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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 11 February 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Assess the development of science and technology during the Gupta age. Can Gupta age be considered as high watermark of scientific development in ancient India? Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate  

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about development of science and technology during the Gupta age and the extent of its development.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief about different aspects of science and technology during Gupta age.

Body:

First, with examples, mention the progress of science and technology during the Gupta rulers – Astronomy, Mathematics, Geometry, Medical science, Veterinary, Communication technology etc.

Next, compare the development during Gupta age vis-à-vis and determine the extent of development of science and technology.

Conclusion:

Conclude by commenting on whether Gupta age be considered as high watermark of scientific progress in ancient India.

Introduction

The Gupta period witnessed a tremendous progress in the field of art, science and literature and on account of this it has been called “a golden age”. A few scholars even call this period a period of renaissance.

Body

Science and Technology in Gupta period

  • The Gupta period witnessed a brilliant activity in the sphere of mathematics, astronomy, astrology and medicine.
  • Aryabhatta was a great mathematician and astronomer. He wrote the book Aryabhatiya in 499 A.D.
  • It deals with mathematics and astronomy. It explains scientifically the occurrence of solar and lunar eclipses.
  • Aryabhatta was the first to declare that the earth was spherical in shape and that it rotates on its own axis.
  • However, these views were rejected by later astronomers like Varahamihira and Brahmagupta.
  • Metallurgy had also made a wonderful progress during the Gupta period. The craftsmen were efficient in the art of casting metal statues and pillars.
  • The gigantic copper statue of Buddha, originally found at Sultanganj now kept at Birmingham Museum, was about seven and a half feet height and nearly a ton weight.
  • The Delhi Iron pillar of the Gupta period is still free from rust though completely exposed to sun and rain for so many centuries. This shows the technological acumen of the Gupta era.

Conclusion

Therefore, the cultural progress witnessed during the Gupta period may be called the culmination of Indian intellectual activities. It was a glorious period in the Indian sub-continent after the Mauryan period and saw the development of science and technology along with literature in an exemplary manner.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Elaborate the contributions of Pallava rulers towards the growth and development of temple architecture of India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about contributions of Pallava kings to temple architecture.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief about Pallavas as patrons of temple architecutres.  

Body:

First, mention that history of Dravidian style of Indian Architecture in the south began with the Pallavas. It was a gradual evolution starting from the cave temples to the monolithic Rathas and culminated in structural temples. Give examples of the same under various important Pallava rulers.

Next, mention about the sculptures associated with temple architecture.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning about the glory of Pallava temples in the present day.

Introduction

The Pallava dynasty existed between the 3rd and 9th centuries CE, ruling a portion of what is today Andhra Pradesh (early Pallavas) and Tamil Nadu (later Pallavas).The tradition of direct patronization of the temples began with the Pallavas. Starting with rock-cut temples, Pallava sculptors later graduated to free-standing structural shrines which inspired Chola temples of a later age.

Body

Perhaps no other empire has garnered appreciation for their contribution to rock-cut architecture as Pallavas. Some of the monuments created by Pallavas during their rule through rock excavation have garnered the worldwide admiration for its beauty and the skills displayed by the artists. Pallava sculpture shows greater details of workmanship, lighter anatomy and more developed artistic finishing.

They were the pioneers of South Indian art and architecture as they had introduced the stone architecture in the Tamil country. Even as a building material, stone was not or rarely used here, possibly because of its strong association with funerary customs. The fascination of carving whole temples into the living rock which spread over India during the first millennium AD had not yet seized the South by the end of the 6th century. Their contributions are still extant because granite was used for building temples and carving sculptures.

Evolution of architecture of Pallavas

  • Pallava architecture can be now sub-divided into two phases – the rock cut phase and the structural phase.
  • Rock cut phase:
    • The rock cut phase lasted from the 610 to 668 AD and consisted of two groups of monuments – the Mahendra group and the Mamalla group.
    • The Mahendra groupis the name given to monuments constructed during the reign of Mahendravarman I
      • The monuments of this group are invariably pillared halls hewn out of mountain faces.
      • These pillared halls or mandapas follow the prototype of Jain temples of the period.
      • The best examples of Mahendra group of monuments are the cave temples at Mandagapattu, Pallavaram and Mamandur.
    • The second group of rock cut monuments belong to the Mamalla group .
      • During this period free-standing monolithic shrines called rathas were constructed alongside pillared halls.
      • Some of the best examples of this style are the Pancha Rathas and Arjuna’s Penance at Mahabalipuram.
    • Free standing temples:
      • The second phase of Pallava architecture is the structural phase when free-standing shrines were constructed with stone and mortar brought in for the purpose.
      • The Rajasimha group encompasses the early structural temples of the Pallavas when a lot of experimentation was carried out.
        • The best examples of this period are the Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram and the Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple at Kanchipuram both constructed by Narasimhavarman II who was known as Rajasimha.
      • The best example of the Nandivarman group of monuments is the Vaikunta Perumal Temple at Kanchipuram.

