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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 9 February 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Delineate the changes that were witnessed from early Vedic period to the later Vedic period in the Indian society. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Class 11th – T.N History (New Edition)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the changes in the society from early Vedic age to later Vedic age.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the giving a brief overview Vedic age and how fundamental changes are associated with it.

Body:

First, explain the changes associated with the society from early Vedic to later Vedic – women, marriages, caste system, religion, sacrifices etc.

Next, mention certain elements of continuity as well.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the major changes.

Introduction

The Vedic age is the period between 1500 to 600 BCE,  as its reconstruction has been made from Vedic text as the primary source. The Rig-Vedic age is dated between 1500-1000 BC and the Aryans were confined to the Indus region. The Later Vedic age started in 1000 BC and spans till 600 BC. The Satapatha Brahmana refers to the expansion of Aryans to the eastern Gangetic plains in later Vedic period.

Body:

Background:

  • The Rig Vedic society was patriarchal. The basic unit of society was family or graham. The head of the family was known as grahapathi.
  • The Rig Vedic Aryans were pastoral people and their main occupation was cattle rearing. Their wealth was estimated in terms of their cattle. When they permanently settled in North India they began to practice agriculture.
  • Condition of women: Women were given equal opportunities as men for their spiritual and intellectual development.
    • There were women poets like Apala, Viswavara, Ghosa and Lopamudra during the Rig Vedic period.
    • Women could even attend the popular assemblies.
  • There was no child marriage and the practice of sati was absent.

Elements of Change:

  • Political life: Larger kingdoms were formed during the later Vedic period. Many jana or tribes were amalgamated to form janapadas or rashtras in the later Vedic period.
  • The Later Vedic people were familiar with the sea and they traded with countries like Babylon.
  • Social organisation: The four divisions of society (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras) or the Varna system was thoroughly established during the Later Vedic period.
  • Condition of women: They were considered inferior and subordinate to men. Women also lost their political rights of attending assemblies. Child marriages had become common. According the Aitreya Brahmana a daughter has been described as a source of misery.
  • Religion: Gods of the Early Vedic period like Indra and Agni lost their importance. Prajapathi (the creator), Vishnu (the protector) and Rudra (the destroyer) became prominent during the Later Vedic period.

Conclusion:

With the social organisation deepening, there was also emergence of new religions such as Buddhism and Jainism towards the end of Later Vedic period. Also, the authors of the Upanishads, which is the essence of Hindu philosophy, turned away from the useless rituals and insisted on true knowledge (jnana) for peace and salvation.

Value addition

Elements of continuity:

  • Economic condition: Iron was used extensively in this period and this enabled the people to clear forests and to bring more land under cultivation. Agriculture became the chief occupation.
  • Social life: In the family, the power of the father increased during the Later Vedic period.
  • The women in the royal household enjoyed certain privileges.
  • The king performed various rituals and sacrifices to strengthen his position. They include Rajasuya (consecration ceremony), Asvamedha (horse sacrifice) and Vajpeya (chariot race).
  • Sacrifices were still important and the rituals connected with them became more elaborate.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Buddhism originated as an alternative tradition to the excessive importance given to rituals and sacrifices in Vedic tradition. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Class 11th – T.N History (New Edition)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the ‘national language’ debate and to analysed the need for a national language.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context regarding the rise and popularity of Buddhism.

Body:

In the first part, write about various how the emphasis on rituals and priestly domination played a part in the reactionary forces leading to the origins of Buddhism.

Next, write about other factors such as – opposition to caste system, growth of trade and commerce, teaching of buddha, use of common tongue etc being the reasons for the growth of Buddhism.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about the impact of rise of Buddhism.

Introduction

                Buddhism is a religion that was founded by Siddhartha Gautama (“the Buddha”) more than 2,500 years ago in India. With about 470 million followers, scholars consider Buddhism one of the major world religions. The religion has historically been most prominent in East and Southeast Asia, but its influence is growing in the West. Many Buddhist ideas and philosophies overlap with those of other faiths.

Body

The primary cause for the rise of Jainism and Buddhism was the religious unrest in India in the 6th century B.C. The complex rituals and sacrifices advocated in the Later Vedic period were not acceptable to the common people. The sacrificial ceremonies were also found to be too expensive. However it took the social route due to the following factors.

