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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 February 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic:Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1.  Though separated by short distances, the pictorial styles that emerged and evolved in various sub-schools of Rajput style of paintings were significantly diverse in terms of execution. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough   

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania

 

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the main style and themes of Rajput (Rajasthani) School and its main centers.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Write in brief about aesthetics of Rajput paintings and their origins.

Body:

In the first part, write about the main style and themes that are depicted in the paintings. Elements depicted, colors used, notable genre and any other important features.

Next, write about the major centers where it flourished – Mewar School, Bundi school and Kishangarh school. Write about their important features.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting their special place in the artistic history of India.

Introduction

The term ‘Rajasthani Schools of Painting’ pertains to the schools of painting that prevailed in the princely kingdoms and thikanas of what roughly constitutes Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh in the present time, such as Mewar, Bundi, Kota, Jaipur, Bikaner, Kishangarh, Jodhpur (Marwar), Malwa, Sirohi and other such principalities largely between the sixteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Like the Mughal Emperors, the Rajput rulers were also lovers of art and gave their patronage to miniature paintings.

Scholar Annand Coomaraswamy in 1916 coined the term ‘Rajput Paintings’ to refer to these as most rulers and patrons of these kingdoms were Rajputs.

Body

Main features of Rajasthani School of paintings

  • Each Rajputana kingdom had its own distinct style with a few common features.
  • Unlike Mughal painting which is primarily secular, the art of painting in Central India, Rajasthani and the Pahari region etc. is deeply rooted in the Indian traditions, taking inspiration from Indian epics, religious texts like the Puranas, love poems in Sanskrit and other Indian languages, Indian folk-lore and works on musical themes.
  • The cults of Vaishnavism, Saivism and Shakti exercised tremendous influence on the pictorial art of these places.
  • Among these the cult of Krishna was the most popular one which inspired the patrons and artists.
  • The notion of ‘love’ was cherished as a religious theme, where a delightful synthesis of sensuousness and mysticism was perceived
  • The themes from the Ramayana., the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata, the Siva Purana, the Naishadacarita, the Usha Aniruddha, the GitaGovinda of Jayadeva, the Rasamanjari of Bhanudatta, the Amaru Sataka, the Rasikapriya of Kesavadasa, the Bihari Satasayee and the Ragamala etc., provided a very rich field to the painter who with his artistic skill and devotion made a significant contribution to the development of Indian painting.
  • Apart from depicting stories from the Ramayana and the royal lifestyle of kings and queens, Rajasthani miniature paintings often portrayed the legacy of present and past rulers.
  • They also portrayed social values and the changes introduced by kings for the betterment of society. The background of the paintings formed a special feature of the Rajasthani school.
  • Colours used were often bold and contrasting in nature.
  • Natural colours, extracted from plants, minerals, shells, gold, silver and precious stones, were used.
  • The preparation of colours itself would often take weeks and only fine brushes were used.
  • The difficult art of miniature painting still exists in Rajasthan where the painters often use paper, ivory and silk as their canvas.
  • However, natural colours are no longer used as they have been replaced by artificial colours.

Various schools

The Malwa School

  • It flourished between 1600 and 1700 CE and is most representative of the Hindu Rajput courts.
  • Its two-dimensional   simplistic   language   appears   as   a   consummation   of   stylistic   progression   from   the   Jain   manuscripts to the Chaurpanchashika manuscript paintings.
  • Unlike the specificity of Rajasthani schools that emerged and flourished in precise territorial kingdoms and courts of their respective kings, Malwa School defies a precise centre for its origin and instead suggests a vast territory of Central India, where it got articulated with a sporadic mention of few places, such as Mandu, Nusratgarh and Narsyang Sahar.
  • Among the few early dated sets are an illustrated poetic text of Amaru Shatakadated 1652 CE and a Ragamala painting by Madho Das in 1680 CE.

Mewar school of painting

  • Mewar is conjectured to be a significant early centre of painting in Rajasthan, from where, hypothetically, one would have been able to formalise a continuous stylistic tradition of painting—from pre-seventeenth century bold, indigenous styles to the subsequent refined and finer style post Karan Singh’s contact with the Mughals.
  • However, long wars with the Mughals have wiped out earliest examples.
  • Therefore, the emergence of the Mewar School is widely associated with an early dated set of Ragamala paintings painted at Chawed in 1605 by an artist named Narain.
  • Sahibdin painted the Ragamala (1628), Rasikapriya, Bhagvata Purana (1648) and the Yuddha Kanda of Ramayana (1652).

