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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 15 February 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. The Indo-Islamic architecture under the sultans of Delhi includes both religious and secular structures. Also, elaborate upon the new structural changes introduced by the Sultanate rulers.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the nature of architecture under Sultans of Delhi and new introduction by them.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the with arrival of Turks, new form of architecture got introduced in India.

Body:

First, mention the major religious and secular structures constructed under the various dynasties of the Sultanate with a special reference to Tughlaq dynasty.

Next, write about significant and new changes in construction technologies introduced by the Sultans. Give examples of few monuments.

Conclusion:

Conclude by the mentioning a new chapter was added to heritage history of India.

Introduction

The Muslim invasions into India had ultimately resulted in the establishment of Delhi Sultanate which existed from A.D. 1206 to 1526. Five different dynasties – the Slave, Khalji, Tughlaq, Sayyids and Lodis – ruled under the Delhi Sultanate. New architectural forms and styles were introduced in India during the medieval period. The synthesis of Indian and Islamic architectural features led to emergence of Indo-Saracenic or Indo-Islamic architecture.

Body

The Indo-Islamic architecture under the sultans of Delhi includes both religious and secular structures

  • Both secular and religious buildings are influenced by Indo-Islamic architecture which exhibit Indian, Islamic, Persian, Central Asian, Arabic and Ottoman Turkish influences.

Religious buildings

  • Earliest example of building activity by a Sultan of Delhi was the Quwat-ul-Islam mosques built by Qutub-ud-din Aibak.
  • Another architectural specimen of this period was the mosques-Arhai Din ka Jhonpra, built at Ajmer.
  • Other notable imperial monuments constructed by Iltutmish were Hauz-i-Shamshi, Shamsi-idgah, the Jami Masjid at Badaun and the Atarkin ka Darwaza at Nagpur.
  • Alauddin Khilji built Jamait Khan Mosque at the shrine of Nizam -ud-din Auliya and the Alai Darwaza at the Qutub Minar.
  • The Tombs of Mubarak Shah and Muhammad Shah of the Sayyid Dynasty and the Tomb of Sikandar Lodhi of the Lodhi Dynasty were noteworthy architectural specimens of the Sayyid and Lodhi rule.

Secular Buildings

  • The most magnificent piece of architecture of this era was the Qutub Minar. Qutub-ud-din Aibak started the construction of the Qutub Minar at Delhi but could not complete it during his life time. It was completed by Iltutmish.
  • Alauddin Khilji founded the city of Siri and built a palace of thousand pillar within it,
  • Alauddin Khilji also constructed a magnificent tank known  as the Hauz-i-Khas near the city of Siri.
  • The city of Tughlaqabaad constructed by GhiyasuddinTughlaq was a notable construction of the Tughlaq rule.
  • Mohammad bin Tughlaq constructed the new city of Jahanpanah near the City of old Delhi, the fort of Adilabaad and some other buildings in Daulatabaad.
  • The city of Firozabaad, Firoz shah Kotla fort- palace were important imperial constructions of the time of Firoz Shah Tughlaq

The new structural changes introduced by the Sultanate rulers

  • The Turks introduced arche and dome method, slab and beam method, lofty towers or minarets and decorations using the Arabic script. They used the skill of the Indian stone cutters.
  • The use of lime-mortarin the construction of buildings and houses altered the building techniques
  • They also added colour to their buildings by using marbles, red and yellow sand stones.
  • Synthesis of indigenous motifsuch as ball motif, lotus etc.
  • In the beginning, they converted temples and other structures demolished into mosques. For example, the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque near Qutub Minar in Delhi was built by using the materials obtained from destroying many Hindu and Jain temples.
  • Later, they began to construct new structures. The most magnificent building of the 13th century was the Qutub Minar which was founded by Aibek and completed by Iltutmish.
  • With the arrival of artisans from West Asia the arch and dome began to show up with precision and perfection. Gradually local artisans also acquired the skill. The tomb of Balban was adorned with the first true archand the Alai Darwaza built by Alaud-din Khalji as a gateway to the Quwwatul-Islam Mosque is adorned with the first true dome.
  • Tughlaqs went for introduction of innovative features in architecture also, such as
    • “batter” or sloping walls
    • use of stone rubble as the principle building material
    • a new type of arch called the four centred arch
    • the emergence of the pointed dome
    • the introduction of an octagonal plan of tomb building.

