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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 February 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Elaborate upon the various features of Nagara style of architecture. Also, throw light on various sub-types and sub-schools of Nagara style. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the Nagar style of architecture and its various sub types.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief about Nagara style.

Body:

In the first part, write various features of Nagara style – its parts, nature of plan, type of tower etc. Draw a small representative diagram of the same.

Next, mention sub classification based on type of shikhara – Rekha Prasad, Phamsana and Valabhi and their features in brief. Give examples of the same.

Next, mention the various sub-schools of Nagara style – Odisha School, Chandel School and Solanki School and their features in brief. Give examples of the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Nagara style is one of the styles of temple architecture. It is the temple construction style of North India. Nagara style is associated with the land between the Himalayas and Vindhyas. The Nagara style has its origin in the structural temples of the Guptas period The major example of the temple of Nagara Style is Sun Temple at Modhera, Kandariya Mahadeva Temple at Khajuraho, Jagannath Temple at Puri, etc.

Body

 

Various features of Nagara style of architecture

  • The cruciform ground plan and curvilinear mountain-peak like tower are the two most fundamental features of Nagara style.
  • The temples of Nagara style generally have a square plan with a number of graduated projections in the middle of each face which give the structure a cruciform shape in the exterior.
  • In Nagara style, the Shikhara remains the most prominent element of the temple and the gateway is usually modest or even absent.
  • In this style, temples have elaborated boundary, less emphasised.
  • The entire temple is built on high stone platform called Jagati
  • Generally, they do not have large enclosures and entrances.
  • The temple has only one peak or shikhara above the Garbagriha.
  • There was a Kalasha placed on the Shikara of a temple.
  • Sikhara(the tower) slowly bending inwards and capped by a spheroid plate with ribs around the edge (Amalaka) give the height.
  • Temples of Nagara styles are categorized on the basis of the shape of the Shikhara. They are – Rekha Prasad, Phamsana, and Valabhi.

Classification of Nagara style of temple architecture based on the style of Shikhara

  • Rekha-Prasad or Latina: These temples are characterized by a simple Shikara with a square base and inward curving walls that have a pointed top. Early medieval temples such as the Sun Temple at Markhera in Madhya Pradesh (MP). The Sri Jagannath Temple of Odishahas been constructed in the Rekha-Prasad Shikara style.
  • Shekari: is a variation of the Latina where the Shikara comprises of a main Rekha-Prasad Shikara and one or more rows of smaller steeples on both sides of the central spire. Additionally, the base and corners also feature mini Shikaras.The Khajuraho Kandariya Mahadev Temple is one of the most prominent temples built in this style.
  • Bhumija: Another type of Nagara temple that evolved from the Latina style was the Bhumija architecturedeveloped in Malwa under the Paramara dynasty. These temples have a flat upward tapering projection comprising of a central Latina spire and miniature spires on the quadrant formed by the tapering tower. These mini Shikaras carved out both horizontally as well as vertically. The Udayeshwar Temple in MP is built in this style.
  • Valabhi: style temples are rectangular in shape comprising of barrel-vaulted roofs. The vaulted chamber roof has earned them the moniker wagon vaulted buildings/structures. Teli Ka Mandir, a 9th Century temple at Gwaliorhas been built in this style.
  • Phamsana: are shorter but broader structures comprising of roofs with numerous slabs that rise upwards in a gentle slope on a straight inclinelike a pyramid meeting at a single point over the mid-point of the building. The Jagmohan of Konark Temple is constructed in the Phamsana mode.