Conclusion

During this period, Pallava architecture attained full maturity and provided the models upon which the massive Brihadeeswarar Temple of the Cholas at Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram and various other architectural works of note were constructed.

The recent announcement of 11 ancient temples in Kancheepuram making it to the UNESCO’s tentative list of world heritage sites opens an avenue for the region to be back on the tourism map. This will ensure better care of the structures as the final honour brings with it international recognition.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

3. Governor should be non-partisan and act as lynchpin for smooth federal relations between center and state rather than acting as an agent of center. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Governor R.N. Ravi returning the National Eligibility-cum-Entrance Test (NEET) Bill passed by the Tamil Nadu Assembly and the running battle between West Bengal Governor Jagdeep Dhankhar and Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee underline again the problematic role that governors play in Indian politics.

Key Demand of the question:

To throw light on the role of Governor in Indian federalism and how partisan actions of the Governor cause strain in center state relationships.

Structure of the answer:

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by mentioning article 155 and role envisaged for governor.

Body:

Mention about increasing politicization of the post of Governor and him/her acting as the ‘agent of center’. Mention the recent examples of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and West Bengal.

Write about the impact it has on Center-State relations. centre-state relations have created widespread public sensitivity and opinion regarding various wrong doings of the centre through the office of the governor which have proved to be damaging for the essential federal structure in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to reduce politicization of the role of the governor as suggested by various committees.

Introduction

Article 154 of the Constitution envisages Governor as the executive chief of the state. All executive actions are taken in his name. B R Ambedkar called the office of the Governor as the “office of dignity”. He is not an agent of the Centre, but the governor’s post in an independent Constitutional office. His office is the linchpin of Indian Cooperative Federalism.

The controversy over the politicization of the Governor post is once again in the news over delayed decision making by the Governor of TN in the appointment of CM.

Body:

Appointment of Governor:

Under the Articles 155 and 156, Governors in India are appointed directly by the President and holds office “during the pleasure of the President”.

Role of the Governor:

  • India invented the role of state governor after Independence to act as a conduit between the ceremonial head of state (the president) and the chief minister of each state, as the president’s eyes and ears in the country’s diverse and far-flung states.
  • Their duty is to be neutral guardians of the complex relationship between the federal government and state governments belonging to different political parties.
  • But this role got diluted as Supreme Court said in one of the judgements ‘agents of the centre’.

Criticism of regarding the Governor Posts

  • The governor selections have come to be made on grounds of political partisanship, favouritism, patronage and cronyism.
  • The governors are becoming the eyes and ears for Central Government.
  • The misuse of the office of the Governor for political purposes to dispose the rival political parties’ government by invoking the Article 356 on dubious or doubtful grounds.
  • Appointment of Judges as governors.
  • Appointment of people involved in the active politics of the State.
  • Removal of Governor merely because he is not on the same political or ideological page as that of the government, this happens despite constitutional bench saying
  • A Governor won’t be removed on the ground that he is out of sync with the policies and ideologies of the Union Government or the party in power at the Centre.
  • Nor would he be removed on the ground that the Union Government has lost confidence in him.

Recommendations made regarding the Governor Posts

Sarkaria Commission Report Recommendations

  • “The Governors tenure of office of five years in a State should not be disturbed except very rarely and that too for some extremely compelling reason. It is very necessary to assure a measure of security of tenure to the Governor’s office.”
  • Governor should be an eminent person and not belong to the state where he is to be posted.
  • State chief minister should have a say in the appointment of governor
  • Governor should be a detached figure without intense political links or should not have taken part in politics in recent past.
  • Governor should not be a member of the ruling party.
  • Governor should be removed before his tenure only on the grounds as if aspersions are cast on his morality, dignity, constitutional propriety, etc.