Reasons for rise of Buddhism:

  • Social cause: Caste system became rigid and it created inequality in the society. The Kshatriyas had resented the domination of the priestly class, and both Buddha and Mahavira belonged to Kshatriya origin.
  • Religious unrest: Religious life in ancient India was originally very simple. But in the Later Vedic period complex rituals and ceremonies began to dominate the practice of worship. The complex rituals and sacrifices were not acceptable to the common people. It became expensive and elaborate. Blind faith and superstitious beliefs confused the people.
  • Economic cause: The growth of trade led to the improvement in the economic conditions of the Vaisyas. Now, they wanted to enhance their social status but the orthodox Varna system did not allow this. Similarly, money-lending was imperative for traders, which was prohibited in Vedas. Thus, merchant class extended the chief support to these new religions.
  • Moreover, rise of agriculture raised demand for drought animals which were being sacrificed for religious ceremonies. The principle of nonviolence, suited settled agrarian community better which was brought by Buddhism.
  • Brahminic supremacy: Priests considered themselves superior and others as inferiors. They took advantage of knowing Sanskrit, and interpreted religion according to their convenience. Whereas these new religions were open for all and preached in local language like Prakrit and Pali, which found appeal to common masses.

Impact of Buddhism on Indian society

  • Languages and Literature: Jaina contribution to Prakrit and Kannada l The language of Pali and other local languages developed through the teachings of Buddhism.
  • Art and Architecture: The stupas at Sanchi, Bharhut and Gaya, Jaina temples at Mount Abu in Rajasthan in the domain of architecture are wonderful pieces of architecture. Buddhism takes the credit for the chaityas and viharas in different parts of India.
  • Philosophy: The concept of ahimsa was chief contribution. Later, it became one of the cherished values of our nation.
  • Political progress: Sabhas and samitis find its roots here. It had also promoted the spread of Indian culture to other parts of Asia.
  • Simple Religion: Its principles were very simple. It was easily followed by the people. It was not complex like Vedic religion.
  • Opposition to Caste System: Due to their opposition the complexity of caste system reduced from the society.

Conclusion

Buddhism arose to suit the needs of a changing society, patronized by an emerging class and left an indelible mark on India’s culture, architecture, philosophy and way of living. Some tenets of Buddhism have been adopted by Hinduism in their long course of association and have become an integrated part of the society. These religions also found their influence in neighboring countries and helped India expand its footprint in these regions; paving way for a cultural connects to this day.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Do you think opinion polls should be banned as they are antithetical to free and fair elections? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Every election season, we find television channels flooded with opinion polls. Critics have often questioned their authenticity. All political parties too have opposed these polls, demanding a ban — except when they are shown as winning. The media, on the other hand, invariably opposes the idea of a ban as seat forecasts attract primetime viewership.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about if there should be a ban on opinion polls in India.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining the concept of opinion polls.

Body:

In the first part, mention the various drawbacks of opinion polls and reasons what it should be banned – Manipulations, Voter influencing, corruption, Propaganda, Consensus among political parties, Ban on exit polls etc.

Next, mention the reasons as to why it doesn’t warrant a ban – freedom of speech, a sample survey, not enough to influence voters etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward how to properly regulate opinion polls without affecting the free and fair elections.

Introduction

                An opinion poll is a pre-election survey to gather voters’ views on a range of election-related issues. On the other hand, an exit poll is a post-election survey which is conducted immediately after people have voted to assess the support for political parties and their candidates.  

As per guidelines of Election Commission of India (ECI), Exit poll results cannot be published till the last round of elections is over. While there is no express ban on Opinion polls, Opinion poll results can be published only before 48 hours before the voting is scheduled to begin. The EC wants to restrict the publication and telecast of opinion polls as soon as it announces the enforcement of the model code of conduct for elections.