Sub-schools of Nagara style of temple architecture

  • Odisha School– The most prominent distinguishing feature is the Shikara (Deul) which rises vertically before curving inwards at the top. The main type is square while the upper reaches are circular. These temples have intricately carved exteriors and usually bare interiors. Unlike Nagara temples of the north, most Odisha temples have boundary walls.
  • Chandel School– Unlike Odishan style, these temples are conceived as a single unit and have Shikaras that curved from bottom to top. There are a number of miniatures Shikaras rising from the central tower and towers that gradually rise up to the main tower cap both the porticos and halls.
  • Solanki School– They are similar to the Chandel School except that they have carved ceilings that appear like a true dome. The distinguishing feature of these temples is the minute and intricate decorative motifs. Except for the central shrine, one can find carvings on both the inner and outer sides of the walls.

Conclusion

Nagara style is seen from the Himalaya to the north of Bijapur district in the South, from the Punjab in the west to Bengal to the east. Therefore, there are local variations and ramifications in the formal development of the style in the different regions. However, the cruciform plan and the curvilinear tower are common.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. What were the factors and forces behind the rise of Bhakti movement in India? Throw light of nature of Bhakti movement in south India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about origins of Bhakti movement and its nature in south India.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining bhakti movement of medieval in India.

Body:

First, mention the factors behind rise of Bhakti – orthodoxy of priests, caste system, oppression of women, impact of Sufism, establishment of Turkish rule and role of Bhakti saints.

Next, mention the nature of bhakti movement in south India – the bhakti of Alvars and Nayanars, Basavanna etc and their important features.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning the impact of Bhakti movement.

Introduction

Bhakti was accepted as a means to attain moksha along with jnana and karma. The Bhakti Movement originated in the seventh-century in Tamil, South India (now parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala), and spread northwards. It swept over east and north India from the 15th century onwards, reached its peak between the 15th and 17th century CE. The Bhakti Saints moved against the austerities propagated by the Buddhist and Jain schools and professed that ultimate devotion to god was the means to salvation.

Body:

Factors that led to the Bhakti movement:

Political:

  • It has been pointed out that as the popular bhakti movement could not take root in Northern India before the Turkish conquest because the socio-religious milieu was dominated by the Rajput-Brahman alliance which was hostile to any heterodox movement.
  • The Turkish conquests brought the supremacy of this alliance to an end.
  • The advent of Islam with the Turkish conquest also caused a setback to the power and prestige commanded by the Brahmans.
  • Thus, the way was paved for the growth of non-conformist movements, with anti-caste and anti-Brahminical ideology.
  • The Brahmans had always made the people believe that the images and idols in the temples were not just the symbols of God but were gods themselves who possessed divine power and who could be influenced by them (i.e. the Brahmans).
  • The Turks deprived the Brahmans of their temple wealth and state patronage. Thus the Brahmans suffered Both materially and ideologically.
  • The non-conformist sect of the nathpanthis was perhaps the first to gain from the declining power of the Rajput-Brahman alliance.
  • This sect seems to have reached its peak in the beginning of the Sultanate period.
  • The loss of power and influence by the Brahmans and the new political situation ultimately created conditions for the rise of the popular monotheistic movements and other bhakti movements in Northern India.

Socio-economic:

  • It has been argued that the bhakti movements of medieval India represented sentiments of the common people against feudal oppression.
  • According to this viewpoint, elements of revolutionary opposition to feudalism can be found in the poetry of the bhakti saints ranging from Kabir and Nanak to Chaitanya and Tulsidas.
  • It is in this sense that sometimes the medieval bhakti movements are an as Indian counterpart of the Protestant Reformation in Europe.
  • However, there is nothing in the poetry of the bhakti saints to suggest that they represented the class interests of the peasantry against the surplus-extracting feudal state.
  • The Vaishnava bhakti saints broke away from orthodox Brahminical order only to the extent that they believed in bhakti and religious equality.
  • Normally, they continued to subscribe to many basic principles of orthodox Brahmanism.
  • The more radical monotheistic saints rejected orthodox Brahminical religion altogether but even they did not call for the overthrow of the state and the ruling class.
  • For this reason, the bhakti movements cannot be regarded as Indian variant of European Protestant Reformation which was a far greater social upheaval linked to the decline of feudalism and the rise of capitalism