Conclusion

Later on, with the Mughals, the art of pietra dura, jali work became more prominent. They also built lofty forts, palaces and cities. The Mughals were also fond of laying gardens with running water, which is an extension of gardens introduced by Delhi Sultanate. Delhi Sultanate paved way for large scale construction of buildings in Indo-Islamic architecture.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Mauryan art was an imperial art. It flowered under the patronage of Ashoka. It was also influenced by Achaemenid art. Discuss.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the nature of Mauryan art and the Achaemenian influence on it.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief about the flourishing art of Mauryan age.

Body:

First, mention the various aspects of Mauryan art – Stupas, Inscriptions, Pillars etc and how it reached zenith during Ashoka’s time and how it was predominantly court art.

Next, write about the Achaemenian influence on Mauryan art. Bring out the similarities as well as fundamental differences.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning the overall nature of Mauryan art

Introduction

Mauryan art was created between the 4th and 2nd Century BC. The period marked a significant shift in Indian art from the use of wood to stone. The imperial Mauryan art had patronage of Mauryan rulers, particularly Ashoka. The most notable survivors include pillars, stupas, and caverns.  The influence of Buddhism and Jainism is evident in the Mauryan art and architecture. On the other hand, the individual initiatives also contributed to the development of art and architecture in this period.

Body

Mauryan Art

  • Palaces:
    • Some of the magnificent structures of Mauryan times are the palaces.
    • The three-storied palace of Ashoka at Kumhrar is another magnificent example.
    • Mauryans used wood as principle building material due to which the remains of these building are in deteriorating condition.
    • Greek historian,Megasthenes, described the palaces of the Mauryan empire as one of the greatest creations of mankind and Chinese traveler Fa Hien called Mauryan palaces as god gifted monuments.
  • Pillars:
    • Mauryans introduced stone masonry to a large scale, the engineering in the erection of monolithic stone pillars is remarkable.
    • Only the capitals in form of beautiful sculptures were joined atop of a pillar.
    • These pillars are erected throughout the country.
    • The Sarnath Lion Capitol pillar is a remarkable masterpiece among them.
  • Stupas:
    • The art of making stupa reached a high during the time of Ashoka.
    • These structures, which were used to keep holy relics of Buddha, display remarkable sculptures and architectural designs.
    • For e.g. the Sanchi Stupa which is a world heritage site.

Influence of Achaemenid art:

  • The palace of Chandragupta Maurya was inspired by the Achaemenid palacesat Persepolis in Iran.
  • Both Mauryan and Achaemenian pillars, used polished stones and have certain common sculpture motifs such as the lotus.
  • The idea of inscribing proclamations, related to Buddhist Dhamma and court orders on pillars of Mauryan art has its origin in Persian pillars.

However, there were some indigenous features too in Mauryan art

  • The Achaemenid pillars were generally part of some larger architectural scheme, and bit complex and complicated, while the Ashokan pillars were simple and independent freestanding monuments.
  • Unlike Mauryan shafts which are built of monolith, Persian/Achaemenian shafts were built of separate segments of stones

Conclusion

The art and architecture of Mauryan period was progressive, liberal and secular in nature. The value of stupa at sanchi and lion capital at sarnath depict the greatness and stand as testimony to this golden period of Indian history.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Role of civil services in a democracy.