Bundi School of Painting

  • A prolific and distinct school of painting flourished in Bundi in the seventeenth century, which is remarkable for its unblemished colour sense and excellent formal design.
  • Bundi Ragamala dated 1591, assigned to the earliest and formative phase of Bundi painting, has been painted at Chinar in the reign of Bhai Singh (1585–1607), the Hada Rajput ruler.
  • A distinct   feature   of   Bundi   and   Kota School is a keen interest in the depiction of lush vegetation; picturesque landscape with varied flora, wildlife and birds; hills and thick jungles; and water bodies.
  • Bundi artists had their own standards of feminine beauty—women are petite with round faces, receding foreheads, sharp noses, full cheeks, sharply pencilled eyebrows and a ‘pinched’ waist.

Kota School of Painting:

  • The accomplished tradition of painting at Bundi gave rise to one of the most outstanding Rajasthani Schools, Kota, which excels in the depiction of hunting scenes and reflects an exceptional excitement and obsession for animal chase.
  • Kota paintings    are    characteristically    spontaneous, calligraphic in execution and emphasise on marked shading, especially, the double–lid eye.
  • Artists of the Kota School excelled in rendering animals and combat.

Bikaner School of Painting

  • Rao Bika Rathore established one of the most prominent kingdoms of Rajasthan, Bikaner, in 1488.
  • During his regime, Anup Singh (1669–1698) instituted a library in Bikaner that became a repository of manuscripts and paintings.
  • As a result of long association with the Mughals, Bikaner developed a distinctive language of painting that was influenced by the Mughal elegance and subdued colour palette.
  • The custom of having portraits of artists is unique to the Bikaner School and most of them are inscribed with information regarding their ancestry. They are referred to as Ustas or Ustad.
  • Accounts from the Bahis, royal archival day-to-day diaries, and numerous inscriptions on Bikaner paintings make it one of the best documented schools of painting.

Kishangarh School of Painting

  • Widely held among the most stylised of all Rajasthani miniatures, Kishangarh paintings are distinguished by their exquisite sophistication and distinct facial type exemplified by arched eyebrows, lotus petal shaped eyes slightly tinged with pink, having drooping eyelids, a sharp slender nose and thin lips.
  • A distinctive style of the state with a general tendency to elongate the human form, making lavish use of green and penchant for depicting panoramic landscapes had evolved by the early eighteenth century
  • With the Pushtimargiya cult of Vallabhacharya, Krishna Lila themes became personal favourites for the rulers of Kishangarh and represented a major portion of their court art.
  • Savant Singh’s most celebrated and outstanding artist was Nihal Chand.
  • Nihal Chand worked for Sawant Singh between 1735 and 1757, and composed paintings on Sawant Singh’s poetry that portrayed the theme of divine lovers—Radha and Krishna, in courtly surroundings, often appearing tiny in the vastness and minutiae of their panoramic landscape settings.
  • Kishangarh artists revelled in the depiction of vistas in accentuated colours.

Jodhpur School of Painting

  • With the political presence of Mughals since the sixteenth century, influence of their visual aesthetics made its way in the style of portraiture and depiction of court scenes, etc.
  • However, the formidable indigenous folkish style was so widespread and deeply embedded in culture that it resisted getting overpowered and prevailed in most illustrated sets of paintings.
  • One of the earliest sets painted in Pali is a Ragamala set by artist Virji in 1623.
  • The last phase innovative of Jodhpur painting coincided with the reign of Man Singh (1803–1843).
  • Significant sets painted during his time are the Ramayana (1804), Dhola-Maru, Panchatantra (1804) and Shiva Purana.
  • Ramayana paintings are interesting as the artist has employed his understanding of Jodhpur to depict Rama’s Ayodhya.
  • Hence, one gets an inkling into the bazaars, lanes, gateways, etc., of Jodhpur during that period.
  • This is true for all schools, wherein, local architecture, costumes and cultural aspects get interwoven with the stories of Krishna, Rama and others, and get depicted in paintings

Jaipur School of Painting

  • The Jaipur School of painting originated in its former capital Amer, which was nearest of all large Rajput states to Mughal capitals—Agra and Delhi.
  • Jaipur School of paintings thrived under Sawai Jai Singh’s reign and emerged as a well-defined independent school.
  • Court records reveal that some Mughal painters were brought from Delhi to become a part of his atelier.
  • Artists during his reign painted sets based on Rasikapriya, Gita Govinda, Baramasa and Ragamala, where the hero’s figure is in striking resemblance with the king.
  • Portrait painting was also popular during his time.
  • During Pratap Singh’s time, apart from royal portraits and representations of courtly pomp and splendour, literary and religious themes, such as Gita Govinda, Ragamala, Bhagvata Purana, etc., got renewed stimulus.
  • As elsewhere, many copies were also produced by means of tracing and pouncing.
  • By the early nineteenth century, there was a lavish use of gold.
  • Jaipur preferred large size formats and produced life-size portraits.