The National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution recommendations:

  • Governor’s appointment should be entrusted to a committee comprising the prime minister, the home minister, the speaker of the Lok Sabha and the chief minister of the concerned state.
  • If they have to be removed before completion of their term, the central government should do so only after consultation with the Chief Minister.

The Punchhi commission recommendations

  • The person who is slated to be a Governor should not have participated in active politics at even local level for at least a couple of years before his appointment.
  • For office of Governor, the doctrine of pleasure should endand should be deleted from the constitution. Governor should not be removed at whim of central government. Instead, a resolution by state legislature should be there to remove Governor.
  • There should be provisions for impeachment of the Governor by the state legislature along the same lines as that of President by President.
  • The convention of making the Governors as chancellors of universities should be done away with.
  • The commission recommended for “localising emergency provisions” under Articles 355 and 356, contending that localised areas— either a district or parts of a district — be brought under Governor’s rule instead of the whole state.

The Supreme Court’s interpretation

  • In 2010, a constitutional bench of the Supreme Court interpreted these provisions and laid down some binding principles (B.P. Singhal v. Union of India), the Supreme Court held:
  • President, in effect the central government, has the power to remove a Governor at any time without giving him or her any reason, and without granting an opportunity to be heard.
  • However, this power cannot be exercised in an arbitrary, capricious or unreasonable manner.  The power of removing Governors should only be exercised in rare and exceptional circumstances for valid and compelling reasons.
  • The mere reason that a Governor is at variance with the policies and ideologies of the central government, or that the central government has lost confidence in him or her, is not sufficient to remove a Governor.  Thus, a change in central government cannot be a ground for removal of Governors, or to appoint more favourable persons to this post.
  • Such a decision, to remove a Governor can be challenged in a court of law.

Conclusion

Despite several commissions appointed by Government themselves and the Supreme Court guidelines, the post of governor is misused again and again.

It is, however, time for a thorough review of the Governor’s powers and the process of appointment and removal.

  • New rules and conventions may need to be put in place so that Governor’s constitutional mandate is strengthened.
  • All part conference to review the role of the Governors, the powers exercised by him and the manner in which he should be appointed and removed.
  • The Constitution should be amended and security of tenure must be provided to the Governors. The judgment of the Supreme Court delivered in B. P. Singhal case is the law of the land and the Government should respect it.
  • The Governors should be treated with dignity, and should not be fired only for political considerations.
  • The Constitution of the land prohibits the arbitrary exercise of power and the Government is not an exception to the equality law.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. What is disguised unemployment? How does it impact the economy? Suggest steps to overcome it. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

Last month witnessed protests in several parts of north India by students who had appeared for the Non-Technical Popular Categories exam conducted by the Railway Recruitment Board. This was to fill up 35,000 posts for which 12.5 million candidates had applied. While the RRB’s decision to set up a committee to examine the issue may have pacified students for the time being, it is unlikely to offer any solution for the bigger problem of employment and earnings in the Indian economy.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about disguised unemployment and steps needed to overcome it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining disguised unemployment. Give an example to substantiate.

Body:

First, mention the impact of disguised unemployment on the Indian economy –does not affect aggregate economic output, productivity is low and too many workers are filling too few jobs etc.

Next, suggest measures to overcome disguised unemployment – creating additional employment with proper wages, security of tenure and social protection, upskilling and reskilling of labor force etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Disguised unemployment exists when part of the labour force is either left without work or is working in a redundant manner such that worker productivity is essentially zero. It is unemployment that does not affect aggregate output. An economy demonstrates disguised unemployment when productivity is low and too many workers are filling too few jobs.

Body

Impact of disguised unemployment on the economy

  • It can be distinguished by low productivity and mostly follows informal labour markets and agricultural labour markets, capable of consuming large labour quantities.
  • The productive capacity of labour is not translating into economic output. This is because the worker is not being utilised to his full potential.
  • It may show many as employed but that would still not effect India’s growth and can remain stagnated.