3. Analyse the causes behind the shortfall of IAS officers for deputation at central level and suggest measures for a harmonious process of deputation to the centre from the states. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The amendments proposed to Rule 6(1) of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) (Cadre) Rules of 1954, which seek to empower the Central government to unilaterally order the Central deputation of IAS officers without the consent of the State governments or the officers concerned, have provoked controversy.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about reasons for less officers for deputation and measures needed to resolve this.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context regarding the amendment to cadre rules.

Body:

In the first part, write about the causes for shortfall of IAS officers and central level – less recruitment, cadre review policy, delays in promotions, non-optimal utilisation, restriction service conditions etc.

Next, suggest measures to have a proper and seamless mechanism with respect to central deputation.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

India is a quasi-federation, with its executive organised between the Centre and the states. Both the Centre and the states exercise full control over their services independently of each other. However, to preserve unity between them, Sardar Patel envisioned the creation of the All-India Services. Unlike a central service or state service, an All-India Service is compositely administered under Article 312.

While recruitment and allotment to a cadre (state) are determined by the Centre, the states determine the work and posting. Hence, All-India Services are carefully balanced between the Centre and the states.

Body

Background

  • A unique feature of All India Services, ie Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and Indian Forest Service, created under the AIS Act, 1951, is that themembers of these service are recruited by the Central Government and are placed under various State Cadres.
  • It is incumbent upon the members of service to serve both under the State and the Centre.
  • To ensure service of IAS officers at the Centre, suitable provisions have been made under theIAS (Cadre) Rules, 1954.
  • The Indian Administrative Service regulations provide for Central Deputation Reserve (CDR) not exceeding 40 per cent of the Sanctioned Duty Posts (SDP) of a cadre/joint cadre.
  • The Central Deputation quota fixes the share of the Government of India out of the State cadre.

Causes behind the shortfall of IAS officers for deputation at central level

  • Drastic reduction in annual recruitment
    • The first cause of the shortage was the drastic reduction in the annual recruitment of IAS officers after 1991 (from 140-160 to just 50-80) under the misguided notion that the government will have a reduced role due to economic liberalisation.
    • As of January 1, 2021, the shortage of IAS officers at the all-India level was 23%.
  • Lackadaisical “cadre review”
    • This is an exercise conducted jointly by the Centre and the States to designate certain strategic posts in the States as “cadre posts” and earmark them exclusively for IAS officers.
    • For instance, in Tamil Nadu, it is unconscionable that posts like Commissioner of Disciplinary Proceedings, Commissioner of Archaeology, and Commissioner of Museums have been designated as cadre posts.
  • ill-advised discontinuance of direct recruitment of officers
    • ill-advised discontinuance of direct recruitment of officers to the Central Secretariat Service Group B since 2000, and undue delays in the regular promotions of officers from the ranks in the Central Secretariat due to protracted litigation since 2011.
  • Incomplete utilization of officers
    • Complete non-utilisation by the Centre of the services of officers who are appointed to the IAS by promotion or selection from the State Civil Services.
    • This large pool of around 2,250 officers, usually in the age bracket of 35-55 years, who have immense field experience, remains State-bound.
  • Numerous administrative barriers to Central deputation
    • Numerous administrative barriers to Central deputation imposed by the Centre itself in the form of highly restrictive conditions, perverse incentives, annual lapsing of offer lists, long debarment periods, compulsory cooling-off periods, etc.