Conclusion

The Rajasthani style of painting including that of Malwa, is marked by bold drawing, strong and contrasting colours. The treatment of figures is flat without any attempt to show perspective in a naturalistic manner. Sometimes the surface of the painting is divided into several compartments of different colours in order to separate one scene from another. Mughal influence is seen in the refining of drawing and some element of naturalism introduced in figures and trees. Each school of painting has its distinct facial type, costume, landscape and colour scheme.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Rukmini Devi Arundale catalyzed the renaissance of the Bharatanatyam dance form, to preserve and popularize it and other Indian traditions. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy                                                                       

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania

 

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the contributions of Rukmini Devi Arundale toward reviving and achieving global recognition to Bharatanatyam.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Write a brief introduction about Rukmini Devi Arundale – as a person and a performer of Bharatanatyam.

Body:

Mention about the status of Bharatanatyam in its original ‘sadhir’ style prevalent amongst the temple dancers, the Devadasis and was considered a vulgar art.

Write about the role that Rukmini Devi Arundale played in popularizing the movement – Rukmini Devi Arundale was also instrumental in modifying mainly the Pandanallur style of Bharata Natyam and bringing it to the attention of the West.  Rukmini Devi raised Bharata Natyam to a puritan art form, by removing certain emotional elements evocative of the erotic, such as hip, neck, lip and chest movements) from the Pandanallur style. 

Next, write about the other contributions of Rukmini Devi.

Conclusion:

Write about Bharatanatyam in the present day due to the efforts of Rukmini Devi.

Introduction

Rukmini Devi, founder of Kalakshetra, is credited with giving Bharatanatyam makeover from sensuous art form to more spiritual & devotional character. Her charismatic personality and contribution to the renaissance of Indian Classical music attained her niche in the arena of Indian culture. Rukmini Devi was also known for her efforts towards the protection of animal rights and their welfare.

Body:

Her contribution to the performing arts industry is unmatchable and one cannot ignore the shackles of caste and community she broke with it. The institute she founded, Kalakshetra, has gained international recognition and become synonymous with all things “classical” in India.

Role of Rukmini Devi Arundale in Reviving Bharatanatyam:

  • Honoured with the Padma Bhushan in 1956, Rukmini is best known for her visionary work in the fields of dance, culture, and education that catalysed a renaissance in Indian classical dance forms.
  • Often Rukmini Devi is described as the one who saved the art of Bharatanatyam dance from extinction. Some scholars also like to think that she appropriated the dance from the hereditary dance community.
  • She is the person who is credited for the renaissance of Bharatnatyam dance form and more significantly making the dance which was primarily a forte of Devdasis, main stream and respectable in the society.
  • She was the first woman performer other than devadasi to perform bharatanatyam on stage.
  • The fact remains that a deep love for dance inspired her to go to its roots and study it with diligence with gurus at a time when crucial changes were taking place in our society with regard to temple dancers.
  • Originally the dance form Bharatnatyam was known as Sadhir, practiced only by Devdasis who with the advent of British Raj very widely maligned in the society. Thus, she not only revived and resurrected the ancient dance form but also went on to reverse the negative stereotypes associated with the female practitioners of Sadhir.
  • By adopting a puritan approach, she eliminated the dance form of its shringaaror erotic leanings and magnified the bhakti or devotional aspect, thereby making it more acceptable to the mainstream of the society.
  • She also introduced modern costumes, temple jewellery, set designs, lighting etc which we know of the trademarks of the modern Bharatnatyam performances.
  • Her unique contribution was to destroy what was crude and vulgar in the inherited traditions of dance and to replace them with sophisticated and refined taste. In this, the dance form received a new lease of life, going on to earn international approval.
  • Other than conceiving and choreographing numerous bharatanatyam pieces, Rukmini developed a unique curriculum to broaden the dance’s appeal, that included aesthetically designed jewellery, costumes and stage scenarios.
  • She indeed succeeded in giving dance and Bharatnatyam a place of pride in India’s national narrative.
  • Rukmini Devi “retained the positive aspects of the system and persuaded outstanding musicians and dance gurus to join the faculty and created for them an ambiance devoid of commercial considerations”.

