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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 February 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Discuss the short term and long-term cultural impact of Iranian and Macedonian invasions on India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the cultural impact of Iranian and Macedonian invasions.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context regarding the Iranian and Macedonian invasions in ancient India.

Body:

First, write about the long term and short-term cultural impact of the Iranian invasions – influx of foreign groups, religious impact, art and architecture, language and script etc.

Next, write about the long term and short-term cultural impact of the Macedonian invasions – Civilisational contacts, history, coinage, art and architecture etc.

Conclusion:

Summarise the impact of invasions and how it affected contemporary political scenario.

Introduction

India had close relations with Persia (Iran) from very ancient times. Iranian contacts with India lasted for about two centuries (516 to 326 B.C). Greek Invasion is traced back to 327 BC when Alexander invaded North-West India.

Body

Persian invasion

  • The Achaemenian rulers of Iran, who expanded their empire at the same time as the Magadhan princes, took advantage of the political disunity on the northwest frontier.
  • The Iranians invaded India in the 6th century B.C, when king Darius I ruled over Iran.
  • He invaded India and occupied the territories in the North-Western Frontier Province, Sind and Punjab in 516 B.C.
  • These parts remained with the Iranian Empire till Alexander’s invasion of India..

Cultural impact of Iranian invasion

Short term

  • India’s Political Weakness exposed: The Persian invasion and India’s defeat to defend  her  frontiers  exposed  India’s  political    This  weakness encouraged  the  foreigners  to  invade  the  frontiers  of  India.  The  Iranians  were followed by the Greeks, the Sakas, the Kushans and the Huns.
  • Encouragement to Trade: The mutual contacts helped in the growth of trade between the two countries. The India Traders and merchants now reached distant places in the Vast Persian Empire to dispose of their goods. Similarly, the Persian goods began to flow smoothly into India.
  • An Idea of Unified Empire: India learnt the necessity of a strong and united empire to repel the foreign invasions. It was for the first time that the small, scattered and mutually quarrelling states of India realized how essential it was to join hands together to meet the common enemy.

Long term

  • Settlement of Foreigners on Indian Soil: A large number of foreigners, the Greek the Persians, Turks etc settled down in the North –Western parts of India. With the passage of time they completely absorbed among the Indians.
  • Impact on Art and Architecture: The Iranian art also influenced the Indian art. Ashoka, followed the Iranian custom of preaching ideals by inscribing them on the stone pillars. The Indians also learnt the art of polishing.
  • Kharosthi Script: The Indians adopted the Kharosthi Script of Iran. It was written from right to left.
  • Interchange of Indo Persian culture: Indian Scholars and philosophers went to Persia and exchanged their views freely with the intellectuals of that country. This contact brought about a great change in the outlook of the people and bought the people closer.

Macedonian Invasion

  • In the fourth century BC, under the leadership of Alexander of Macedonia, the Greeks eventually destroyed the Iranian empire. From Iran he marched to India.
  • The political condition of north-west India suited his plans. The area was parcelled out into many independent monarchies and tribal republics, which were strongly wedded to the soil and had a fierce dedication to the principality in which they lived.
  • Among the rulers of these territories, two were well known: Ambhi, the prince of Taxila, and Porus whose kingdom lay between the Jhelum and the Chenab.
  • Following the conquest of Iran, Alexander moved on to Kabul, from where he marched to India through the Khyber pass in 326 BC. When he reached the Jhelum, Alexander encountered the first and the strongest resistance from Porus. Alexander defeated Porus.

Cultural impact of Macedonian invasion

Short term

  • The immediate effect of Alexander’s invasion was that it encouraged political unification of north India under the Mauryas.
  • The system of small independent states came to an end.
  • Alexander’s invasion had also paved the way for direct contact between India and Greece.
  • The routes opened by him and his naval explorations increased the existing facilities for trade between India and West Asia.
  • His authority in the Indus valley was a short-lived one because of the expansion of Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta Maurya.