Steps to overcome disguised unemployment

  • Population control: Educating the masses for the population control measure through family planning programmes. BIMARU states still account for 23% of population and these are mostly out-migrant states.
  • Utilising demographic dividend: Making credit available to the people for self-employment. Providing skill development and entrepreneurship programmes.
  • Shifting to labour intensive industry: Encouraging mobility of the workforce from rural to urban areas.
    • There are number of labour-intensive manufacturing sectors in India such as food processing, leather and footwear, wood manufacturers and furniture, textiles and apparel and garments.
    • Special packages, individually designed for each industry are needed to create jobs.
  • Decentralisation of Industrial activities is necessary so that people of every region get employment.
  • Women labour force: Concrete measures aimed at removing the social barriers for women’s entry and their continuous participation in the job market is needed.
  • Vocational education: Government needs to keep a strict watch on the education system and should try to implement new ways to generate skilled labour force. This is being implemented in the New Education Policy.
  • National Employment Policy (NEP) : There is a need for National Employment Policy (NEP) that would encompass a set of multidimensional interventions covering a whole range of social and economic issues affecting many policy spheres and not just the areas of labour and employment.
    • The policy would be a critical tool to contribute significantly to achieve the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Conclusion

Disguised unemployment leads to trapping the economy in the lower growth without actual diagnosis of what is ailing the economy. It leads to non-usage of full potential of the demographic dividend that could otherwise reap rich benefits to the society and make it inclusive. Hence governments must soon shift jobs from agriculture to more labour intensive and productive sectors with high growth potential.

 

Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices

5. The minimum support price (MSP) regime is fraught with limitations which affects the price realization by the farmers and thus is in need for reforms to make it more robust and effective. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The ongoing struggle of farmers is not for political power. It is a struggle to transform Indian agriculture and the livelihoods of the farming majority which are in ruins in most parts of the country.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about additional measures that are required for price realisation to make MSP more effective.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by writing about MSP, its aims and objectives.

Body:

Next, mention the limitations associated with MSP. Non-realisation of Price, Lack of procurement, only beneficial for selected crops, Lack of quality control and payment immediacy etc.

Next, write about the systemic measures that are needed for farmers to get remunerative prices. Increasing procurement efficacy, increasing awareness level of farmer and considering price deficiency payments etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Minimum Support Price (MSP)is the rate at which the government buys grains from farmers. Currently, it fixes MSPs for 23 crops grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons. The government recently hiked the MSP for wheat by Rs.  40 to Rs. 2,015 per quintal and for mustard seed by Rs. 400 to Rs. 5,050 per quintal for the current crop year in order to boost crop area as well as income of farmers.

Body

Yes, MSP helps farmers to an extent

  • MSP has been beneficial in transferring incomes to rural areas and to counter farm level inflation.
  • It can also counter the agricultural distress brought on by natural hazards in the country. It gives farmers hope of earning more in the new sowing season.
  • In the last few years, India has become a net importer of pulses. Massive hike in the MSP of these crops will encourage the farmers to grow nutritional crops. It will help in changing the cropping pattern which was long due.
  • A higher MSP regime will also help in achieving the Government’s target of doubling farmer’s income by 2022.
  • It also acts as an incentive for farmers to produce the crop which is in short supply.
  • Higher profits for the farmer will also help them to invest in necessary infrastructure and equipment.
  • The MSP to some extent will protect the farmer by guaranteeing a minimum floor price so that they can plan in advance for the next season.

However, MSP is fraught with limitations

The trouble with MSP is that while it is touted as an all-important factor for farmers promising an instant rise in their income and stability, it also has many drawbacks in implementation. This affects the price realisation of farmers, in reality for several reasons.

  • Methodology: MSP covers numerous costs such as the cost of sowing (A2) and labour (FL). These considerations are controversial with suggestions that it should be based on comprehensive costs (C2), which also include land rent costs.
  • Inflation: Too much of a hike on MSP either paves way for inflationary effects on the economy, with a rise in prices of food grains and vegetables, or loss to government treasury if it decides to sell at a lower price as compared to the higher MSP it bought at.
  • Diverse factors: MSP is a nationwide single price policy. However, the actual costing for production varies from place to place, more severely so in areas lacking irrigation facilities and infrastructure. Thus, not all farmers have equal benefits.
  • Procurement at MSP is flawed: First, procurement of wheat and paddy for meeting the requirement of the public distribution system (PDS) is undertaken largely by state governments.
    • Of the total procurement of wheat and paddy from farmers, the Food Corporation of India’s (FCI’s) share is less than 10%.
    • In the north-east and many other states, procurement operations are almost non-existent and farmers are forced to sell below MSP.
    • As the experiences of these schemes show, the benefit of higher MSPs for kharif crops or rabi, is unlikely to be available to most farmers as the states lack adequate storage capacity, working capital and manpower for undertaking large-scale procurement of all commodities.
    • The MSP-based procurement system is also dependent on middlemen, commission agents and APMC officials, which smaller farmers find difficult to get access to.
  • Agri-Infrastructure: Hiking the MSP without investing in infrastructure is just a short-term play. While it does deliver immediate results, long-term developments to back-it up are also important.
  • Environmental harm: It degrades the soil because of irrespective of the soil condition, some crops are preferred which have MSP over them which results in exploitation of group water resources, alkalinity, decrease in the production of the crops in long run and much harm to environment.