Way forward and Conclusion

  • The number of IAS officers recruited annually should be increased to around 200 for a few years as a short-term measure.
  • A proper cadre review in all the States will release many IAS officers from non-strategic posts and reduce the shortage.
  • It should be made mandatory for promote IAS officers to work for at least two years on Central deputation as Deputy Secretaries/Directors immediately after their appointment to the IAS and their training in Mussoorie.
  • Their next promotion in their State cadre should be subject to their completing this mandatory period of Central deputation.
  • This can solve the problem of shortage of Deputy Secretary/Director-level officers at the Centre in one stroke.
  • The Inter-State Council constituted under Article 263 of the Constitution is the institution meant specifically for handling such Centre-State situations by having persuasive dialogues and discussions between PM and CMs, Cabinet secretary and Chief secretaries etc for CDR.
  • It should be made mandatory for directly recruited IAS officers to serve at least three years on Central deputation between nine and 25 years of service.
  • Their promotion to Principal Secretary grade in their State cadre (usually after 25 years) should be subject to their completing this mandatory period of Central deputation.
  • This wider window will enable IAS officers to opt for Central deputation at their convenience and the Centre will also be assured of a steady, adequate supply of deputationists.
  • The Centre should directly choose its Joint Secretaries, Additional Secretaries and Secretaries from among IAS officers “on offer” who are officiating in equivalent grades in State governments through a process of selection — in much the same manner as it chooses Deputy Secretaries/Directors.

 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

4. India’s carefully calibrated policy towards Indo-pacific is centred on two pillars of strengthening engagement and stronger partnerships with likeminded countries. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

An imminent early harvest trade deal with Australia and the sale of the Brahmos supersonic cruise missile systems to the Philippines lend a sharper edge to India’s engagement with the Indo-Pacific.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the twin pillars of India’s Indo-pacific strategy.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context about India’s progress in Indo-Pacific.

Body:

First, write in detail about the strengthening engagement in Indo-Pacific strategy of India – various initiatives taken for it – SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region), connectivity, enhancing maritime security, counterterrorism, non-proliferation and cyber issues

Next, write about stronger partnerships with likeminded countries – Australia, U.S, Japan and other etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by opining that India needs to engage stakeholders to have a free and open, connected, prosperous, secure, and resilient Indo-Pacific.

Introduction

Tide of international politics has shifted to Asia in general, and the Indo-Pacific in particular, with the economic rise of countries like India, China, Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia among others. The Indo-Pacific is a geopolitical construct which represents an integrated theatre that combines the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, and the land masses that surround them.

Body

About Indo- Pacific

  • It has gained relevance in the recent times due reasons such as presence of important sea lines of communication, maritime security concerns, rise of Asian Economy and China’s aggressive military and foreign policy.
  • Several regional and extra regional countries like India, Japan, USA, Australia, France etc have released policies focused on the Indo-Pacific acknowledging the strategic shift towards the region and to strengthen relations and to expand cooperation with Indo-Pacific countries

India’s calibrated policy towards Indo-Pacific

  • Peace and security in the Indian Ocean: Nearly 50% of India’s trade is centred in the Indo-Pacific Region and the Indian Ocean carries 90% of India’s trade and its energy sources.
    • India wants to assure freedom of navigation, secure choke points, resolve conflicts peacefully and address non-traditional security threats in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
  • SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region): A holistic policy that aims to pursue and promote India’s geo-political, strategic and economic interests on the seas, particularly in the Indian Ocean.
  • Geo-political aspirations: To expand its own presence in the region, especially in Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia and maintain its role as a net security provider.
    • It is also teaming up with like-minded nations to contain China’s domination.
    • QUAD was formed with USA, Japan, Australia to ensure that China’s
  • Countering China: Ensuring that China does not gain a significant strategic foothold in the region.
  • Enhancing Trade and Investment Cooperation: by encouraging greater flow of goods, services, investment and technology between India and other countries in the region.
  • Promoting sustainable development: In the coming times, climate change is set to adversely affect India. Thus, India favours sustainable development of the region through development of blue economy.

Steps taken by India towards Indo-Pacific

  • Strengthening and preserving traditional roles in IOR o Security Provider: India has been the primary security provider for and strategic partner to most of its smaller neighbours like Maldives, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Sri Lanka.
  • First Responder: India’s navy is among the first to reach nations requiring humanitarian assistance or medical aid in times of crisis and disasters. E.g., Operation Vanilla at Madagascar.
  • Foreign Policy and Initiatives: Establishment of Indo-Pacific Division in 2019, involving in regional groupings like BIMSTEC, Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), Mekong Ganga Cooperation and Forum for India-Pacific Islands cooperation for collaboration on multitude of subjects, and partnerships with countries through platforms like QUAD, ASEAN etc.
    • Initiatives like Indo Pacific Oceans’ Initiative, Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (increase maritime cooperation), Asia Africa Growth Corridor (for development and cooperation projects; quality infrastructure and institutional capacity) were taken up.