Body

Background

  • The EC has several times tried to ban and regulate these polls. For example, in 1998 EC mandated that while carrying the results of exit and opinion polls, newspapers and channels should disclose: –
    • sample size of the electorate,
    • details of polling methodology,
    • margin of error and
    • background of the polling agency
  • There were strong protests from both the print and electronic media, who contended that the guidelines violated their fundamental right of free speech and expression.
  • The EC order was challenged and a constitutional bench of Supreme Court ruled that the EC cannot enforce such guidelines in the absence of statutory sanction.
  • Since then, EC has at several times approached the Law ministry seeking an amendment in the law to ban these polls.
  • In 2010, restrictions were imposed only on exit polls through the introduction of Section 126(A) in the Representation of People Act 1951.

Opinion polls antithetical to free and fair elections

  • Credibility of polling organization: Opinion polls can be controversial if the agency conducting them is perceived to be biased.
  • Issue with misleading: Critics say the projections of these surveys can be influenced by the choice, wording and timing of the questions, and by the nature of the sample drawn.
  • Paid polls to distort election result: Political parties often allege that many opinion and exit polls are motivated and sponsored by their rivals, and could have a distorting effect on the choices voters make in a protracted election, rather than simply reflecting public sentiment or views.
  • Suffer from bias: Representatives of most national and state parties have conceded that these polls are unscientific, and suffer from biases in the size and nature of samples.
  • No transparency: The real problem with Indian opinion polls, barring some honourable exceptions, lies with their non-transparency and non-professionalism.
    • A general unwillingness on the part of polling agencies and the media to share even basic methodological details about their polls compounds the problem.
    • Most polls get away by announcing the most perfunctory methodological information and making vague claims about the representative nature of the survey. There is thus no way of telling a rogue poll from a professional effort.
  • Awareness on nature of polls: Unfortunately, there is very little understanding among the common people or even media persons of what the polls can and cannot deliver.
    • Pollsters make matters worse by making excessive claims, nothing short of black magic.

Support to opinion polls

  • Regulating these polls is seen as a curb on the fundamental freedom of speech and expression.
  • Another criticism is that the voters have the right to know what other people’s views are on critical electoral issues so that they can form an informed opinion before casting their votes.
  • Since elections are not a private act, citizens wish to, and need to, know how others are making up their mind.
    • Survey based tracking of the mood of the electorate performs that crucial role.
  • In an unequal country like India, where a tiny but voluble elite is used to passing off its voice as public interest, scientific sample surveys of public opinions are one of the few ways in which the voice of the poor and the disadvantaged gets registered.
  • All things considered; this is a better method to monitor the popular mood than anything else that exists. This creates a widespread need for this information among politicians, the media and people at large.

Creating the balance: Way forward

  • Every election-related poll, or any opinion poll for that matter, must be required to make the following disclosures:
    • the ownership and track record of the organisation carrying out the survey, details of the sponsor;
    • sampling frame, sample size and the exact technique used to draw the sample; the social profile of the achieved sample;
    • where, when and how were the interviews conducted; the exact wording of the question and sequence of questions asked;
    • raw vote shares reported in the survey and how they were converted into vote estimates and seats forecast.
  • Besides this proactive disclosure, the polling organisation should be required to supply some additional information on demand. This second-order disclosure could include providing basic tables for some key variables.
  • Finally, in case of dispute or challenge, the polling organisation should be required to open its unit level data (raw data file) for in-camera examination by a committee of experts.
  • There could be a provision for strictures and sanctions against those who violate these norms.

Conclusion

What matters is the existence of a regime of mandatory disclosures rather than an agency in charge of implementing it. Once in place, such a mechanism would help the public tell the difference between a genuine and rogue poll and incentivise transparent practices. That would be a significant step forward in democratic public culture. After all, public opinion polling is too valuable and consequential to be left to politicians, or pollsters.

Value addition

International practice on opinion polls

  • Sixteen European Union countries ban reporting of opinion polls, with ban timeframes ranging from a full month to just 24 hours before polling day.
  • Italy, Slovakia and Luxembourg have a ban of more than 7 days.
  • France – The French ban has been reduced to 24 hours ahead of voting day.
  • UK – There are no restrictions on publishing results of opinion polls — however, results of exit polls can’t be published until the voting is over.
  • US – Media coverage of opinion polls is regarded as an integral part of free speech in elections, and publication is allowed at any time.
  • The only restriction that exists — not reporting likely outcomes from exit polls before voting is over on election day — is one that news organisations commissioning the polls voluntarily impose upon themselves.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Government Budgeting.