Conclusion

The government should shift its focus from providing only price support to farmers and focus on building better infrastructure, minimizing the gap between farmers and the market, land reforms, policy reforms to increase flow of credit to farmers, establishing food-processing industries for perishable goods, providing better irrigation facilities etc so, that agriculture emerges as a viable means of sustenance.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. The issue of shortage of land to increase forest cover could be overcome by increasing tree cover outside forests. Discuss in the light of Agro-forestry and social forestry. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The recently released India State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2021 shows the total forest and tree cover in India is 80.9 million hectares, which is 24.62 per cent of the geographical area of the country. Between 2019 and 2021, the forest and tree cover rose by 2,261 sq km.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about methods to increase forest cover outside forests.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by mentioning context regarding India’s obligation to increase its forest cover.

Body:

Next, by citing statistic mention the progress achieved so far with respect to forest cover and limitations associated with traditional ways for forest generation.

Next, write about the scope of Agro-Forestry and Social forestry as means to increase forest cover in India. Its scope and potential to be implemented as well as its limitations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward to further mainstream these concepts.

Introduction

Agroforestryis a sustainable management for the land that increases overall production, combines agricultural crops, tree crops, forest plants and animals simultaneously and applies management practices that are compatible with the cultural patterns of the local population. Agroforestry can be classified into Agrosilvicultural systems, Silvipastoral systems and Agrisilvipastoral systems.

Social forestrycan be described as “Forestry of the people, by the people and for the people”. Social forestry means management and protection of the forests as well as afforestation of barren lands aimed at helping in environmental, social and rural development as against the traditional objective of securing revenue.

Body

Forest cover in India

  • The recently released India State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2021 shows the total forest and tree cover in India is 80.9 million hectares, which is 24.62 per cent of the geographical area of the country.
  • Between 2019 and 2021, the forest and tree cover rose by 2,261 sq km.

Scope of Agro and social forestry in India

  • Reduction of pressure on natural forests.
  • More efficient recycling of nutrients by deep rooted trees on the site
  • Better protection of ecological systems
  • Reduction of surface run-off, nutrient leaching and soil erosion through impeding effect of tree roots and stems on these processes
  • Improvement of microclimate, such as lowering of soil surface temperature and reduction of evaporation of soil moisture through a combination of mulching and shading
  • Increment in soil nutrients through addition and decomposition of litterfall.
  • Improvement of soil structure through the constant addition of organic matter from decomposed litter.

Challenges

Challenges faced by Agroforestry in India

  • There is lack of uniformityin the policies and regulations relating to felling and transporting farm-grown timber and other products in different states.
  • The agroforestry produce is lacking coverage under agricultural insurance schemesand are finding it difficult to marketing support.
  • The banks are also reluctant towards granting loansto farmers for agroforestry.
  • The non-availability or scarcity of saplingsof suitable tree species required for agroforestry.
  • There is seasonal occurrenceof plant and animal diseases and inadequate compensation for damaged crops.
  • There is lack of knowledgeregarding agroforestry among the stakeholders and farmers use inadequate harvesting and processing techniques.

Way forward:

  • Encourage and expand tree plantationin complementarity and integrated manner with crops and livestock to improve productivity, employment, income and livelihoods of rural households, especially the small holder farmers.
  • Protect and stabilize ecosystems,and promote resilient cropping and farming systems to minimize the risk during extreme climatic events.
  • Meet the raw material requirements of wood based industriesand reduce import of wood and wood products to save foreign exchange.
  • Supplement the availability of agroforestry and social forestry products(AFPs), such as the fuel-wood, fodder, non-timber forest produce and small timber of the rural and tribal populations, thereby reducing the pressure on existing forests.
  • Complement achieving the targetof increasing forest/tree cover to promote ecological stability, especially in the vulnerable regions.
  • Effective implementation of National Agricultural Policy.

Conclusion

To realize the vision of doubling farmers’ income (DFI) by 2022, agro-forestry can play an extremely supportive role by improving livelihoods of poor communities.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: case study.