Conclusion:

Rukmini played an instrumental role in transforming the dance form, giving it a new name, and popularizing it all over the world as a respectable art form. While Kalakshetra was a major landmark in her career as a dancer, her years as an MP were just as fruitful as she made sure Article 51 (G) of the Constitution of India was included under Part IV, making it the fundamental duty of every citizen to show kindness and compassion to all living beings.

 

Topic:  Social empowerment

3. The path to true inclusion of LGBTIA+ community begins with putting an end to violence and harassment against them and beginning sensitization about them among the echelons of the society. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: New Indian Express

 

Why the question: In a welcome move, the Tamil Nadu government recently amended its police conduct rules to bar harassment of LGBTQIA+ individuals and persons working to help them.

Key Demand of the question: To write about achieving inclusivity among for the LGBTQIA+ community.

Structure of the answer:

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin about the giving context about the recent move by Tamil Nadu regarding LGBTQIA+ community.

Body:

First, write about the various issues face the LGBTQIA+ in various aspect such as employment, housing, co-living, rights, harassment, lack of counselling.

Next, write about the importance of ending harassment and beginning sensitization with respect to the LGBTQIA+ community.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward to further streamline the community to achieve true inclusivity.

Introduction

The LGBTQIA+ community faces a lot of problems. The main problem is acceptance from people outside the community. For the Indian LGBT community, a truly inclusive society remains a distant dream. In urban India, where social media and corporate initiatives have created increasing awareness of LGBT rights, the scenario looks more upbeat for gay men than for transgender people or lesbian women. While urban LGBT voices that are heard through several online and real-world platforms form an important part of LGBT activism, these expose only a small part of the diverse challenges faced by the community.

The Tamil Nadu government recently amended its police conduct rules to bar harassment of LGBTQIA+ individuals and persons working to help them.

Body

Background

  • The Delhi High Court’s verdict in Naz Foundation vs Government of NCT of Delhi (2009) was a landmark in the law of sexuality and equality jurisprudence in India.
  • The court held that Section 377 offended the guarantee of equality enshrined in Article 14 of the Constitution, because it creates an unreasonable classification and targets homosexuals as a class.
  • In a retrograde step, the Supreme Court, in Suresh Kumar Koushal vs Naz Foundation (2013), reinstated Section 377 to the IPC.
  • However, the Supreme Court in Navtej Singh Johar & Ors. vs Union of India (2018) declared that the application of Section 377 IPC to consensual homosexual behaviour was “unconstitutional”.
  • This Supreme Court judgment has been a great victory to the Indian individual in his quest for identity and dignity.

Issues faced by LGBTQIA+ community in India

  • No legal recognition of marriage: Same-sex marriages are not legally recognized in India even though many countries like USA, UK have legalised it.
  • Issue of rights: The rights enjoyed by opposite-sex couples are not enjoyed by same-sex couples. They are prohibited from those rights. For example-
    • The lack of a legal structure around their relationship became increasingly stark when they tried to bring each other on as nominees in insurance and financial plans, just as a married couples did.
  • Lack of family support: Lack of communication between LGBT children and the parents often leads to conflict in the family.
    • Many LGBT youths are placed in foster care or end up in juvenile detention or on the streets.
    • Most often than not, LGBTQ children from poor families are abandoned. They end up begging as there is no avenue for education or employment.
    • In some parts, secret honour killings are planned so that the only way for a young gay man to survive is to run away in the cover of the night to some city, with no money or social support.
  • Sanctioned rape: In other parts, lesbian women are subjected to family-sanctioned corrective rapes, which are often perpetrated by their own family members.
    • Village medics and babas often prescribe rape to cure lesbians of homosexuality. Refusal to marry brings more physical abuse
  • Education and health: The LGBTQ children are abandoned and marginalised, who end up being isolated by the rest of the society. They are denied the fundamental right of education as well as health.

Way Forward

  • The LGTBQ community needs an anti-discrimination law that empowers them to build productive lives and relationships irrespective of gender identity or sexual orientation and place the onus to change on state and society and not the individual.
  • Police must not harass sexual minorities. There must be changes to the police conduct rules to provide for punishing erring police personnel in this regard.
  • Government bodies, especially related to Health, and Law and Order need to be sensitised and made aware about the changed position of law to ensure that the LGBTQ community is not denied public services or harassed for their sexual orientation.
  • Enumerating sexual orientation and gender identity in non-discrimination and anti-bullying policies is an important step toward acknowledging diversity, protecting vulnerable students.
  • Training school staff empowers them to respond when they encounter abuse. Younger generations of Indians will grow up knowing of criminalisation as a thing of the past, and that will be a boon to their basic rights.
  • In 2014, the Supreme Court issued a sweeping judgment in NALSA v. India, which held that transgender people should be legally recognised according to their gender identity, enjoy all fundamental rights, and receive special benefits in education and employment. This must be implemented and enforced.