Long term

  • Founding of the Mauryan Dynasty: Alexander’s invasion had reduced the strength of the various states as well as the warlike tribes of the Punjab, so that  it  became  quite  easy  for  Chandragupta  to  subdue    Otherwise, Chandragupta Maurya had to face strong resistance from his Indian counter-parts.
  • Promoting India’s Unity: One significant result of these petty state and warlike tribes being crushed by Alexander was the task of establishing a strong empire became too easy.
  • Relations with  Western  Countries: Alexander’s invasion opened four new routes between India and Europe so that India could now have direct relations with the European countries. The discovery of these routes also encouraged trade. Several Indian traders, artisans and religious scholars went to other countries and some people came to India from other countries. In this way, Indian contacts with Europe developed rapidly.
  • Gave an account of Indian history: Megasthenes and other Greek writers have written a lot about the contemporary Indian   Their  descriptions  have  proved  valuable  in  this  respect.
  • Foundation of  the  Greek  States:  After  Alexander’s  departure,  the  Greek generals who were left in India established their independent states on the North Western Frontier of India. In this way, the Indians came in contact with the Greeks and both of them benefited from each other.
  • Greek Art: The Indians learnt from the Greeks the art of making beautiful idols and coins. The Gandhara School of Art is a direct consequence of  the  Greek    The  Indians  also  learnt  a  lot  from  the  Greek astronomers. On the other hand, the Indians greatly influenced the philosophy and several Greeks embraced the Hindu faith.

Conclusion

Thus, both Iranian and Macedonian invasions had a long term impacts on Indian culture.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. In general, Jain art broadly follows the contemporary style of Indian Buddhist and Hindu art, though the iconography and the functional layout of temple buildings reflects specific Jain needs. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To examine the similarities and differences between Jain art and Buddhist-Hindu art.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start the answer by writing about origins of Jain art.

Body:

First, write about similarity in style, nature, planning, architecture etc between Jain art and Buddhist-Hindu art. Cite examples to substantiate your points.

Next, write about how despite the similarities there are fundamental differences in the iconography which emphasizes on a purely Jain form of art. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Summarise the overall nature of the Jain art.

Introduction

Jainism is a trans theistic religion prescribing non-violence toward all living beings; it originated in the Indian subcontinent in the 6th century BCE. Jainism has influenced and contributed to many artistic spheres in India, such as painting, sculpture, and architecture. Modern and medieval Jains built many temples, especially in western India.

Body

Jain art similarities with Buddhist and Hindu art

  • The earliest Jain monuments were temples based on the Brahmanical Hindu temple plan and monasteries for Jain monks.
    • For E.g. : The oldest Jain pilgrimage sites are to be found in
    • In the Deccan, some of the most architecturally important Jain sites can be found at Ellora and Aihole. They resemble as well as are constructed alongside Hindu and Buddhist temples due to patronage to various religions by the Kings.
  • For the most part, artists in ancient India belonged to non-denominational guilds who were prepared to lend their services to any patron, whether Hindu, Buddhist, or Jain.
  • Many of the styles they used were a function of the time and place rather than the particular religion. Therefore, Jain art from this period is stylistically similar to Hindu or Buddhist art, although its themes and iconography are specifically Jain.
    • g.: Karnataka has a rich heritage of Jain shrines and the Sravana Belagola, the famous statue of the Gomateswara, the granite statue of Lord Bahubali which stands eighteen metre, is the world’s tallest monolithic free-standing structure.
  • With some minor variations, the western style of Indian art endured throughout the 16th century and into the 17th century.
  • The rise in Islam contributed to the decline of Jain art but did not result in its total elimination.

Unique features of Jain art

  • Jain iconography mostly has a sage in sitting or standing meditative posture without any clothes.
  • Popular themes and icons in Jain art include the Tirthankaras (Jain saviors, or human beings who achieved the ultimate spiritual salvation and served as role models for society), yakshas and yakshinis (supernatural male and female guardian deities), and holy symbols such as the lotus and the swastika, which symbolized peace and well-being.
  • Ayagapata: Ayagapata is a type of votive slab or tablet associated with worship in Jainism.
    • Many of these stone tablets, some dating back to the 1st century CE, were discovered during excavations at ancient Jain sites such as Kankali Tila near Mathura, India.
    • These slabs are decorated with objects and designs central to Jain worship such as the stupa, dharmacakra, and triratna, and were often used as offerings or for worship.
  • Most of the Jain paintings and illustrations depict historical events, known as Panch Kalyanaka, from the life of the Tirthankaras.
    • Eg: Rishabha, the first Tirthankara, is usually depicted in either the lotus position or kayotsarga, the standing position. Each of the 24 tirthankaras have a unique symbol.