Religious:

  • Evils in the Hindu Society: Hindu society was full of many social anomalies like rigidity of caste system, irrelevant rituals and religious practices, blind faiths and social dogmas. Common men in general had developed an adverse attitude towards these social evils and were in need of a liberal form of religion where they could identify themselves with simple religious practices.
  • Complexity of religion: The high philosophy of the Vedas and Upanishads were very complicated for the common people. They wanted a simple way of worship, simple religious practices and simple social customs. Alternative was Bhakti marga—a simple way of devotion to get salvation from worldly life.
  • Role of Religious Reformers: The chief exponents of the movement were Shankara, Ramanuja, Kabir, Nanak, Shri Chaitanya, Mirabai, Ramananda, Namdev, Nimbarka, Madhava, Eknath, Surdas, Tulsidas, Tukaram, Vallabhacharya and Chandidas. They were the propounders of Bhakti movement and gave a call to the people to worship in the simplest possible way of devotion and love.
  • Challenge from Rival Religion: the impact of the Muslim rule and Islam put dread in the heart of Hindu masses. The Hindus had suffered a lot under some of the fanatic rulers. They wanted some solace to heal their despairing hearts.
  • Influence of Sufism: The Sufi saints of the Muslim community also inspired the movement. Some similar chords in the two evoked resonance.

Nature of Bhakti movement in south India

  • The Bhakti Movement was essentially founded in South India and later spread to the North during the late medieval period.
  • This Movement itself is a historical-spiritual phenomenon that crystallized in South India during Late Antiquity.
  • It was spearheaded by devotional mystics (later revered as Hindu saints) who extolled devotion and love to God as the chief means of spiritual perfection.
  • The Bhakti movement in South India was spearheaded by the sixty-three Nayanars (Shaivite devotees) and the twelve Alvars (Vaishnavaite devotees), who disregarded the austerities preached by Jainism and Buddhism but instead preached personal devotion to God as a means of salvation.
  • These saints, some of whom were also women, spoke and wrote in local languages like Tamil and Telugu and travelled widely to spread their message of love and devotion to everyone, irrespective of caste, colour and creed.
  • The South  Indian bhakti saints were  critical  of  Buddhists and Jains who enjoyed a privileged status at the courts of South Indian kings at that time.  They  won  over  many  adherents  of  Buddhism  and  Jainism  both  of  which  by now had become rigid and  formal religions.

Bhakti Saints from South India

  • Shankaracharya, a great thinker, distinguished philosopher and leader of the Hindu revivalist movement of the 9th century, who gave a new orientation to Hinduism.
  • He was born in Kaladi (kerala) and propounded the Advaita (Monism) philosophy and Nirgunabrahman (God without attributes)
  • Ramanuja (1017-1137) who hailed from modern Andhra Pradesh. He was a great Vaishnava teacher.
  • He popularised the cult of devotion to a personal God and emphasized that salvation can be achieved through the bhakti marga alone.
  • He redefined the Vedanta philosophy by laying greater stress on devotional worship to a personal God who constituted the supreme reality.
  • Vallabhacharya was another prominent Vaishnava saint from the south. He advocated a system of pure non-dualism. He glorified the intense love of Radha and Krishna.
  • He advocated a universal religion that did not believe in distinctions of caste, creed, sex, or nationality. He insisted on the complete identity of both soul and world with the supreme spirit. Hiss philosophy was known as shuddhadvaita or pure nondualism.
  • Madhvacharya, a Vaishnava saint from the south wrote as many as thirty-seven works on Vaishnavism.
  • His works mostly deal with the bhakti cult based on the concept of dualism (dvaita) as distinct from the monistic philosophy of Shankaracharya
  • Basavanna or Lord Basaveshwara was an Indian 12th-century statesman, philosopher, a poet and Lingayats saint in the Shiva-focussed Bhakti movement and a social reformer in Karnataka.
  • He was a philosopher and a social reformer, who fought against social evils of his time such as caste system and the ritual practices of Hinduism.
  • His teachings were based on rational, progressive social thoughts. His teachings and philosophy transcend all boundaries and address the universal and eternal.
  • Akkamahadevi:During the 12th century CE, Akkamahadevi, also known as Akka or Mahadevi, belonging to the southern region of Karnataka, established herself as an ardent devotee of Shiva whom she addressed as Chennamallikarjuna.

