiction of the seated Buddha was less successful.

Gandhara art and other religions:

  • Although it was dominated by the themes of Lord Buddha, however, there were images on other subjects also made such as the images of the Greek God Apollo and certain kings as well.
  • Although Buddhist imagery dominates the art of Gandhara, some Hindu deities such as Skanda, the god of war, were also common.
  • Early art from Gandhara often features motifs from Greco-Roman mythology and imperial representations, as well as western architectural elements such as Corinthian capitals and friezes of garland-bearing, cupid-like erotes.
  • These characteristics make Gandharan works truly distinctive in the history of art.
  • This river god is inspired by Roman prototypes, both in the rendering of the figure and in its depiction as a male. Personifications of rivers in Indian culture are always female.

Conclusion

The schools of Gandhara and Mathura influenced each other, and the general trend was away from a naturalistic conception and toward a more idealized, abstract image. Gandhara School of Art can be said as an influence and culmination of both the Indian as well as foreign traditions due to its strategic location.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

3. As war clouds gather over Ukraine, India faces a dilemma over its diplomatic balancing act, its unwillingness to publicly caution Russia against invading Ukraine, and above all its reluctance to defend Ukraine’s sovereignty. Examine the impact this can have on India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: New Indian ExpressThe Hindu

Why the question:

After weeks of ratcheting tensions, and frenetic diplomacy across Europe, Russian President Vladimir Putin has played a major move by announcing formal recognition for the Donbas region enclaves (Oblasts) of Donetsk and Luhansk in Eastern Ukraine.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring out the impact of India’s balancing impact on the Ukraine issue can have.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving the context regarding the Ukraine crisis.

Body:

First, elaborate on the dilemma over its diplomatic balancing act – the relations with Russia, U.S, the Chinese angle and most importantly regarding the sovereignty of Ukraine.

Next, In detail, mention the possible impact the above and Ukraine crisis can have on India – foreign policy, economically, strategically and its resonance on China’s aggression in the neighbourhood.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward that India must take in this regard.

Introduction

As India abstained on a US-sponsored UN Security Council resolution that “deplores in the strongest terms” Russia’s “aggression” against Ukraine, one must look at the reasons behind India’s decision to be quiet on the international forum of security council.

India’s statement at the UNSC that appealed for diplomacy and de-escalation, while making no critical comment about Mr. Putin’s announcement is not just an assertion of India’s traditional principled position, or a study in pragmatism but also a reflection of the difficult position New Delhi finds itself in over the conflict, which appears to have now entered a new phase.

Body

Background

  • The increasing aggression on part of Russia started with news of eastward expansion of NATO, especially Ukraine’s membership to NATO. This would mean deployment of western missiles and weapons in Russia backyard and its borders.
  • Russian President Vladimir Putin has played a major move by announcing formal recognition for the Donbas region enclaves (Oblasts) of Donetsk and Luhansk in Eastern Ukraine, one which changes the course of the present diplomatic efforts.
  • Post this, Russian troops have started full scale invasion and have reached the capital city Kyiv.
  • The recognition of the two separatist groups that control parts of the Donbas region as governments signals that Russia is no longer interested in talks on the basis of the “Minsk accords”. The agreements — negotiated in 2014 and 2015, but never fully implemented — had secured a “special status” for the Donbas enclaves.

India’s dilemma in strategic balancing

  • India did not endorse the harsh language used in the resolution condemning Russia’s actions. It wants to maintain a balance between the Western bloc led by the US, and Russia, since it has strategic partners on both sides.
  • India’s past record has been maintaining balance between the West and Russia. On January 31, India abstained on a procedural vote on whether to discuss the issue of Ukraine.
  • New Delhi had then articulated its position on “legitimate security interests” that echoed with a nuanced tilt towards the Russian position, and had abstained along with Kenya and Gabon.
  • Despite abstention, India has reiterated and has called for cessation of violence in no ambiguous terms.
  • India has also quoted the international charter on sovereignty, highlighting that all nations must respect the same, intended towards Russia.
  • For India, Russian ties are important. It must be recalled that Ukraine was against India during 1998 nuclear tests and had spoken against India with issue of Kashmir.