4. Critically examine the potential of the Union Budget 2022-23 to create meaningful employment and long-term sustainable growth. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

A crisis is also a crucible of reform. The Union budget 2022-23 strives to enact economic reforms for the country that is recovering from the pandemic and pave the pathway for its robust rise in the coming years. It speaks of an outlook for India@100 in preparation for a post-Covid world order.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the potential of Union budget to create employment and growth in India.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving statistic related to current scenario of employment and growth in India.

Body:

In the first part, mention the various announcements in the union budget aimed at stimulation employment and growth – Rs 7.5 trillion as capital expenditure, incentivised state governments, special emphasis on Economic infrastructure, Social infrastructure and digital infrastructure.

Next, write about potential benefits that India can accrue from the above and also the limitation of the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward as to how India should overcome the above limitations to have a robust growth and employment.

Introduction

The Union budget 2022-23 strives to enact economic reforms for the country that is recovering from the pandemic and pave the pathway for its robust rise in the coming years. It speaks of an outlook for India@100 in preparation for a post-Covid world order. Union budget has demonstrated commitment towards supply-side reforms. It strives to initiate a dynamic growth engine that shall sustain itself. The Budget proposals on capital expenditure, MSME sector, and digital banking will boost growth and promote job creation.

Body

Background

  • India’s economic growth in the current year (2021-22) is estimated to be 9.2% of GDP, the highest among all large economies.
  • The revised Fiscal Deficit in the current year is estimated at 6.9% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) as against 6.8% projected in the Budget Estimates.
  • According to data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), India’s unemployment rate touched a four-month high of 7.9% in December 2021.

Budget 2022-23: Creating meaningful employment and growth

  • Boost to MSME sector: Budget continues to provide much-needed relief to the COVID-hit MSME sector. The revival of MSMEs is critical both from growth and employment perspective, and these measures are geared towards building a vibrant MSME sector.
    • There are a host of measures aimed at small business, ranging from credit guarantee schemes to improving the ease of doing business, that help MSMEs navigate economic uncertainty.
    • India’s MSME sector will be greatly benefited by the reservation of 68 per cent of the Defence Capital Budget for the domestic industry. Rs 7.5 lakh crore worth of public investment will give a new push to the economy and create new opportunities for small and other industries.
  • PM Gati Shakti: PM Gati Shakti will pull forward the economy and will lead to more jobs and opportunities for the youth.
    • It is a National Master Plan for Multimodal Connectivity in October 2021. This is a digital platform that aims to bring 16 Ministries including Railways and Roadways together for integrated planning and coordinated implementation of infrastructure connectivity projects.
  • Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for achieving Aatmanirbhar Bharat has received an excellent response, with potential to create 60 lakh new jobs and additional production of 30 lakh crore during next Keycap digit five years.
  • Benefitting farmers: Measures such as a special fund for encouraging new agriculture start-ups and package for food processing industry will help in increasing income of farmers.
  • Skill Development: Digital Ecosystem for Skilling and Livelihood (DESH-Stack e-portal) will be launched to empower citizens to skill, reskill or upskill through on-line training.
    • This will lead to meaningful jobs for the youth entering the workforce.
  • Sunrise Opportunities: Government contribution to be provided for R&D in Sunrise Opportunities like Artificial Intelligence, Geospatial Systems and Drones, Semiconductor and its eco-system, Space Economy, Genomics and Pharmaceuticals, Green Energy, and Clean Mobility Systems.
  • States as vehicles of development: The enhanced outlay for ‘Scheme for Financial Assistance to States for Capital Investment’:
    • From Rs. 10,000 crores in Budget Estimates to Rs. 15,000 crore in Revised Estimates for the current year.
    • Allocation of 1 lakh crore in 2022-23 to assist the states in catalysing overall investments in the economy: fifty-year interest-free loans, over and above normal borrowings.