Challenges India face in the region

  • Limited Naval Capacity and Lack of military bases: With a meagre allocation of 15 percent of India’s military budget.
  • Slow pace of developments:g. since the release of the AAGC, there has been very little movement on this initiative. Challenges to trade due to tariff and non-tariff measures, poor infrastructure etc.
  • Balancing Continental and Maritime Strategies: Overemphasizing the Indo-Pacific runs the risk of antagonizing China. While the US and Australia are physically distant from China; India has to secure its continental margins with China and suitably allocate resources for the same.
  • Barriers to fruitful partnerships in the region: This includes lack of definitional consensus and differences in priorities with each nation having different political appetite and available resources for the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Way forward

  • Enhancing engagements with non-traditional players: India should now look to other non-traditional players with great potential such as Micronesia to address shared interests in the region. E.g. Pacific island nations.
  • Strategic use of Island Territories: India in collaboration with its Indo-Pacific partners, must utilize the potential of island territories to extend its reach etc.
  • Innovative mechanisms such as QUAD+: g. Recent Quad Plus talks with South Korea, Vietnam and New Zealand, convened to address challenges brought about by the COVID-19 crisis in the Indo-Pacific region, are a step in the right direction

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5. Post de-regulation, the geospatial sector in the country is rightly positioned for investment. However, it needs the creation of an enabling ecosystem for its maximum potential to be utilised. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The date, February 15, 2021 will be regarded as a watershed moment when new guidelines took effect to completely de-regulate the geospatial sector for Indians. As we celebrate the first anniversary of this moment, it is time to look back and assess its impact and identify the bottlenecks so that the full potential of the geospatial sector can be realised.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the need to create an enabling ecosystem for geo-spatial sector in the country.

Directive:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief overview of geospatial sector of India.

Body:

In the first part, write the de-regulation of geospatial sector of India last year and its objectives to do so.

Next, write about the limitations and hurdles faced in harnessing maximum potential of geo-spatial sector in India – ISRO dominated, not percolated to the public; neither is there much contribution to the nation’s GDP etc.

Next, suggest steps to overcome the above and achieve its potential.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Geospatial technologies is a term used to describe the range of modern tools contributing to the geographic mapping and analysis of the Earth and human societies.

India has a robust ecosystem in geospatial, with the Survey of India (SoI), the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), remote sensing application centres (RSAC)s, and the National Informatics Centre (NIC) in particular, and all ministries and departments, in general, using geospatial technology. However, the full benefits have yet to percolate to the public; neither is there much contribution to the nation’s GDP.

Body

Background

  • Till recently, the government had a near-monopoly regarding the collection, storage, use, sale, dissemination of geo-spatial data and mapping. This was because of concerns over internal as well as external security threats.
  • Only government-run agencies such as the Survey of India, Defence and Home Ministries were allowed to use geospatial data.
  • Whereas, the private companies needed approval from different departments of the government as well as the defence and Home Ministries. Then only, they were able to collect, create or disseminate geospatial data.
  • The lack of private participation led to the underdevelopment of the Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping.
  • The Kargil war highlighted the dependence on foreign data and the need for indigenous sources of data. Only, after the Kargil war, the government heavily invested in Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping.