Impact on India

  • Food and oil prices: A war in Ukraine will bear down on two important areas—higher food and energy prices.
  • Impact on the poor: On both these segments, it is the poor that spend a disproportionately high percentage of their income.
    • Russia produces about 13% of the world’s crude and the prices have already reached $100 per barrel.
  • Investment climate: For investors, the world markets are already taking a knocking, and an all-out war will freeze investment and growth.
  • India’s defence requirements: Though India has cut back on Russian arms imports, Moscow is still at the top

Conclusion

Dialogue is the only answer to settling differences and disputes, however daunting that may appear at this moment. India maintained its “consistent, steadfast and balanced position on the matter”. India has been in touch with all sides, urging the parties concerned to return to the negotiating table. By abstaining, India retained the option of reaching out to relevant sides in an effort to bridge the gap and find a middle ground with an aim to foster dialogue and diplomacy.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

4. Explaining the diverse applications of semiconductors in India, mention the ways in which the government can create a thriving domestic semiconductor industry, complete with all backward linkages. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The government forecasts that India would need $63 billion worth of semiconductors by 2026.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about applications of semi-conductors and how the government can create a thriving domestic semiconductor industry.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a statistic highlighting strategic significance of semiconductors in India.

Body:

In the first part, discuss the various applications of semiconductors – computers, phones, server farms, missiles and in their guidance systems, warplanes, submarines, aircraft carriers, satellites etc.

Next, write about the steps need to create a robust domestic industry for semiconductors – tackling R&D problems, funding, solving intellectual property issues. Mention various measures already initiated by the government in this regard.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

The Union Cabinet’s decision to set aside ₹76,000 crore for supporting the development of a ‘semiconductors and display manufacturing ecosystem’ is a belated but welcome acknowledgment of the strategic significance of integrated circuits, or chips, to a modern economy.

The Cabinet decision to simultaneously establish an India Semiconductor Mission helmed by ‘global industry experts’ to drive long-term strategies for the sustainable development of the chip and display industry is therefore a step in the right direction.

Body

Various applications of Semiconductors

  • Semiconductors and displays are the foundation of modern electronics driving the next phase of digital transformation under Industry 4.0.
  • The basic building blocks that serve as the heart and brain of all modern electronics and information and communications technology products, the ubiquitous chips are now an integral part of contemporary automobiles, household gadgets such as refrigerators, and essential medical devices such as ECG machines.
  • Semiconductors are the building blocks of today’s technology. For instance, they control the computers we use, the phones and mobile devices we use to communicate, the cars and planes that get us from place to place, the machines that diagnose and treat illnesses, the military systems that protect us, and the electronic gadgets we use to listen to music, watch movies and play games.

Ways to create a thriving domestic semiconductor industry

  • India Semiconductor Mission:
    • In order to drive the long-term strategies for developing a sustainable semiconductors and display ecosystem, a specialised and independent India Semiconductor Mission (ISM) will be set up.
    • ISM will be led by global experts in the semiconductor and display industry. It will act as the nodal agency for efficient and smooth implementation of the schemes on Semiconductors and Display ecosystem.
  • Production Linked Incentives:
    • Incentive support to the tune of Rs.55,392 crore (7.5 billion USD) have been approved under PLI for Largest Scale Electronics Manufacturing, PLI for IT Hardware, SPECS Scheme and Modified Electronics Manufacturing Clusters (EMC 2.0) Scheme.
    • In addition, PLI incentives to the quantum of Rs.98,000 crore (USD 13 billion) are approved for allied sectors comprising ACC battery, auto components, telecom & networking products, solar PV modules and white goods.
  • Semiconductor Fabs and Display Fabs:
    • It would provide fiscal support of up to 50% of the project cost for setting up semiconductor and display fabrication units.
    • The Union government will work with the States to set up high-tech clusters with the required infrastructure such as land and semiconductor-grade water.
  • Semi-conductor Laboratory (SCL):
    • MeitY will take requisite steps for modernization and commercialization of Semi-conductor Laboratory (SCL).
    • MeitY will explore the possibility for the Joint Venture of SCL with a commercial fab partner to modernise the brownfield fab facility.
  • Compound Semiconductors:
    • It will support fiscal support of 30% of capital expenditure to approved units.
    • At Least 15 such units of Compound Semiconductors and Semiconductor Packaging are expected to be established with Government support under this scheme.
  • Semiconductor Design Companies:
    • The Design Linked Incentive (DLI) Scheme shall extend product design linked incentive of up to 50% of eligible expenditure and product deployment linked incentive of 6% – 4% on net sales for five years.
    • Support will be provided to 100 domestic companies of semiconductor design for Integrated Circuits (ICs), Chipsets, System on Chips (SoCs), Systems & IP Cores and semiconductor linked design.