Persisting issues

  • Take off of Gati Shakti and NIP requires huge efforts and investments from States and private sector. Mobilising resources is not spelt out in the budget.
  • Though opportunities exist for MSME sectors, issue of subsidising the dwarf industries that take away most subsidies still persists. These dwarfs employ less and take more incentives without growing up the ladder.
  • Though defence outlay is reserved for domestic industries their export potential is not guaranteed.
  • State governments were yet to get their GST arrears and Centre has not made them available to states on time.

Conclusion

The success of the budget can be assessed post-facto once the schemes kick in and take off in a large-scale manner. It has been called as the AatmanirbharBharatKaBudget, which brings with it new energy and strength to our development trajectory, especially at a time when we are courageously fighting a once-in-a-lifetime global pandemic. This Budget is supposed to bring more infra, more investment, more growth and more jobs taking India to newer heights.

 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

5. Accelerate Vigyan (AV) strives to provide a big push to high-end scientific research and prepare scientific manpower which can venture into research careers and knowledge-based economy. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), an autonomous body of the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Union Ministry of Science & Technology, the Government of India, has invited applications under ‘ABHYAAS’, a program of ‘Accelerate Vigyan’ scheme, for summer season. In a recent notification, the call for applications under components of “KAARYASHALA” and “VRITIKA” for the summer season (May 2022-July 2022) is extended till 28 February 2022.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the role of Accelerate Vigyan (AV) in enhancing scientific capabilities and promoting knowledge-based economy.

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the aims and objectives of Accelerate Vigyan (AV).

Body:

First, write about the various components of AV and what they seek to achieve – Karyashala (High-End Workshops), Vritika (Research Internships) and Sangoshthi (Seminar & Symposia).

Next, link as to how the above will result in creation of scientific manpower and knowledge-based economy in India.

Next, write the bottlenecks towards the implementation of the scheme and suggest steps to overcome the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

“Accelerate Vigyan” (AV) scheme was launched by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) to provide a single platform for research internships, capacity building programs, and workshops across the country. This scheme is primarily to focus on young potential researchers with an aim to give an opportunity to them to spend quality time in the pre-identified premier institution, labs / organizations and empower them through best practices and environment, so that they acquire the requisite skills and vision for undertaking future research assignments requiring high standards.

Body

Objective & Vision of AV

  • The primary objective of this inter-ministerial scheme is to give more thrust on encouraging high-end scientific research and preparing scientific manpower, which can lead to research careers and knowledge-based economy.
  • Recognizing that all research has its base as development of quality and well-trained researchers, AV will initiate and strengthen mechanisms of identifying research potential, mentoring, training and hands-on workshop on a national scale.
  • The vision is to expand the research base, with three broad goals, namely, consolidation / aggregation of all scientific programs, initiating high-end orientation workshops, and creating opportunities for research internships for those who do not have access to such resources / facilities,

Components

  • ABHYAAS Programme
    • It is an attempt to boost research and developmentin the country by enabling and grooming potential PG/PhD students by means of developing their research skills in selected areas across different disciplines or fields.
    • It has two components: High-End Workshops i.e. KARYASHALAand Research Internships i.e.
  • SAMMOHAN:It has been sub-divided into SAYONJIKA and SANGOSHTI.
    • SAYONJIKAis an open-ended program to catalogue the capacity building activities in science and technology supported by all government funding agencies in the country.
    • SANGOSHTIis a pre-existing program of SERB for the organisation of workshops.

Significance of AV scheme

  • AV scheme helps those researchers who have limited opportunities, access to facilities and infrastructure.
  • The components of the AV aims towards branding and aggregation of all the scientific workshops and training programs conducted in the country under a common roof and logo of “Accelerate Vigyan”.
  • The database of skilled manpower developed across different disciplines through all the sub-components of the AV would help in capacity building.
  • The scheme also seeks to garner the social responsibility of the scientific community in the country.
  • The AV will work on mission mode, particularly with respect to its component dealing with consolidation/aggregation of all major scientific events in the country.
  • It will also initiate mechanisms of mentoring, training and hands-on workshops on a national scale.