Conclusion:

Bhakti cult was out-of-the-box thoughts on religion. It was mainly against the common religious views, and most importantly, it was strongly against the caste system. With such long-lasting impacts, the religious depression of the medieval society was set aside. The teachings acted as a healing balm to the suppressed classes. A deep-rooted change came about to lay the foundations of a liberal and composite Indian society.

Value addition

Salient features of the Bhakti movement:

  • The Bhakti movement in many ways broke barriers of gender, class and caste.
  • At the same time, it shattered stereotypes associated with the perception of spiritualism; denounced orthodoxy and the rigid ritualistic practices of worship, and established a more personal and informal connection between the devotee and the divine.
  • During the Bhakti movement, the lower classes rose to a position of great importance.
  • The Bhakti movement gave equal importance to men and women which gave way to the importance of women in society.
  • The Alvars and Nayanars initiated a movement of protest against the caste system and the dominance of Brahmanas or at least attempted to reform the system. This is supported by the fact that bhaktas or disciples hailed from diverse social backgrounds ranging from Brahmanas to artisans and cultivators and even from castes considered “untouchable”
  • Ramananda opposed the caste system and chose his disciples from all sections of society irrespective of caste. His disciples included Kabir, a weaver; Ravidasa, he was a cobbler; Sena, he was a barber; thus, emphasizing the equality among people of all occupations and caste.
  • Sant Kabir aided the common people to shed age-old superstitions and attain salvation through Bhakti or pure devotion. He criticized all forms of worship of idols.
  • Guru Nanak condemned caste difference and rituals like bathing in holy rivers. His idea of religion was highly practical and strictly moral.
  • Nathpanthis, Siddhars and Yogis condemned the ritual and other aspects of orthodox religion and the social order, using simple, logical arguments. These groups became particularly popular among “low” castes.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

3. A new free trade agreement (FTA) between India and the UAE can provide further fillip to the ever-growing relations in trade, diaspora and cultural contacts between the two countries. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

India has embarked on a new journey — a new free trade agreement (FTA) journey to be precise — with renewed zeal and vigour. India’s approach towards FTAs is now focusing more on gaining meaningful market access and facilitating Indian industry’s integration into global value chains.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how FTA will benefit India and UAE while bring the countries strategically closer.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context launch of the negotiations for a mutually beneficial FTA between India and UAE.

Body:

In the first part, in brief, giving an account of tries between India-U.A.E till recent times. (You can make use of a flow chart for better presentation).

Next, describe the proposed FTA– how it will benefit both India and U.A.E in terms of trade, investments, technology, infrastructure, diaspora and cultural contacts etc.

Bring out the strategic implications of signing of FTA and any potential bottlenecks in signing it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward for realisation of a mutually beneficial FTA.

Introduction

India has embarked on a new free trade agreement (FTA) journey with UAE with renewed zeal and vigour. India and UAE signed an FTA which is set to reduce tariffs for 80 per cent of goods and give zero duty access to 90 per cent of India’s exports to the UAE.

The agreement, which is expected to come into effect in about 60 days, is expected to boost annual bilateral trade to $100 billion within 5 years of its adoption, up from about $60 billion currently.