Conclusion

The queer and gender non-conforming people have found an ally in the court, but they would need greater effort on the part of the authorities at various levels, if their rights are to be protected. In any case, any change in law in terms of recognising same-sex relations or understanding self-identification of gender must be complemented by an attitudinal change in society at large.

Government must sensitise the general public and officials, to reduce and finally eliminate the stigma associated with LGBTQ+ community through the mass media and the official channels. School and university students too should be sensitised about the diversity of sexuality to deconstruct the myth of heteronormativity. Heteronormativity is the root cause of hetero-sexism and homophobia.

 

Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

4. The transformative potential of Artificial Intelligence in governance must be harnessed to bridge the gap between the state and the citizens as well as to improve service delivery. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: New Indian Express 

 

Why the question: One of the most interesting elements of public policy in India these days is tracking where artificial intelligence is being used as a multiplier and what impact it is generating.

Key Demand of the question: To write about how artificial intelligence will transform governance to improve service delivery and what applications will these technologies offer in the near future.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the rising use of A.I in governance with examples.

Body:

First, mention the potential uses of artificial Intelligence and machine learning in governance and its advantages – efficiency, transparency, seamless connectivity etc. Cite examples to substantiate.

Next, mention various limitations and bottlenecks that hinder use of A.I in governance to improve service delivery – security issues, privacy, lack of infrastructure etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer science concerned with developing machines that can complete tasks that typically require human intelligence. The growing use of artificial intelligence in public policy is perhaps the most important thing to track about India’s governance.

Body

Background on India’s artificial intelligence journey

  • India’s National Programme for AI, which was developed by NITI Aayog, defines artificial intelligence for social good (and for all) as its goal.
  • One of its first steps towards this goal has been the development of PARAM SIDDHI AI, the country’s largest High Performance Computing (HPC) supercomputer.
  • This is ranked among the top 100 supercomputers in the world.
  • Some of the key areas where India first wants to deploy artificial intelligence are health, agriculture, education, manufacturing and the financial sector.
  • Thus, the national Jal Shakti Ministry has been using internet of things (IoT)-based sensors to monitor water availability and flow in 6,00,000 villages, and the Tamil Nadu administration has used AI-based screening (through a mobile app called e-Paarwai) to check for cataract problems in patients.

AI in public service delivery

  • Reducing fraud and error in the tax and benefits systems: Governments today can benefit from the application of anomaly detection to benefits claims and tax rebates.
  • Examine service delivery processes: Many public services are becoming digital, creating electronic footprints of the business processes in operation.
    • The use of process mining, a technology which uses timestamps to identify workflows, can be used to understand the flows of citizens through public services.
    • This can help understand where there are bottlenecks, where processes are going awry, and where digital services are failing.
  • Efficiently allocate resources: Resource allocation is paramount in delivering effective public services, whether it is the management of intensive-care beds or the maintenance of the road and rail network.
    • Eg: During covid pandemic, bed allocation, detecting outbreak in communities were all modelled using artifical intelligence.
    • The ability to predict need before it occurs allows managers to make better decisions; giving them this capability will become increasingly important in the public sector.
  • Precision farming: Accurate weather prediction, information dissemination on right time to harvest, even identifying any pest infestation using image processing are use cases in Agriculture. Government can provide these services to farmers.

These are just some of the examples of how AI is beginning to impact public services. As governments seek to speed up the pace of implementation, we can look forward to increased benefits because of this approach. Governments that form a clear data strategy, complete with AI implementation guidelines and ethical framework, are well placed to realize these gains and increase public trust. In a time of scepticism towards government around the world, AI is an opportunity to redefine what public services can deliver.

Conclusion

Governments are just starting to explore the potential of AI to transform public services. It is crucial to design systems to capture the right data at the outset, so that AI can be deployed efficiently. This will all be made possible by tailoring systems to the subject matter at hand, with the help of policy-makers, public servants and data scientists, all working together to fully realize the benefits of this technology.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

5. A multi-lingual approach to education with foundational learning in mother tongue would create new opportunities for learning and leading to creation of opportunities in skill development and employment. Critically examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

 

Why the question: Tapping technology for multilingual learning: As the theme of International Mother Language Day 2022, it has much relevance in reshaping Indian higher education.

Key Demand of the question: To explain in detail how multi-lingual approach especially Mother tongue is critically important for cognitive, psychological and personality development, education and learning.

Structure of the answer:

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with importance of language in general.

