GS Paper 2:
Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
The Punjab and Haryana High Court has stayed a law that reserves 75 per cent of jobs for Haryanvis in private establishments across the state.
Haryana government has ordered that the law (the Haryana State Employment of Local Candidates Bill) providing for 75% reservation for locals in private sector jobs came into force from January 15, 2022.
Why was the law challenged?
- The petitioners contended that Haryana wanted to create reservation in private sector by introducing a policy of “sons of the soil”, which was an infringement of the constitutional rights of employers.
- It was also argued that private sector jobs were purely based on skills and analytical bent of mind, and employees had a fundamental right to work in any part of India.
- Forcing the employers to employ local candidates in private sector vide this bill impugned Act is the violation of the federal structure framed by the Constitution of India, whereby the government cannot act contrary to public interest and cannot benefit one class.
Highlights of the law:
- The law provides for 75% reservation in private sector jobs to those having a resident certificate (domicile).
- The law will be applicable for a period of 10 years.
- Jobs with a gross monthly salary of not more than ₹30,000 will be up for hiring from among local candidates.
Rationale behind the law:
To create a harmonious environment for industry as well as the youth along with creating the right balance between the progress of industries and the economy.
Concerns over the bill:
- It could lead to multinational firms moving out of the state.
- Reservation affects productivity and industry competitiveness.
What are the legal issues in such laws?
- The question of domicile reservation in jobs: While domicile quotas in education are fairly common, courts have been reluctant in expanding this to public employment. It raises questions relating to the fundamental right to equality of citizens.
- The issue of forcing the private sector to comply with reservations in employment. For mandating reservation in public employment, the state draws its power from Article 16(4) of the Constitution. But, the Constitution has no manifest provision for private employment from which the state draws the power to make laws mandating reservation.
- It may not be able to withstand judicial scrutiny on the touchstone of Article 19(1)(g).
- Key provisions of the Bill.
- Article 16 of the Indian Constitution is related to?
- Reservations vs Articles 14 and 15 of the Indian Constitution.
Discuss issues associated with Jharkhand’s move to reserve 75% private jobs.
Sources :the Hindu.