Way Forward

  • Given the long gestation periods and rapid technology changes, India must out-strategize on design and functionality as the end product will be out only after three-four years from the moment work begins, by which point the prevailing chip shortage would have been resolved, while technology would have advanced further.
  • Apart from incentivising more FDI in electronics to deepen our supply chains through incentive schemes, we need to focus on encouraging Indian manufacturers and start-ups to enter and master complex R&D and manufacturing verticals.
  • We can then ensure that valuable Intellectual Property is created and owned by Indian companies.
  • The semiconductor industry is changing fast as new-age technologies require innovation at the design, material, and process levels.
  • Indian engineers have contributed immensely to this area in multinational companies. We must encourage them to set up their design start-ups with handsome government grants and tax incentives.
  • Premier research institutions such as the Indian Institute of Science should also be asked to work aggressively on R&D in chip designing and manufacturing.
  • Further, the government must focus on emerging technologies like LiDAR and Phased Array in which incumbents do not have a disproportionate advantage and the entry barrier is low.
  • By working aggressively in new cutting-edge technologies, India can ensure that it becomes Aatmanirbhar.
  • India needs to push for a Quad Supply Chain Resilience Fund to immunise the supply chain from geopolitical and geographic risks
  • India and Taiwan have started negotiations for a free-trade agreement and setting up a semiconductor manufacturing hub in an Indian city, signalling their resolve to further expand the two-way economic engagement.

Conclusion

The program will usher in a new era in electronics manufacturing by providing a globally competitive incentive package to companies in semiconductors and display manufacturing as well as design. The program will promote higher domestic value addition in electronics manufacturing and will contribute significantly to achieving a USD 1 Trillion digital economy and a USD 5 Trillion GDP by 2025. This shall pave the way for India’s technological leadership in these areas of strategic importance and economic self-reliance.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Enumerate the steps taken by India to tackle plastic pollution in the country. Do you think a legally binding global treaty on plastics and plastic pollution is the way forward? Critically examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

The upcoming United Nations Environment Assembly presents an opportunity to the world to agree to a global treaty on plastics and plastic pollution, as per United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Key Demand of the question:

To write about India’s measures against plastic pollution and the need for a legally binding global treaty on plastics and plastic pollution.

Directive word: 

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving statistic about level of plastic in India and globally.

Body:

In the first part, write about measures taken by India – notified phasing out of selected single-use plastic items from July 1, 2022. It has also notified the draft EPR regulations in the subcontinent, which focus on collection targets, recycling targets, reuse and use of recycled content in packaging etc.

Next, write about the pros and cons of having a legally binding global treaty on plastics and plastic pollution,

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a balanced opinion on legally binding global treaty on plastics and plastic pollution.

Introduction

In 2019, the Union government in a bid to free India of single-use plastics by 2022, had laid out a multi-ministerial plan to discourage the use of single-use plastics across the country. In this direction, the Environment Ministry recently issued draft rules that mandate producers of plastic packaging material to collect all of their produce by 2024 and ensure that a minimum percentage of it be recycled as well as used in subsequent supply.

Body

Plastic waste scenario in India

  • According to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India generates close to 26,000 tonnes of plastic a day and over 10,000 tonnes a day of plastic waste remains uncollected.
  • According to a Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI)study the plastic processing industry is estimated to grow to 22 million tonnes (MT) a year by 2020 from 13.4 MT in 2015 and nearly half of this is single-use plastic.
  • India’s per capita plastic consumptionof less than 11 kg, is nearly a tenth of the United States of America (109 kg).