Body

India-UAE trade relations

  • The India-UAE total trade merchandise has been valued atS.$52.76 billion for the first nine months of the fiscal year 2021-22, making the UAE India’s third largest trading partner.
  • The aim is to boost bilateral merchandise trade to above U.S.$100 billion and services trade to U.S.$15 billion in five years.
  • With India’s newfound strength in exports as the country is on the verge of creating history by reaching the figure of U.S.$400 billion of merchandise export, a trade agreement with an important country such as the UAE would help sustain the growth momentum.
  • As we are witnessing a big turnaround in manufacturing, the UAE would be an attractive export market for Indian electronics, automobiles, and other engineering products.

India-UAE FTA: Benefits

  • Investment flow: A trade agreement is also an enabler for two-way investment flows. The UAE’s investment in India is estimated to be around S.$11.67 billion, which makes it the ninth biggest investor in India.
    • On the other hand, many Indian companies have set up manufacturing units either as joint ventures or in Special Economic Zones for cement, building materials, textiles, engineering products, consumer electronics, etc.
  • Huge market: Many Indian companies have also invested in the tourism, hospitality, catering, health, retail, and education sectors. As both the UAE and India are aggressively pursuing FTAs with several important countries, not only companies from these two countries but also multinational companies from other geographies too would find the UAE and India an attractive market to invest.
  • Strategic location and access: As part of the GCC, the UAE has strong economic ties with Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Oman, meaning the UAE shares a common market and a customs union with these nations. Under the Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA) Agreement, the UAE has free trade access to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia, Palestine, Syria, Libya, and Yemen.
  • Diversifying the economy: Although the UAE has diversified its economy, ‘the hydrocarbon sector remains very important followed by services and manufacturing.

Limitations

  • The UAE tariff structure is bound with the GCC, and the applied average tariff rate is 5%. Therefore, the scope of addressing Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) becomes very important.
  • The reflection of NTBs can be seen through Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) which have mostly been covered by Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). The UAE has 451 SPS notifications.
  • Most of the notifications are related to consumer information, labelling, licensing or permit requirements and import monitoring and surveillance requirements.
  • These compliances pose a challenge for Indian exporters.

Conclusion

This FTA with the UAE will pave the way for India to enter the UAE’s strategic location, and have relatively easy access to the Africa market and its various trade partners which can help India to become a part of that supply chain, especially in handlooms, handicrafts, textiles and pharma.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4. The national hydrogen policy is a step in the right direction to harness the potential of green hydrogen but removing production bottlenecks and incentivising production can be game-changer for the energy security of India. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Hindustan TimesFinancial Express

Why the question:

Releasing the first part of India’s National Green Hydrogen Policy, the government on Thursday announced some incentives for potential manufacturers, generation companies (gencos) and distribution licensees (discoms) to boost large scale indigenous production of green hydrogen.

Key Demand of the question:

To write importance of green hydrogen on India’s energy security.

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by aims and objectives of national hydrogen policy.

Body:

First, mention the properties of Hydrogen that makes it a favourable alternative to present day fossil fuels.

Next, write about the various bottlenecks to overcome in terms of technology, storage, transportation, new materials research, safety standards etc.

Next, mention the incentives that can be provided – PLI, keeping GST zero on green hydrogen etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Green hydrogen — also referred to as ‘clean hydrogen’ — is produced by using electricity from renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind power, to split water into two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom through a process called electrolysis. The Union Government recently notified the green hydrogen and green ammonia policy aimed at boosting the domestic production of green hydrogen to 5 million tonnes by 2030 and making India an export hub for the clean fuel.

Body

Significance of Green Hydrogen: 

  • Green hydrogen energy is vital for India to meet its Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)Targets and ensure regional and national energy security, access and availability.
  • Green Hydrogen can act as an energy storage option, which would be essential to meet intermittencies (of renewable energy) in the future.
  • In terms of mobility, for long distance mobilisations for either urban freight movement within cities and states or for passengers, Green Hydrogen can be used in railways, large ships, buses or trucks, etc.
  • India’s total hydrogen demand is expected to touch 11.7 million tonnes by 2029-30.
  • In 2021, the government announced the National Hydrogen Mission in order to promote the generation and adoption of cleaner energies, including green hydrogen.