Conclusion

In a nutshell, Accelerate Vigyan is expected to be a game changer for developing career paths and providing support to catalogue the skilled manpower development.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“We are like chameleons, we take our hue and the colour of our moral character, from those who are around us.” ― John Locke

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about the various influences on morality of an individual – parents, family, teachers, friends, society and media. Cite examples of substantiate your points.

Next, write both good and bad characters can be imbibed from those around us.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day to nurture good character and avoid negative influences.

Introduction

This quote relates to our time because many people today have to try to fit in everyday life to get anywhere in it. We notice others and automatically look up to them and they become the standard for us. Sometimes, the benchmarks we set for ourselves also is based on other people’s lives. While this may sometimes work in our favour when our role models are inspiring people but at the same time, it may be detrimental if we choose to surround ourselves with wrong people.

Body

                The best example is the Nazi Germany, where millions of jews were killed in holocaust based on Hitler’s dictum to exterminated the Jews. During the Nuremburg trials, it was found that many Nazi Generals blindly followed the authority without questioning the moral judgement of Hitler.

Even people who were against such incarceration got co-opted eventually seeing their neighbours and fellow countrymen and accepted the Nazi superiority as blind truth.

More than sixty years ago Gustav Gilbert, a US Intelligence Officer, wrote ‘Nuremberg Diary’ about his experience at the Nuremberg prison. Nuremberg Diary contains detailed conversations with politicians, generals, businessmen, architects and engineers.  Most senior Nazis were “normal” intelligent people who contributed to an organization that did extraordinarily evil things. This shows that not just ordinary people but those who were well educated also became privy to the most heinous genocide in history of the world.

In everyday life, it means you become the people you surround yourself with. If one surrounds himself with drug users, they will eventually see it as morally acceptable to behave in the same way. Contradictory to that, if one surrounds himself around athletes and people in healthy relationships, they will find themselves becoming fit and surrounded by people who are committed supporting us.

Conclusion

When one considers a personal worldview, one can see that there is always 4 elements. There is Origins, Purpose, Morality, and Destiny. Since Morality is one of the facets of worldview, it will be built in the same way as the other three elements; that is, by the lived experience of the holder of it. Our worldview is constructed through our experiences, our education, our up brings and family, our friends and our enemies. Through the collected experiences of our lives, we have unintentionally created a lens through which we make sense of the world.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who conquers his enemies, for the hardest victory is over self.” ― Aristotle

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about desires – legitimate and illegitimate – which are very difficult to control. Talk about why self-restraint and self-control is hard to achieve. Substantiate with examples.

Mention, how desires could be overcome by building strong ethical values like Integrity, fortitude, commitment etc.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

Desires are as much part of man as any other essential requirement. It is the desire of man that made him explore so many paths and rule the world. But the uncontrolled desires make man a slave of these desires and make him do things which may not be considered as moral.

Body

The above statement reflects that the root causes of negative external manifestations of acts or thoughts of humans are his endless desires. There is no end to desires, and one desire leads to other. Thus, while an external enemy is finite and can be defeated, the real challenge is in defeating our internal enemy of desires which is endless and infinite.

Aristotle, through this statement, argues that it is easy to confront and overcome one’s enemy. But it is much difficult to confront the desires. Confronting an enemy is a compulsion for an individual. However, to confront one’s desires is a much difficult task, as it involves resisting the urges of the materialistic pleasures. Aristotle rightly argues that the one who overcomes his desires is much braver than the one who overcomes his enemies.

Only a person of high morality and character can resist the temptations of crude desires. The present society faces an acute form of this problem. Even highly qualified people fail to resist the temptations of material gains and pleasures. This becomes a sign of their moral weakness.

Public administrators are the guardians of public interest. However, as of today they have come to be characterized by self- aggrandizement, self-promotion, self-interest etc, a manifestation of inability to control internal desires. This had led to corruption, crony capitalism, nepotism and favouritism in public affairs. Self-interest has replaced public interest. Thus, the need of the hour is to promote the principles of self-control among public administrators. It must be remembered that administrators are not only public servants but also expected to be model citizens. A self-controlled public administrator will not only lead to an efficient, public-oriented administration but also sustainable society.

Conclusion

Thus, what is required is to train the people to resist their material urges. The biggest challenge for an individual is to confront his own desires and interests, than to face his adversary


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