Conclusion

Thus, from the examples of art and architecture it is evident that Jainism had a lot of similarities with Hindu and Buddhist art. At the same time, they had a unique symbolism, iconography that depicted Jain religion and their tirthankaras beautifully.

 

Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

3. Compare and contrast the veto power of the President with that of the Governor regarding different types of bills. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The Tamil Nadu Assembly has once again adopted a Bill that was earlier returned by Governor R.N. Ravi. The Bill seeks to grant exemption from the mandatory National Entrance-cum-Eligibility Test (NEET) for seats allotted by the Government in undergraduate medical and dental courses in Tamil Nadu. Last week, the Governor returned the Bill, contending that it was against the interests of rural and poor students.

Key Demand of the question:

To compare the nature of veto power available with the President and the Governor.

Directive word: 

Compare and contrast – provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning about Article 111 and 200 respectively

Body:

In the body, compare the powers of President and Governor on the various types of veto available with them as per constitution. Absolute veto, Suspensive Veto and Pocket veto. Mention how these are applicable to various types of bills like ordinary bills, money bills and constitutional amendment bills. Give a special emphasis on nature of veto enjoyed by the President in case of bill reserved by the Governor.

Conclusion:

Conclude with mentioning the need of veto power with the President and Governor.

Introduction

When a bill is introduced in Parliament, it can be passed by the Parliament, but before it becomes an act, it must be presented to the Indian President for his approval. It is up to the President of India to either reject the bill, return it, or withhold his assent to it. The President’s decision on the bill is referred to as his veto power. The homologous situation in the state gives Governor his veto power.

Body

Veto Powers of President and Governor

  1. With Regards to Ordinary Bills
PresidentGovernor
Every ordinary bill is presented to the President for his assent after it has been passed by both Houses of Parliament, either singly or in a joint sitting. He has three options:
  1. If he gives his assent to the bill, it becomes an act.
  2. If he does not give his assent to the bill, it dies and does not become an act.
  3. He may refer the bill back to the Houses for reconsideration.

If the bill is passed by both Houses again, with or without amendments, and presented to the President for his signature, the president must sign it. As a result, the president only enjoysa “suspensive veto.”

Every ordinary bill is presented to the governor for his assent after it has been passed by the legislative assembly in the case of a unicameral legislature or by both Houses in the case of a bicameral legislature, either in the first or second instance. He can choose from four options:
  1. If he gives his assent to the bill, it becomes an act.
  2. If he does not give his assent to the bill, it dies and does not become an act.
  3. He may refer the bill back to the House or Houses for reconsideration.

If the bill is passed by the House or Houses again, with or without amendments, and presented to the governor for his signature, the governor must sign it. As a result, the governor has only a “suspensive veto.”

  1. He may reserve the bill for the President’s consideration.
When the governor reserves a state bill for the President’s consideration, the President has three options:
  1. If he gives his assent to the bill, it becomes an act.
  2. If he does not give his assent to the bill, it dies and does not become an Act.
  3. He may refer the bill back to the House or Houses of the state legislature for reconsideration.

When a bill is returned in this manner, the House or Houses must reconsider it within six months. If the bill is passed by the House or Houses again, with or without amendments, and presented to the president for his signature, the president is not required to sign it. He may give or withhold his assent to such a bill.

When the governor reserves a bill for the President’s consideration, he has no further role in the bill’s enactment. If the President returns the bill to the House or Houses for reconsideration and it is passed again, the bill must be presented again for presidential assent only. When the President signs the bill, it becomes an act. This means that the Governor’s approval is no longer required.
  1. With Regards to Money Bills
PresidentGovernor
Every money bill is presented to the President for his assent after it is passed by the Parliament. He can choose between two options:
  1. If he gives his assent to the bill, it becomes an act.
  2. If he does not give his assent to the bill, it dies and does not become an act.
Every money bill is presented to the governor for his assent after it is passed by the state legislature (unicameral or bicameral). He has three options:
  1. If he gives his assent to the bill, it becomes an act.
  2. If he does not give his assent to the bill, it dies and does not become an act.
  3. He may reserve the bill for the president’s consideration.
As a result, the President cannot return a money bill to Parliament for reconsideration. Normally, the president gives his assent to a money bill as soon as it is introduced in Parliament with his prior approval. When the Governor reserves a Money Bill for the President’s consideration, the President has two options:
  1. If he gives his assent to the bill, it becomes an Act.
  2. If he does not give his assent to the bill, it dies and does not become an act.