Body:

Discuss the significance of mother tongue in personality development. Present the issues due to lack of emphasis on mother tongue such as – Difficult learning: Incomplete first language skills often make learning other languages more difficult. Cognitive conflict: when a child finds a discrepancy between what he thinks the world should be and what he finds it as, emanating from forced situation of learning in a second language etc. Mention about NEP 2020 stand in this regard.

Next, write about the limitations of multi-lingual approach – lack of proficiency in English, opportunity costs, competition etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Mother tongue or mother language refers to the language which a person has grown up speaking from early childhood. India is a land of linguistic diversity and the languages differ in their dialects every 100 kms. There have been many arguments and dissatisfaction over having a single national language (Hindi) for entire country.

The National Education Policy (NEP) approved by the Union Cabinet on July 29, 2020, says that wherever possible the medium of instruction in schools until Grade V — preferably until Grade VIII — should be the mother tongue or the local or regional language..

Body:

Importance of Mother Tongue as foundational language:

  • Mother tongue is the very first language that one hears, understands and gets familiar with. Thus, it plays important role in shaping feelings, emotions and thought processes.
  • Several psychological, social and educational experiments proved that learning through the mother tongue is deeper, faster and more effective. A child understands his mother tongue and hence if he/she is instructed in that language itself, his transition to school education is smooth and easy.
  • Much of a child’s future social and intellectual development hinges on the milestone of mother tongue.
  • Incomplete first language skills often make learning other languages more difficult. Understanding the subject matter would boost the confidence of the student and propel him/her to continue with his/her schooling thus lowering the drop-out rate.
  • Mother tongue is critically important for cognitive, psychological and personality development, education and learning.
  • Psychologists say it’s important that expressions and vocabulary are chosen with care when we talk to children.
  • Research shows how the brain differently absorbs and recalls languages learnt in early childhood and later life.
  • Educating children in their mother tongue will also build a strong home-school partnership in their learning. Parents will be able to participate their child’s education and make the experience of learning for the students more wholesome.
  • It will also benefit the primary school teachers as many of them find it difficult to express themselves in English and hence are not able to transfer as much knowledge as they would like to, thus creating a knowledge deficit.

Challenges faced in using mother language as means of education:

  • It might not be possible for all languages to become the medium of instruction and it might not be possible for large parts of the country to implement this.
  • The commonest criticism of the policy to use the mother tongue in schools is that it widens the divide between those who can communicate in English and those who cannot.
  • Providing education especially technical education in regional languages requires teachers proficientin undertaking classes in the vernacular medium along with English, textbooks and reference materials in regional languages, besides technological assistance such as audio translation aids.
  • It might not be financially viable because of the lack of funds and lack of trained staff.
  • The initial investment in bilingual programmes can be high because of the additional cost of developing new learning material especially for languages that have not been standardised or do not have a script. It would also require teachers trained to teach in a multilingual classroom and new teachers fluent in these languages.
  • Evidence from Guatemala and Senegal in 1999 estimated that producing local language material would cost about 1% of the education budget with decreasing investment as time passes.
  • Another challenge is selecting which mother tongues become the medium of instruction in a school and which do not. For instance, students who speak local languages such as Rabha, Santhali and Nepali attend Assamese-medium schools in the Kokrajhar and Chirang areas.

Way forward

  • The need to build an effectivemultilingual education system across diverse streams and disciplines becomes all the more imperative.
  • In this context, the collaboration between the AICTE and IIT Madras to translate some courses on the central government’s e-learning platform, Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM)into eight regional languages such as Tamil, Hindi, Telugu, Kannada, Bengali, Marathi, Malayalam and Gujarati, is commendable. Such tech-led initiatives will serve to democratise higher education.
  • At the same time, the decision of the AICTE to permit Tech programmes in 11 native languages, in tune with the NEP, is a historic move.
  • Our policy-planners, educators, parents and opinion leaders must bear in mind that when it comes to education in mother tongue and local languages, we can take the cue fromEuropean countries as well as Asian powers such as Japan, China and Korea, among others.

Conclusion:

Co-existing over centuries, borrowing from and nurturing each other, our languages are interwoven with our individual, local and national identity. The need today is to respect, protect and nurture diversity of our nation so that unity is ensured.

Value addition

Way forward to preserve mother languages:

  • With the help of technology, every mother language can be maintained. Google’s Project Navlekha in India is an example. The project is aimed at increasing the online content in Indian local languages.
  • People should be made aware of the professional viability of pursuing degrees in native languages. With a degree in a native language, one can take up professions like Language Expert, Translators, and Tourist-Guide etc.
  • Also to maintain any native language, it is necessary that it is spoken. Use of native languages at homes, schools, and offices should be encouraged.
  • The Upper House of India has an arrangement for interpretation of 22 languages i.e. members are encouraged to speak in their native languages.
  • Countries like France, Germany, Italy, China have developed their mother languages as a powerful medium. Other countries need to learn from these to preserve their cultural and linguistic identity.