 Measures taken so far to tackle plastic pollution

  • India recently released a draft resolution to address plastic pollution, a month ahead of the fifth United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA 5.2) to be held in Nairobi. India’s framework proposed a voluntary approach rather than a legally binding one, unlike drafts presented by some other countries.
  • In 2019, the Union government in a bid to free India of single-use plastics by 2022, had laid out a multi-ministerial plan to discourage the use of single-use plastics across the country.
  • Currently, the Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016, prohibits manufacture, import, stocking, distribution, sale and use of carry bags and plastic sheets less than 50 microns in thickness in the country.
  • The Environment Ministry has notified the Plastic Waste Management Amendment Rules, 2021.
  • These rules prohibit specific single-use plastic items which have “low utility and high littering potential” by 2022.
  • The permitted thickness of the plastic bags, currently 50 microns, will be increased to 75 microns from 30th September, 2021, and to 120 microns from the 31st December, 2022.
  • At the policy level, the concept of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), already mentioned under the 2016 Rules, has to be promoted.
  • The Central Pollution Control Board, along with state pollution bodies, will monitor the ban,identify violations, and impose penalties already prescribed under the Environmental Protection Act, 1986.
  • The Central Pollution Control Board has reported that 22 States have, in the past, announced a ban on single-use plastic, but this has had little impact on the crisis of waste choking wetlands and waterways and being transported to the oceans to turn into microplastic.
  • So far, 22 States and Union Territories have joined the fight to beat the plastic pollution, announcing a ban on single-use plastics such as carry bags, cups, plates, cutlery, straws and thermocol products.
  • India has also won global acclaim for its “Beat Plastic Pollution” resolve declared on World Environment Day last year, under which it pledged to eliminate single-use plastic by 2022.

Pros of a legally binding global treaty on plastics

  • An uniform set of laws applies to all countries thereby boosting the cumulative effort across globe to tackle plastic pollution.
  • Strengthens the global drive to curb the plastic pollution of all types – land, marine etc.
  • Helps build a financial mechanism to boost the efforts towards fighting plastic pollution.

Cons:

  • Not all countries could be able to abide by the treaty as alternative to plastic may be unaffordable or inaccessible or unavailable.
  • Goes against the common but differentiated responsibilities principle.

Way forward

  • As consumers, we should ensure that all plastic waste leaving our homes is segregated and is not contaminated with food waste.
  • Managing plastic waste requires effective knowledge, not only among those who produce the plastic but also among those who handle it.
  • The brand owner and manufacturer should try and understand the fates a plastic packaging material would meet after its purpose of packaging has been served.
  • Citizens have to bring behavioral change and contribute by not littering and helping in waste segregation and waste management.
  • To encourage innovation in development of alternatives to identified single use plastic items and digital solutions to plastic waste management, the India Plastic Challenge – Hackathon 2021, has been organized for students of Higher Educational Institutions and start-ups recognized under Start-up India Initiative.

Conclusion

The pressure on producers to streamline the collection, recycling and processing of all forms of plastic is bound to grow. Individuals and organizations should now actively remove plastic waste from their surroundings and municipal bodies must arrange to collect these articles. Startups and industries should think of newer ways of recycling plastic.

Value addition

Impact of Plastic Waste

  • Economic Losses:Plastic waste along shoreline has a negative impact on tourism revenue (creates an aesthetic issue).
    • For example, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, are under the plastic threat and facing the aesthetic issue because of the international dumping of plastic wasteat the island.
  • Implications for Animals:Plastic wastes have profoundly affected animals in aquatic, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems.
    • Plastic ingestionupsets or fills up the digestive systems of the animals thus contributing to their death due to intestinal blockage or starvation.
    • Marine animals can also be trapped in plastic wastewhere they are exposed to predators or starve to death.
    • The plastics may also contain toxic chemicalswhich can harm the animal’s vital organs or biological functions.
  • Implications for Human Health:The chemicals leached from the plastics contain compounds, like polybrominated diphenyl ether (anti-androgen), bisphenol A (mimics the natural female hormone estrogen) and phthalates (also known as anti-androgens), impact human health leading to various hormonal and genetic disorders.
    • These chemicals can interfere with the functioning of the endocrine systemand thyroid hormones and can be very destructive to women of reproductive age and young children.
  • Land Pollution:Plastics leach hazardous chemicals on land, resulting in the destruction and decline in quality of the earth’s land surfaces in term of use, landscape and ability to support life forms.
  • Air Pollution:Plastic burning releases poisonous chemicals into the atmosphere impacting general well-being and causing respiratory disorders in living beings.
  • Groundwater Pollution:Whenever plastics are dumped in landfills, the hazardous chemicals present in them seep underground when it rains. The leaching chemicals and toxic elements infiltrate into the aquifers and water table, indirectly affecting groundwater quality.
  • Water Pollution:Many lakes and oceans have reported alarming cases of plastic debris floating on water surfaces, affecting a great number of aquatic creatures. It leads to dreadful consequences to marine creatures that swallow the toxic chemicals. In 2014, United Nation report estimated the annual impact of plastic pollution on oceans at US$ 13 billion.
  • Interference with the Food Chain:Studies determine that the chemicals affect the biological and reproduction process resulting in reduced numbers of offspring thus disrupting the food chain.
    • When the smaller animals (planktons, molluscs, worms, fishes, insects, and amphibians) are intoxicated by ingesting plastic, they are passed on to the larger animals disrupting the interrelated connections within the food chain.
  • Poor Drainage:Drainage system clogged with plastic bags, films, and other plastic items, causes flooding.
  • Impact on Habitats:Seafloor plastic waste sheets could act like a blanket, inhibiting gas exchange and leading to anoxia or hypoxia (low oxygen levels) in the aquatic system, which in turn can adversely affect the marine life.
  • Invasive Species:Plastic waste can also be a mode of transport for species, potentially increasing the range of certain marine organisms or introducing species into an environment where they were previously absent. This, in turn, can cause subsequent changes in the ecosystem of the region.