As a result, unlike the Parliament, the President cannot return a money bill for reconsideration by the state legislature.

As a result, the governor cannot return a money bill to the state legislature for reconsideration. Normally, the governor signs a money bill as soon as it is introduced in the state legislature with his prior approval. When the governor reserves a money bill for the President’s consideration, he has no further role in the bill’s enactment. When the President signs the bill, it becomes an Act. This means that the governor’s approval is no longer required.

Conclusion

Thus, the purpose of granting the President this power of veto is to prevent hasty and ill-considered legislation by Parliament and to prevent legislation that may be unconstitutional.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests..

4. In the ongoing Sino-U.S  feud, Australia and India need to convert their intent into action and capitalise on the innumerable opportunities available in different sectors. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar will begin a six-day visit to Australia and the Philippines Thursday. His visit to the two countries till February 15 will be his first as the External Affairs Minister.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the potential opportunities for India and Australia to cooperate on and benefit from.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context about ongoing friction between U.S and China and its impact on global geopolitics especially India and Australia.

Body:

First, mention the key opportunities for India and Australia – India is currently Australia’s fifth largest export partner and presents a lucrative option for Australian exporters to diversify, strategic political benefits, both countries are federal democracies, former British colonies, India’s and Australia strong relationship with the US and new economic policies under taken by India etc.

Next, mention the limitations of the above – lack of significant action on the above, India’s withdrawal from RCEP, formation of AUKUS etc.

Next, mention ways in which the countries can realise the potential in bilateral relations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

With India’s clash in Galwan valley with China and Australia-China fallout due to covid, south China sea issues, there is an opportunity for India to work closely with Australia to reign the power politics played by China. Moreover, with US-China trade war, India and Australia can diversify trade and reduce dependence on China.

Body

India-Australia relations: Opportunities amid ongoing US-Sino feud

  • Convergence: Chinese aggression and assertive foreign policy are common concerns and has brought both the democracies closer. Both have shared interests in vision of a free, open, inclusive and rules-based Indo-Pacific region.
    • Both are part of QUAD, and also proposed Supply Chain Resilience Initiative.
    • Australia’s Pacific Step Up and India’s Forum for India-Pacific Islands Cooperation (FIPIC) reaffirm their cooperation in the South Pacific region.
  • Economic relations: Bilateral goods and services trade between two was $30.3 billion in 2018-19, and the level of two-way investment was $30.7 billion in 2018.
    • In 2018, Australia announced implementation of “An India Economic Strategy to 2035”, a vision document to shape India- Australia bilateral ties.
    • India is also preparing an Australia Economic Strategy Paper (AES) on similar lines.
    • This was after fallout of Australia and China.
  • Progress after fallout with China: Elevated the “2+2” engagement to the level of Foreign and Defence Ministers (from secretary level), where strategic discussions will be taking place every two years. India already has such mechanism with USA and Japan.
    • MOU on cooperation in the field of mining and processing of Critical and Strategic minerals.
    • Mutual Logistics Support Agreement was signed.
    • Joint declaration on shared vision for Maritime Cooperation in the Indo- Pacific region.
    • These developments must continue on faster pace.

Limitations of India-Australia ties

  • Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) still remains inconclusive after 9 rounds of negotiations.
  • India opted out from Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Among other things, India and Australia could not agree regarding market access over agriculture and dairy products.
  • Australia’s economy is heavily dependent on China, with China being Australia’s largest trading partner, accounting for 26 % of its trade with the world.
  • The prospects for bilateral relationship are recognized in both countries as strategically useful, economically productive and aligned with each other’s new agenda.
    • However, it is recognized that the natural synergy has so far not been exploited fully.
    • Countries should conclude CECA at the earliest, to realize the economic opportunities.