The national hydrogen policy: a step in the right direction

  • The Centre’s new policy offers 25 years of free power transmission for any new renewable energy plants set up to supply power for green hydrogen production before July 2025.
  • This means that a green hydrogen producer will be able to set up a solar power plant in Rajasthan to supply renewable energy to a green hydrogen plant in Assam and would not be required to pay any inter-state transmission charges.
  • The move is likely going to make it more economical for key users of hydrogen and ammonia such as the oil refining, fertilizer and steel sectors to produce green hydrogen for their own use.
  • These sectors currently use grey hydrogen or grey ammonia produced using natural gas or naphtha.
  • The government is set to provide a single portal for all clearances required for setting up green hydrogen production as well as a facility for producers to bank any surplus renewable energy generated with discoms for upto 30 days and use it as required.
  • Under the policy port authorities will also provide land at applicable charges to green hydrogen and green ammonia producers to set up bunkers near ports for storage prior to export.
  • The policy will aid in India’s energy transition and achieving the target of becoming carbon neutral by 2070.

Limitations

  • One of the biggest challenges faced by the industry for using hydrogen commercially is the economic sustainability of extracting green or blue hydrogen.
  • The technology used in production and use of hydrogen like Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)and hydrogen fuel cell technology are at nascent stage and are expensive which in turn increases the cost of production of hydrogen.
  • Maintenance costs for fuel cells post-completion of a plant can be costly.
  • The commercial usage of hydrogen as a fuel and in industries requires mammoth investment in R&D of such technology and infrastructure for production, storage, transportation and demand creation for hydrogen.

Way forward

  • As India is scaling up to the target of having 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030, aligning hydrogen production needs with broader electricity demand in the economy would be critical.
  • The industrial sectors like steel, refining, fertilizer & methanol sectors are attractive for Green Hydrogen adoption as Hydrogen is already being generated & consumed either as a chemical feedstock or a process input.
  • The public funding will have to lead the way in the development of green hydrogen, but the private sector has significant gains too to be made by securing its energy future.
  • India requires a manufacturing strategy that can leverage the existing strengths and mitigate threats by integrating with the global value chain.
  • The green hydrogen has been anointed the flag-bearer of India’s low-carbon transition as Hydrogen may be lighter than air, but it will take some heavy lifting to get the ecosystem in place.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Improper disposal of antibiotics by pharma companies is a serious matter of concern as it could lead to antibiotic resistance due to source pollution. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

Every third of the antibiotic manufacturing industries examined by the Himachal Pradesh Pollution Control Board have been found to be in violation of the discharge limits prescribed for Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP), according to a new report.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how improper disposal of antibiotics can lead to resistance.

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining anti-biotic resistance.

Body:

First, write about how improper disposal leading to source pollution can lead to serious health hazards such as antibiotic resistance. Mention its impact on human health.

Next, suggest steps to check source pollution of antibiotics – proper disposal mechanisms, accountability of pharma companies, monitoring and creating awareness etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the ability of a microorganism (like bacteria, viruses, and some parasites) to stop an antimicrobial (such as antibiotics, antivirals and antimalarials) from working against it. As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist and may spread to others.

Antibiotic resistance is specifically related to bacteria resisting an antibiotic against it while treating a bacterial infection.

Body

 

Reasons for growing antibiotic resistance

  • Effluent from pharma companies: Direct emissions from the pharma industry are a hotspot of antibiotic residues since they are discharged in larger concentrations than other indirect sources.
  • Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process. Poor infection prevention and control further accelerate it.
  • While in humans’ antibiotics are primarily used for treating patients, they are used as growth promoters in animals, often because they offer economic shortcuts that can replace hygienic practices.
  • In their quest for survival and propagation, common bugs develop a variety of mechanisms to develop antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
  • The indiscriminate use of antibiotics is the greatest driver in selection and propagation of resistant bugs. It has the potential to make fatal even minor infections.
  • Wrong diagnosis: Doctors sometimes prescribe antimicrobials “just in case,” or they prescribe broad-spectrum antimicrobials when a specific drug would be more suitable. Using these medications in this way increases the risk of AMR.
  • Inappropriate use: If a person does not complete a course of antimicrobial drugs, some microbes may survive and develop resistance to the drug. Also, antibiotics recommended by quacks or pharmacist contribute to magnify the issue.