De-regulation of geospatial sector

  • This system of acquiring licenses or permission has delayed projects for both private companies and government agencies.
  • The deregulation eliminates the requirement of permissions as well as scrutiny, even for security concerns.
  • Indian companies now can self-attest, conforming to government guidelines without actually having to be monitored by a government agency.
  • There is also a huge lack of data in the country which impedes planning for infrastructure, development and businesses which are data-based.
  • The mapping of the entire country, that too with high accuracy, by the Indian government alone could take decades. Therefore, opening up the sector and incentivising the private sector will speed up the process of mapping.
  • Large amounts of geo-spatial data are also available on global platforms, which makes the regulation of data that is freely available in other countries, untenable.

Limitations and hurdles in using geo-spatial data

  • Market size: Among the most prominent hurdles is the absence of a sizable geospatial market in India.
    • There is no demand for geospatial services and products on a scale linked to India’s potential and size.
  • Demand: This lack of demand is mainly a consequence of the lack of awareness among potential users in government and private sectors.
  • Skilled manpower: The other hurdle has been the lack of skilled manpower across the entire pyramid.
  • Data quality and sharing: The unavailability of foundation data, especially at high-resolution, is also a constraint.
    • The lack of clarity on data sharing and collaboration prevents co-creation and asset maximisation.
    • Additionally, there are still no ready-to-use solutions especially built to solve the problems of India.
  • No professional training: Though India has many who are trained in geospatial this is mostly either through a master’s level programme or on-job training.
    • Unlike the West, India lacks a strata of core professionals who understand geospatial end-to-end.

Conclusion

The geospatial sector in the country is rightly positioned for investment. However, clarity on the issues discussed and the creation of an enabling ecosystem are essential. By the time India celebrates the 10th anniversary of the liberalisation of this sector, it should have achieved the projected market volume and have Indian entrepreneurs stand out internationally.

 

Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention.

6. With the imminent rollout of 5G services by the end of 2022, there are security implications that need be considered and addressed especially with respect to involvement of China. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough.

Reference: Financial Express

Why the question:

The Trials for 5G services that were scheduled to include the Chinese companies including Huawei and ZTE, were delayed on the back of modalities such as pricing and tenure. Post the ‘Doklam’ incident followed by tension along the Chinese border, there has been no further statement or clarification regarding 5G by GoI till this announcement.

Key Demand of the question:

To write the various concerns associated with 5g tech and the Chinese angle to it.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context 5G network rollout in India.

Body:

First, in brief, mention the various potential benefits of 5G technology such as faster access to critical services, building smart cities, developing competitiveness with other nations in service delivery standards etc.

Next, discuss the issues with respect to 5G – privacy, data security, encryption, manipulation and misuse etc.

Next, mention the issue with presence of major Chinese vendors – India’s recent ban on Chinese app, Huawei issue with western countries and how it could impact the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to address these issues while ensuring quick and holistic development of 5G in India.

Introduction

Government named 13 cities that are likely to see the launch of 5G services in the country, next year. The Trials for 5G services that were scheduled to include the Chinese companies including Huawei and ZTE, were delayed on the back of modalities such as pricing and tenure. Post the ‘Doklam’ incident followed by tension along the Chinese border, there has been no further statement or clarification regarding 5G by GoI till this announcement.

Body

Current Affairs

Potential benefits of 5G

  • 5G is the next generation of mobile broadband that will eventually replace, or at least augment 4G LTE connection.
    • Department of Telecommunication (DoT) in 2017 setup a 5G steering committee headed by AJ Paulraj.
  • The committee submitted the report and suggest important steps. In 2018, India planned to start 5G services but it has not yet materialized.
  • Operate in the millimeter wave spectrum (30-300 GHz) which have the advantage of sending large amounts of data at very high speeds.
  • Operate in 3 bands, namely low, mid and high frequency spectrum.
  • Reduced latency will support new applications that leverage the power of 5G, the Internet of Things (IoT), and artificial intelligence.
  • Increased capacity on 5G networks can minimize the impact of load spikes, like those that take place during sporting events and news events.