Conclusion

Based on several commonalities and closely aligned values in principles of democracy, liberty, the rule of law, human rights, freedom of speech, free press and multiculturalism both must enhance the bilateral relationship by expanding engagement in various sectors like defence industry and commercial cyber activity etc.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

5. Privatisation of Public Sector Enterprises (PSE) is not always the panacea and must always be done strategically, while the proceeds from it must be utilised in an objective manner to create further assets. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

India’s fiscal deficit (for the Centre) in FY22 is expected to be 6.8% of the GDP, or in layman’s terms about ₹15.06 lakh crore. When considering the debts of States as well, this jumps to about 12.7% of the GDP (as of FY21). In comparison, the budgetary outlay for MGNREGA in FY22 was ₹73,000 crore, while the Ministry of Defence was allocated ₹4.78 lakh crore for FY22. Every year, the shortfall grows wider.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about strategic privatisation of PSE’s and objective utilisation of their funds.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start the answer by defining privatisation and give recent examples of privatisation.

Body:

In the first part, write about the reasons due to which the government undertakes privatisation.

Next, write about the need to privatise strategically and factors that must be considered before going ahead for privatisation.

Next, talk about the objective utilisation of the proceeds from privatisation to be invested in creation of more assets rather than engaging in populist measures.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Due to the poor performance of several PSEs and the consequent huge fiscal deficits, the issue of privatisation has come to the forefront. Privatisation is ought to infuse efficiency by bringing PSEs to the competition in the market.

The term ‘privatisation’ is used in different ways, ranging from transition to private legal forms’ to ‘partial or complete denationalization of assets.’ 

Body

In India, privatisation is sought to be achieved through two measures:

  • The disinvestment of the government’s equity in public sector undertakings.
  • The opening up of hitherto closed areas to private participation

Categories of public sector enterprises

  • Sick for long time and beyond redemption
  • Financially troubled but can be turned around
  • Profitable enterprises

Challenges in Privatisation

  • First, the number of Indian private firms which can buy out public sector firms are very few.
  • Their limited financial and managerial resources would be better utilised in taking over the large number of private firms up for sale through the bankruptcy process.
  • Then, these successful large corporates need to be encouraged to invest and grow both in brownfield and Greenfield modes in the domestic as well as international markets.
  • Sale at fair or lower than fair valuations to foreign entities, firms as well as funds, has adverse implications from the perspective of being ‘Atma Nirbhar’.
  • Again, Greenfield foreign investment is what India needs and not takeovers.
  • Public sector enterprises provide for reservations in recruitment.
  • With privatisation, this would end and unnecessarily generate social unrest.

Way Forward

For Sick for long time and beyond redemption

  • The Government should close these in a time-bound manner with a generous handshake for labour.
  • After selling machinery as scrap, there would be valuable land left.
  • Prudent disposal of these plots of lands in small amounts would yield large incomes in the coming years.
  • All this would need the creation of dedicated efficient capacity as the task is huge and challenging.
  • These enterprises may be taken away from their parent line Ministries and brought under one holding company.
  • This holding company should have the sole mandate of speedy liquidation and asset sale.

For financially troubled but can be turned around

  • Air India should ideally be made debt free and a new management should have freedom permitted under the law in personnel management to get investor interest.
  • As valuation rises, the Government could reduce its stake further and get more money.
  • If well handled, significant revenues would flow to the Government.

For Profitable enterprises

  • The Government can continue to reduce its shareholding by offloading shares and even reducing its stake to less than 51% while remaining the promoter and being in control.
  • Calibrated divestment to get maximum value should be the goal instead of being target driven to get a lower fiscal deficit number to please rating agencies.
  • In parallel, managements may be given longer and stable tenures, greater flexibility to achieve outcomes, and more confidence to take well-considered commercial risks.

Conclusion

The time has come to take a relook at privatisation. Simply pursuing this path, while utilising such proceeds for loan write-offs or populist giveaways in the election cycle will not do. A hunt for immediate revenue should not overshadow the long-term interest of the ordinary Indian.

 

Topic: economics of animal-rearing.

6. Dairy development and livestock can be an instrument of promoting socio-economic development of rural people, particularly the poor and landless labour. Discuss in the light of recent measures undertaken for dairy development in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

Union Budget 2022-23 is expected to boost the dairying and livestock sector with a host of measures to make it sustainable amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about role dairy development can play in poor people.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by citing a statistic regarding the dairy and livestock sector in India and extent of involvement of small and landless farmers in it.