 

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“You are what you do, not what you say you’ll do.” ― Carl Gustav Jung

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about the difference between saying and doing. Mention that many times humans act contradictory to their words or do not act all. This is reflection of integrity and the character of the person. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the need to act as per out words.

Introduction

The world only cares for what we do and not what we say we will do. The words which we generally say are much lesser importance than the actions which we deliver. We must speak less and work more. This will not only help us achieve our goals in the minimum possible time but also give some much-needed energy to invest in our significant tasks. It is important to understand the fact that the energy which we have is actually limited, and therefore it becomes very necessary to waste it wisely.

Body

Our actions and not words define our reputation and integrity. Failing to do what we say and repetition of this behaviour over and over again is harmful to our character which others perceive us to be.  It erodes our credibility.  If we don’t do what we say we are going to do, our credibility decreases. After each one of our promises and failing to keep it reduces our integrity as well. Our words mean nothing after this.

It also builds distrust.  Trust is built on small actions, not on the dramatic moments meant for movies. Finally, it limits opportunity. When our team cannot count on the promises made, there will be less and less opportunities for us to prove ourselves.

If you’re known as someone who doesn’t meet promises and expectations, you will face consequences.  Strive to be someone of your word.  Especially when it’s a “small thing,” make sure you do it.  After all, if you fail at the “little stuff,” no one will trust you with the “big stuff.”

Conclusion

It is important to acknowledge the fact that our actions define us and not our choices. A winner always finds ways to turn the right ideas into good deeds. He or she will look for ways to give away to their dreams and transform them into reality. Consistently doing what you say you will do is the foundation of integrity.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.” ― Aristotle

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about how there exist difference between educating the mind and the heart. If the mind provides knowledge, then from heart comes, empathy and compassion. The education of mind without inculcating values can be meaningless or even destructive. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

“To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society” aptly captures the idea behind the above quote by Mahatma Gandhi. Education promotes the metamorphosis of a child to become a full-fledged adult. Mere learning without promotion and development of values even discards the definition of education. Education of values and principles shapes and moulds a soul.

Body

Achieving academic excellence for all students is at the very core of any school’s purpose, and will inform much of what they do. Character education is not a new thing, extending as it does back to the work of Aristotle. Yet it could be argued that the pursuit of success in schools in more recent years has sought to put the cart before the horse. In driving students to think of success solely in terms of exam grades and university places, pressure is created that can often be counter intuitive to student well- being and academic progress.

It does not matter how educated or wealthy one is, if the inherent character or personality lacks morals. In fact, such personalities can be threat to a peaceful society. E.g.: Mussolini, Hitler are all examples of education devoid of morality leading mankind to their destruction.

In contemporary times it is equally relevant. For instance, An educated man taking dowry will be a death spell for gender equality and gender justice. The seven sins of Gandhiji will materialise when we are educated without morality like Science without humanity as is the case with nuclear weapons today. Thus, Education without values as useful as it seems makes a man, a clever devil.

Conclusion

Education without morals is like a ship without a compass, merely wandering nowhere. It is not enough to have the power of concentration, but we must have worthy objectives upon which to concentrate. It is not enough to know truth, but we must love truth and sacrifice for it.


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