7. The second wave of the pandemic was devastating in which many people faced shortage of life saving and essential medicines like Remdesivir, Steroids and Oxygen concentrators. As the third wave spread, many hospitals had started to stock up the same to prepare for any sort of emergency.

As third wave progressed, it was seen that demand for medicines like Remdesivir, Steroids and even Oxygen was less due to less rate of hospitalizations and mild severity of symptoms. A well-known hospital is having lot of unused and underutilized medicines which will expire and waste in a few weeks.

To avoid losses to expiry, the senior medical administrator convenes a meeting of all doctors and ask them to push for hospitalization of patients even for moderate symptoms which can otherwise be treated at home. He puts that in the following way “it is the duty of doctors to save lives and not to risk the lives of the patients. Hence, better not to risk with patients having moderate symptoms and admit them in the hospital”.

But everyone present at the meeting knew the real intention behind this announcement and it is also contrary to the government guidelines for third wave which suggests home isolation for mild to moderate cases.  

You are an intern at the hospital whose exemplary work during the second wave was appreciated by all. The senior medical administrator had orally told you in case you performed well during third wave as well, you would be given a permanent position with good perks. (250 words)

    1. What are the options available to you as an intern? Evaluate its pros and cons.
    2. Which option will you take? Justify

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Case Study Fridays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

First, write about3-4 options which are available to the intern starting from the least viable one to the most viable. Analyze the pros and cons of all the options from ethical point of view.

Next, select the best possible action according to you and justify ethically the reasons behind its selection. Mention steps to overcome any negative ramification of the actions.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on important of doing one’s duty rather being guided by profit.

Introduction

The devastating pandemic that has stricken the worldwide population induced an unprecedented influx of patients in ICUs, raising ethical concerns not only surrounding triage and withdrawal of life support decisions, but also regarding family visits and quality of end-of-life support. These ingredients are liable to shake up our ethical principles, sharpen our ethical dilemmas, and lead to situations of major caregiver sufferings.

Amidst these situations, many hospitals took undue advantage of patient suffering, even indulged in unscrupulous activities. This is one such case where hospital is advising patients to admit themselves for moderate symptoms to use their medicine stock, even when not necessary.

Body

Stakeholders

  • My as an intern
  • Medical administrator
  • Patients with covid symptoms coming to the hospital
  • Doctors of the hospital
  • Public welfare in general

Ethical issues involved

  • Illicit advice from hospital endangering patient lives.
  • Extortion of money from patients on false pretext of treatment
  • Wrongful treatment and admission
  • Trust on caregivers being exploited
  • Undue advantage of patient’s helplessness

Options available

  1. To do as I am told and get benefits of permanent job

Merits: My job is secured and I will not have to go in search of work.

Demerits: Patients will have to unnecessarily undergo hospitalisation. It has its own trauma associated especially to patient and their family. Moreover, it is draining on financial resources if they are already constrained. This is exploiting the poor when there was no need of hospitalisation in the first place.

It is also manipulation of doctors to admit patients to spend the medicine stocks that are expiring.

 

  1. To not accept the medical administrator advice and do my job sincerely

Merits: My conscience will be clear and there will not be any fraud or illegal activity                          conducted in my name. No patient will suffer unnecessarily or waste their money.

Demerits: Personally, my job may not become permanent and I may not be able to secure             employment soon. I may also be immediately be removed as an intern.

Course of action

I will of course choose Option 2 and make sure that no patient is being fraudulently hospitalised just to enrich the coffers of the hospital. That is because I am not worried about the permanent position being offered to me in the hospital. It is always better to not work in such places.

I’m a medical intern who has studied MBBS. My skills as a doctor are valuable and there are many hospitals in the city that will hire me. Hence, I am not worried about getting a job in the current workplace. This absolves me of doing anything wrong in the first place.

It is a gross violation of human rights to give unsolicited treatment to patients and make them suffer trauma to believe that they may not survive if their symptoms are not managed. It also takes a toll on the family who trust the doctors and do as advised. We as a society would collectively fail in such cases.

It may so happen that when actually patients need such medicines else where it won’t be available for their perusal.

Conclusion

The duty of a caregiver like a doctor is to ensure that patients are given the right treatment and advise. There is a strong trust between a patient and a doctor and that must not be violated at any cost. The hospital must be reported for such activities which may even lead to loss of license to run the hospital. Truth, integrity and accountability are the pillars on which an institution must run.


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