 

Impact of Antibiotic resistance

  • Antibiotics have saved millions of lives till date. Unfortunately, they are now becoming ineffective as many infectious diseases have ceased to respond to antibiotics.
  • Antibiotic Resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria develop the ability to defeat drugs which have been specifically designed to kill them.
  • Infections caused by such resistant germs are very difficult and often impossible to treat and it can affect humans at all stages of life.
  • AMR is occurring across the globe and is severely affecting the treatment of infectious diseases.
  • Even though antimicrobial resistance is a natural process, the misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process.
  • A large number of infections such as tuberculosis, pneumonia and gonorrhoea are becoming very difficult to treat since the antibiotics used for their treatment are becoming less effective.
  • Globally, use of antibiotics in animals is expected to increase by 67% by 2030 from 2010 levels. The resistance to antibiotics in germs is a man-made disaster.
  • Irresponsible use of antibiotics is rampant in human health, animal health, fisheries, and agriculture.
  • Complex surgeries such as organ transplantation and cardiac bypass might become difficult to undertake because of untreatable infectious complications that may result post-surgery.

 

Conclusion

Antimicrobial resistance is a global crisis that threatens a century of progress in health and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Unless the world acts urgently, antimicrobial resistance will have disastrous impact within a generation.

 

Value Addition

Global and local efforts and measures

  • The World Health Organization is also coordinating a global campaign “Handle with care” to raise awareness and encourage best practices for antibiotic use.
  • In India, the government has launched a National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (NAP-AMR) as well.
  • India’s NAP- National Action Plan to combat Antimicrobial Resistance goes hand in hand with the World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan (GAP) for AMR.
  • The Union health ministry’s Anti-Microbial Resistance awareness campaign urges people not to use medicines marked with a red vertical line, including antibiotics, without a doctor’s prescription.
  • In 2012, India’s medical societies adopted the Chennai Declaration, a set of national recommendations to promote antibiotic stewardship.
  • The government has also capped the maximum levels of drugs that can be used for growth promotion in meat and meat products.
  • On July 19, 2019, the Central Government banned the manufacture, sale and distribution of Colistin and its formulations for food producing animals, poultry, aqua farming and animal feed supplements with immediate effect to prevent AMR.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics;

6. Morality is not properly the doctrine of how we may make ourselves happy, but how we may make ourselves worthy of happiness. Explain. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write that the end goal morality is not happiness but making ourself worthy of happiness.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about link between Morality and its happiness as its end goal.

Body:

Write about when two things that are not compatible are what an individual should do and what the individual wants to do. When an individual does what they want to do they end up in a road that will lead them into immediate happiness but will not benefit them in the long run. On the other hand when the individual is doing what they should do it will bring them a feeling of discomfort and unhappiness but will benefit them at the end.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

This quote by Immanuel Kant explains the true meaning of morality. Morality is about becoming worthy of happiness not just by trying to satisfy one’s desire to be happy. Although it is our ultimate goal to be happy, morality must not be directly associated as a means to an end. For, morality is something that will help us understand what it means to become worthy of the happiness we will achieve.

Body

Kant explicitly rejects the doctrine of happiness, which states that one should act virtuously in order to be happy. Morality is not based on happiness. However, happiness is not completely left out of the picture. One’s own happiness is a weak sort of duty which is an easy one to obey since all men desire happiness.

Kant says that morality is not about becoming happy but rather about becoming worthy of happiness by heeding the call of duty. And those who do so can expect with some level of certainty that they will in fact attain happiness.