 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

6. Distributed renewable energy projects have greater scalability and offer substantive livelihood benefits. Comment in the light of Draft Policy Framework for developing and promoting Decentralized Renewable Energy (DRE) Livelihood Application. (250 words)

 

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: DownToEarth

 

Why the question: The Union Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) released a draft policy framework February 14, 2022 for DRE livelihood applications. The ministry intended to achieve its objective of s decentralised and distributed renewable energy supply in the country, particularly for rural populations with little or no access to power.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the advantages of Distributed renewable energy projects.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining Distributed renewable energy (DRE)

Body:

First, give contexts regarding Draft Policy Framework for developing and promoting Decentralized Renewable Energy (DRE) Livelihood Application.

Next, write about the pros of DRE’s in India – scalability, livelihood improvement, cost effectiveness, easy maintenance, improving rural incomes.

Next, write about the limitations of DRE’s – capacity addition, procurement, lack of uniform policy etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward to harness the true potential of DRE’s.

Introduction

The Union Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) released a draft policy framework February 14, 2022 for DRE livelihood applications. The ministry intended to achieve its objective of a decentralised and distributed renewable energy supply in the country, particularly for rural populations with little or no access to power.

Body

About Decentralised Renewable energy

  • Distributed renewable energy (DRE) systems like power, cooking, heating and cooling systems that generate and distribute services independently of any centralised system, in both urban and rural areas of the developing world.
  • They already provide energy services to millions of people, and numbers continue to increase annually.
  • DRE systems can serve as a complement to centralised energy generation systems, or as a substitute.

Draft Policy Framework for developing and promoting DRE Livelihood Application

The objective of Decentralized Renewable Energy (DRE) framework is to develop an enabling market ecosystem to ensure widespread adoption of DRE for sustainable livelihood creation in the country. It has following objectives: –

  • Enable a market-oriented ecosystem to attract private sector for development and deployment of DRE based livelihood applications.
  • Unlock easy access to end user finance to increase adoption of DRE based livelihood solutions by linking DRE to existing financing schemes or through new innovative financial instruments.
  • Leverage quality control standards and a strong monitoring and evaluation framework to ensure long-term performance sustainability of DRE based livelihood solutions and to assess their impact on different populations including marginalized groups and women.
  • Promote skill development for strengthening the service infrastructure at the local level. Encourage innovation and RD to develop efficient and cost-effective DRE livelihood applications.
  • Collaborate with other ministries to include DRE based livelihoods applications in their programmes.
  • Support creation of livelihood opportunities in technology innovation value chain of DRE applications.
  • Support and incentivize adoption of DRE livelihood technologies among women and other marginalized sections such as Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes.

Advantages of Decentralized Renewable Energy framework

  • DRE and its downstream applications offer an opportunity to not only meet India’s climate and energy access targets, but also provide attractive returns to financial investors.
  • It also provides pathways for India to reduce import-dependence on crude oil as well as create economic growth and jobs in the long run.
  • In addition, addressing existing policy and financing gaps would not only allow for better targeting and risk-hedging of government spending programs, but would also allow capital to be recycled efficiently, thereby enhancing both the duration and magnitude of the impact.

Limitations of DRE

  • Lack of Technology: In order to use renewable energy in their livelihoods, people need access to technology and financing, which are not available to most rural households in India despite the existence of several technology options to deploy small-scale renewable energy-based livelihood applications.
    • Local communities in the villages often find it difficult to pay upfront for these innovations.
  • Unique Challenge for Women: Microbusinesses, under-represented groups and women face unique challenges when it comes to acquiring assets.
    • As a result, businesses that use operating expense-based financial models, such as pay-as-you-go or leasing, may be eligible for credit facilitation.
  • Others: Lack of proper financing channels, consumer awareness, consumer affordability and quality products / standards are some of the major challenges facing DRE in India.

Conclusion and way forward

  • End-user and Corporate Financing: Financial institutions may consider developing financing options that do not require collateral. Other state nodal agencies such as the state rural livelihood missions might use their existing institutional architecture to give financial assistance to the members of women self-help groups.
  • Considering both Upstream and Downstream Livelihoods: Upstream livelihoods affect local manufacturing and technical service providers to design, install and maintain DRE systems. This leads to differentiating between DRE technologies to see what can actually be manufactured locally and providing capacity-building services to both newcomers and existing service providers.
  • Promote Awareness: Awareness campaigns will help in increasing trust and adoption of these products by end-users and financiers, as these technologies are new for many consumers.