Body:

First, mention the advantages of dairy development for poor and landless labourers – increasing scope, better incomes, subsistence food, buffer against shocks etc.

Next, mention the various initiatives taken to promote dairy and livestock in India – New Vibrant Villages Programme, Rashtriya Gokul Mission,  The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), National Livestock Mission and Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund (AHIDF) etc

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward to achieve maximum potential of diary and livestock sector in India.

Introduction

The huge increase in milk supply through concerted efforts on a cooperative level is known as the White Revolution. Forty-eight years after Operation Flood – that made India the world’s largest milk producer – India continues to be on the lookout for the next breakthrough in agricultural produce and productivity. White Revolution 2.0 has effectuated dairy firms’ marketing strategy for milk and milk products, resuscitating the outlook of product-market mix.

Body

Milk production in India:

  • India emerged as the largest milk producer and consumer in 2019.
  • Niti Aayog estimates that the country is expected to increase its milk production to 330 million metric tonnes (mt) in 2033–34 from the current level of 176 mt.
  • Currently India has 17% of world output of dairy products, surpassing USA in 1998 as world’s largest producer of dairy. All this was achieved by operation Flood which was launched in 1970’s.
  • According to market research company IMARC, the milk and dairy products industry reached Rs7.9 lakh crore in 2017.
  • In 2016, the milk sector alone was valued at Rs3 lakh crore and is projected to scale Rs7.3 lakh crore by 2021.
  • The per capita milk availability in India has gone up from 126 gm per day in 1960 to 359 gm per day in 2015.

Government initiatives for the diary sector:

  • National Programme for Bovine Breeding
  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission
  • National Bovine Genetic Centre
  • Quality Mark
  • National Kamdhenu Breeding Centres
  • E-Pashuhaat portal
  • National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD)
  • Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme (DEDS)
  • National Dairy Plan-I (NDP-I)
  • Dairy Processing and Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)
  • Supporting Dairy Cooperatives and Farmer Producer Organizations engaged in dairy activities (SDCFPO)

Challenges faced:

  • Indian cattle and buffaloes have among the lowest productivity.
  • Similarly, there is a shortage of organized dairy farms and there is a need of high degree of investment to take dairy industry to global standards.
  • Improving productivity of farm animals is one of the major challenges
  • Crossbreeding of indigenous species with exotic stocks to enhance genetic potential of different species has been successful only to a limited extent.
  • The sector will also come under significant adjustment pressure to the emerging market forces. Though globalization will create avenues for increased participation in international trade, stringent food safety and quality norms would be required.
  • Access to markets is critical to speed up commercialization. Lack of access to markets may act as a disincentive to farmers to adopt improved technologies and quality inputs.

Measures needed:

  • Increase in the market share depends on how dairy firms’ capabilities and their resources are utilised given the opportunities and threats emanating from emerging markets economies.
  • Contract/corporate dairying and emerging global dairy trade are required to rope in dairy supply chains stakeholders in order to expand their outreach and “on-the-go” product positioning into the target segment.
  • Digital technology-enabled dairy firms need to identify their compatible partners and competitors for co-creation through product-process innovation via relationship/value-based marketing.
  • Freshness in milk, and convenience to store milk or milk products can be a technology innovation brought in by large dairy firms in association start-ups.
  • Education and Training at Panchayat level for small and medium size farmers
  • Subsidizing cattle production and encouraging cattle markets
  • Facility of logistics for produced milk
  • Improved Veterinary facility specially in artificial insemination of cattle
  • Encouraging private sector firm to procure dairy produced at rural level
  • Low interest loans for small and medium scale farmers for cattle purchase
  • Encouraging rural women to take up animal husbandry
  • Insurance of cattle against diseases like Anthrax, Foot and Mouth, Peste des Ruminantes, etc.
  • Nurture dairy entrepreneurs through effective training of youth at the village level coupled with dedicated leadership and professional management of farmers’ institutions.
  • Agricultural practices, sanitation, quality of drinking water & fodder, type and quality of pipelines – all of these need to be aligned to the goal of healthy milk

Conclusion

The Government initiatives can ensure sustainable growth of the dairy sector as well as boost incomes of millions of small and marginal dairy farmers. Linking the animal husbandry with food processing industry, agriculture, researches & patents has all the possible potential to make India a nutritional power house of the world. Animal husbandry is the imperative hope, definite desire and urgent panacea for India as well as the world.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity;

7. What are the factors that aids collusive corruption in India? Suggest measures to put an end to vicious cycle of collusive corruption. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Abstract Thursdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the factors behind collusive corruption and measures need to prevent it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining collusive corruption.