Issues with roll out of 5G

  • Security issues: China is preparing to dominate the world by rolling out its 5G technology warfare across countries. By deploying the 5G in India without indigenisation of technology will make India vulnerable to China. This will make the data of individuals, groups or even security agencies at risk.
  • Risks: Risks associated with increased data transfers and the proliferation of poorly secured IoT devices that will appear alongside 5G.
    • If the implementation and use of 5G lead to a greater number of connections and a larger amount of data being transferred, it follows that the attack surface area will increase alongside it.
    • Greater use simply brings more opportunities for hackers to find a way in.
  • Privacy: 5G proponents tout the wonder of having all household appliances and systems connected to the internet wirelessly in order to give people remote access via cellphone or computer.
    • What is not considered is the power to eavesdrop on users without their knowledge when there is proliferation of electronic devices connected to internet and collecting data.
  • Huge investment needed: The introduction of 5G will involve a heavy upfront investment and have a long payback period. Thus, the viability of 5G after the introduction is a major challenge.

Conclusion

The shift from 4G to 5G is not incremental, but transformational. Skipping of 5G is not a choice India can afford. The economic impact of 5G in India is expected to be over $1 trillion by 2035 according to the report of KPMG. The Sooner the deployment of 5G in India is the better for India. India has to work on Indigenous 5G technology. This will also help bring down the cost of 5G technology and benefit the end users especially addressing the security and privacy risks.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

7. What role does Emotional intelligence play in conflict resolution at a public organization? (150 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by defining emotional intelligence.

Body:

Next, mention the various components of emotional intelligence that help in reducing conflicts at the work place. Link it with proper examples real or hypothetical ones to substantiate your points.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on training public servants to use emotional intelligence for conflict resolution.

Introduction

Conflict resolution can be defined as the informal or formal process that two or more parties use to find a peaceful solution to their dispute. Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. EI helps in understanding the emotions, evaluating it and managing it which paves the way for conflict resolution.

Body:

Components of Emotional intelligence:

  • Self-awareness: being aware of your reactions and tendencies
  • Self-management: staying on top of, and managing your reactions
  • Social awareness: being able to perceive what others are feeling and thinking and picking up on the emotions of others
  • Relationship management: using your awareness of your emotions and those of others to manage interactions; this includes communicating clearly and handling conflict.
  • Stress tolerance: To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress. Employees with high EQs are more likely to listen, reflect, and respond to constructive criticism
  • Impulse control: Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options. People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation. Emotionally intelligent employees are more likely to keep their cool under pressure
  • Optimism: Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.
  • Negotiation: For being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off to all the stakeholders involved.

How EI helps in Conflict resolution:

  • Self-serving fairness interpretations: Rather than deciding what’s fair from a position of neutrality, we interpret what would be most fair to us, then justify this preference on the bases of fairness.
    • For example, department heads are likely to each think they deserve the lion’s share of the annual budget. Disagreements about what’s fairlead to clashes.
  • Overconfidence: We tend to be overconfident in our judgments, a tendency that leads us to unrealistic expectations. Disputants are likely to be overconfident about their odds of winning a lawsuit,
    • For example, an error that can lead them to shun a negotiated settlement that would save them time and money.
  • Escalation of commitment: Whether negotiators are dealing with a labor strike, a merger, or an argument with a colleague, they are likely to irrationally escalate their commitment to their chosen course of action, long after it has proven useful.
    • We desperately try to recoup our past investments in a dispute (such as money spent on legal fees), failing to recognize that such “sunk costs” should play no role in our decisions about the future.
  • Conflict avoidance: Because negative emotions cause us discomfort and distress, we may try to tamp them down, hoping that our feelings will dissipate with time.
    • In fact, conflict tends to become more entrenched, and parties have a greater need for conflict resolution when they avoid dealing with their strong emotions.

Conclusion:

Governance in modern times is becoming increasing complex with affective components of behaviour having a major role to play. Intelligence quotient alone can’t solve majority of problems an administrator faces, use of emotional intelligence is a must for better public service delivery as well as redressal.


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