 

Topics: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators

7. Gandhian Trusteeship was an ‘Instrument of Human Dignity’. Elaborate. (150 words)

 

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Philosophical Mondays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question: To explain about the trusteeship of Mahatma Gandhi and its aim of protecting dignity of beings over materialism.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining the core idea of trusteeship philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi.

Body:

Further elaborate the concept of trusteeship with examples from Gandhian times to contemporary times. Gandhi’s economic ideas were part of his general crusade against poverty, exploitation against socio-economic injustice, and deteriorating moral standards.

He wanted to liberate the modern economic philosophy from the quagmire of materialism and bring it to a higher spiritual plane. Human actions were motivated by social objectives of the protection of human rights.

Conclusion:

End the answer by stressing the need and importance of trusteeship in present times.

Introduction

Trusteeship is a socio-economic philosophy that was propounded by Mahatma Gandhi. It provides a means by which the wealthy people would be the trustees of trusts that looked after the welfare of the people in general. Gandhi believed that the wealthy people could be persuaded to part with their wealth to help the poor. Trusteeship is not merely a principle not even a philosophy. His idea of trusteeship needs to be revisited in today’s times of growing inequality.

Body

Gandhiji’s doctrine of Trusteeship was an instrument of human dignity:

  • Gandhi’s economic ideas were part of his general crusade against poverty, exploitation against socio-economic injustice, and deteriorating moral standards.
  • Gandhi was an economist of the masses and his approach was rooted in human dignity.
  • His pragmatic approach gave a new direction to the existing socio-economic problems in the process of protecting human dignity.
  • Gandhism as a socio-economic philosophy suits not only to accomplish the higher ideals of democratic freedom and socialism but it was also thoroughly developed to meet the challenge of national and international forces of communism and capitalism.
  • The core of Gandhian economic thought is the protection of the dignity of human person and not mere material prosperity.
  • He aimed at the development, upliftment, and enrichment of human life rather than a higher standard of living with scant respect for human and social values.
  • Fundamental ethical values dominated his economic ideas. He wanted to liberate the modern economic philosophy from the quagmire of materialism and bring it to a higher spiritual plane.
  • Human actions were motivated by social objectives of the protection of human rights.
  • He based his doctrine of trusteeship on the first sloka of Isopanisad, according to which one is asked to dedicate everything to God and then use it only to the required extent.
  • The principal condition laid down in it is that one must not covet what belongs to others.
  • In other words, in the first instance, everything must be surrendered to God and then out of it one may use only that which is necessary for the service of God’s creation, according to one’s strict needs.
  • This makes it clear beyond doubt that it is not in industrial and business sectors only that the doctrine of trusteeship is to be made applicable.
  • The spirit of this doctrine is detachment and service. Unless these two virtues are inculcated, it is impossible to obey the command “covet not anybody’s riches.”
  • Therefore, Gandhi’s idea of trusteeship arose from his faith in the law of non-possession.
  • Man’s dignity, and not his material prosperity, is the centre of Gandhian economics. Gandhian economics aims at a distribution of material prosperity keeping only human dignity in view.
  • Thus, it is dominated more by moral values than by economic ideas.
  • According to Gandhi, trusteeship is the only ground on which he can work out an ideal combination of economics and morals.

Conclusion:

The philosophy of Trusteeship believes in inherent goodness of human beings. The Gandhian perspective is more relevant today than it was ever before. Gandhi wanted to ensure distributive justice by ensuring that business acts as a trustee to its many stakeholders, and specified that economic activities cannot be separated from humanitarian activities. Economics is part of the way of life which is related to collective values.

Value addition:

Relevance of trusteeship in contemporary world:

  • The revolutions that are raised from time to time in different countries are motivated by the same objectives of human dignity, justice, and equity.
  • It is very clear that the idea is relevant today as it aims at the social, economic, and political changes in the world.
  • One of the first steps to achieve this human dignity, justice, and equity is to eliminate the ever-present troublesome element of class struggle in the society.
  • Though the Gandhian concept of trusteeship does not seek to destroy any particular class, it provides us with an idea of how to narrow the class gap.
  • The practice of all the democratic nations has been to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor to a minimum.
  • In India we find this motive behind our cooperative policies, the community development projects, and the taxation policy that heavily taxes the upper class and gives some relief to the lower strata of society.
  • We find the manifestations of the Gandhian concept of trusteeship in these policies.

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