Making oneself happy can be done through materialistic means or non-materialistic means. But to be happy a person needs to be worthy i.e., standing up for morals, being respected in one’s own eyes etc. When an individual does what they want to do they end up in a road that will lead them into immediate happiness but will not benefit them in the long run. On the other hand, when the individual is doing what they should do it will bring them a feeling of discomfort and unhappiness but will benefit them at the end.

Conclusion

The purpose of Kantianism is to tell that morality is not to make people happy but the whole purpose is to do the right thing just for the sake of doing it. Kant writes that a human being’s observance of his duty is the universal and sole condition of his worthiness to be happy and his worthiness to be happy is identical to his observance of duty. Moral living is worthiness to be happy.

 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. Impartiality means acting solely according to the merits of the case and serving equally well governments of different political persuasions. Elaborate. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of impartiality in developing public in civil servants.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining impartiality.

Body:

Explain the importance of Impartiality as an attribute for a civil servant; in upholding the constitutional values, in practicing good work culture, in handling tough and challenging situations, in tackling corruption etc. Develop link how this will lead to building of trust.

Conclusion:

Conclude with others values that are needed along with impartiality.

Introduction

“Impartiality is the life of justice, as justice is the life of all good governments”

Impartiality is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons. For a public servant, it means that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice or personal interest.

Body:

Types of Impartiality:

  • Public Impartiality: A public servant as an instrument of government serving the public without discriminating on the basis of caste, religion and gender.
  • Political Impartiality: Principle of working without reservation and with devotion to the success of every government and its policies. It basically means you are not partial to any particular party or government.

Importance of Impartiality as an attribute for a civil servant:

  • Upholding constitutional values: impartiality helps a civil servant to uphold constitutionalism and prevent authoritarian government. It helps in upholding rule of law and makes the civil servant accountable to law and law alone. Also, it is in accordance with the constitutional provisions including Article 14, 15 and so on.
    • g. Providing for citizens’ welfare measures without any favour and being equitable.
  • Fulfilling all interests equally: As it is observed “Impartiality doesn’t mean neutrality. It also means partiality towards the poor”. Impartiality brings in objectivity and often when funds are to be allocated, an impartial civil servant would not favour his/her own village or city but allocate funds based on the needs.
  • It keeps up the morale of the civil servant and with the sense of righteousness, the works get done efficiently. A positive environment is created in the office and a conducive work culture is created.
    • g.: a civil servant cannot be partial towards one set of employees. Whether in performance assessment or granting leaves, the criteria should be objective without partiality.
  • Majoritarianism prevention: especially in a diverse country like India, minority voices can be suppressed if the civil servant becomes partial towards majority for vested interests.
    • g. Though in a state majority spoken language is promoted, civil servants have to make provisions for linguistic minorities to safeguard their language.
  • Handling emergency situations: like communal riots, ethnic conflicts etc., an impartial civil servant would have a better credibility and persuasive capability in negotiations.
    • g. N Ravi, an interlocutor is effective in north east insurgency negotiations because of his impeccable record of impartiality.
  • Controlling corruption: It will keep oneself free from nepotism, political-corporate nexus and corruption.
    • The examples are Sagayam IAS of Tamilnadu cadre or Ashok Khemka of Haryana etc.,
  • Build public confidence and trust for the government: impartial behaviour insurance no undue discrimination towards any section of the community. This results in improve confidence towards policymaker and implementer. It make sure that justice will always be served no matter who is the perpetrator. Example- in IMX media case even former finance minister is being tried under Court of law.
  • Deepening of democracy: with improve confidence in government machinery the public feels more enthusiastic to take part indecision making.

Conclusion

Present-day civil servants need to perform multiple functions of giving suggestions to political representatives, addressing public grievances, institutionalization of the socio-economic changes, delivering goods and services. Hence a value committed and impartial bureaucracy is need of the hour.


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