Body:

First, write about the factors that aid collusive corruption – opportunity costs, quid pro quo, acceptance of corruption etc. Write about its impact.

Next, suggest various measures to break the cycle of collusive corruption. Give examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude by Summarising,

Introduction

Collusive Corruption is a form of corruption in which bribe giver and bribe taker together fleece society for personal gains creating a win-win situation for themselves. There are two dimensions of corruption. One is the exploitative corruption where the public servant exploits the helpless poor citizen. The other is collusive corruption where the citizen corrupts the public servant by a bribe because he gets financially better benefits.

Body

Factors that aid collusive corruption in India

  • Collusive corruption depends on black money. There is more than 5 lakh crores of black money in circulation in India even after demonetisation.
  • There is a lot of discretionary powers to civil servants which lead to corruption. Even petty corruption is aided by bribe givers.
  • Due to non-transparency in working of a government office and non-implementation of citizen charter, collusive corruption is rampant. This is especially true in RTO’s, check posts etc where public interaction is high.
  • Places of collusive corruption: Awarding of contracts for public works and procurement of goods and services, recruitment of employees, evasion of taxes, substandard projects, collusive violation of regulations, adulteration of foods and drugs, obstruction of justice and concealing or doctoring evidence in investigation are all examples of such dangerous forms of collusive corruption.
  • As the economy is freed from state controls, extortionary corruption declines and collusive corruption tends to increase.
  • We need to fashion strong and effective instruments to deal with this growing menace of collusive corruption, which is undermining the very foundations of our democracy and endangering society.

Measures suggested by Second ARC to put an end to collusive corruption

  • Collusive Bribery: Section 7 of the Prevention of Corruption Act needs to be amended to provide for a special offence of ‘collusive bribery’.
    • An Offence could be classified as ‘collusive bribery’ if the outcome or intended outcome of the transaction leads to a loss to the state, public or public interest;
    • In all such cases if it is established that the interest of the state or public has suffered because of an act of a public servant, then the court shall presume that the public servant and the beneficiary of the decision committed an offence of ‘collusive bribery’;
  • Punishment: The punishment for all such cases of collusive bribery should be double that of other cases of bribery. The law may be suitably amended in this regard.
  • Burden of Proof: The Commission is of the view that ‘collusive’ corruption needs to be dealt with by effective legal measures so that both the bribe-giver and the bribe-taker do not escape punishment.
  • Sanction for Prosecution: Prior sanction should not be necessary for prosecuting a public servant who has been trapped red-handed or in cases of possessing assets disproportionate to the known sources of income.
    • The Prevention of Corruption Act should be amended to ensure that sanctioning authorities are not summoned and instead the documents can be obtained and produced before the courts by the appropriate authority.
    • The Presiding Officer of a House of Legislature should be designated as the sanctioning authority for MPs and MLAs respectively.
    • The requirement of prior sanction for prosecution now applicable to serving public servants should also apply to retired public servants for acts performed while in service.
  • Speeding up Trials under the Prevention of Corruption Act: A legal provision needs to be introduced fixing a time limit for various stages of trial. This could be done by amendments to the CrPC.
  • Confiscation of Properties Illegally Acquired by Corrupt Means: The Corrupt Public Servants (Forfeiture of Property) Bill as suggested by the Law Commission should be enacted without further delay.
  • Protection to Whistle-blowers: Legislation should be enacted immediately to provide protection to whistle-blowers on the following lines proposed by the Law Commission:
    • Whistle-blowers exposing false claims, fraud or corruption should be protected by ensuring confidentiality and anonymity, protection from victimization in career, and other administrative measures to prevent bodily harm and harassment.

Conclusion

The Mahatma’s vision of a strong and prosperous India – Purna Swaraj – can never become a reality if we do not address the issue of the stranglehold of corruption on our polity, economy and society in general. Governance is admittedly the weak link in our quest for prosperity and equity. Elimination of corruption is not only a moral imperative but an economic necessity for a nation aspiring to catch up with the rest of the world.


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