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[Mission 2022] SECURE SYNOPSIS: 19 January 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic  Indian Art and culture

1. Explain the different aspects of India’s classical dance system with special emphasis on Kathak? (250 words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the various facets of classical dance in India especially with respect to Kathak (Pt. Birju Maharaj died recently)

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that dance has always been considered ad a complete art and has had a close association with god and worship. The earliest examples of dance in India can be traced back to the dancing pictures in Bhimbetka caves and the bronze statue of a dancing girl in Mohenjodaro.

Body

  • Discuss the various texts on dance in India such as Bharatmuni’s Natyashashtra
  • Highlight that. Sangeet Natak Academy confers “classical” status on 8 dances. Highlight that Dance forms in India were kept alive by devadasis and later revived by various artists.
  • Explain that Dance has two aspects: Tandava and Lasya. Tandava emphasizes body movements and masculinity while Lasya focuses on grace and abhinaya, so more feminine. Dances were scripted around 9 rasas or emotions like heroism, love, anger, etc. Themes were derived from mythology like Radha-Krishna, Shiva-Parvati, etc. Many Muslim kings also added their elements and learned traditional dance like Nawab Wajid Ali of Oudh.
  • Explain Kathak dance, its proponent (esp. Birju Maharaj), and its various forms

Conclusion –

Emphasize on India’s rich history of dance.

Introduction

Dance in India has a rich and vital tradition dating back to ancient times. Excavations, inscriptions, chronicles, genealogies of kings and artists, literary sources, sculpture and painting of different periods provide extensive evidence on dance. Myths and legends also support the view that dance had a significant place in the religious and social life of the Indian people. Excavations have brought to light a bronze statuette from Mohenjo-Daro and a broken torso from Harappa (dating back to 2500-1500 B.C.E.) are suggestive of dance poses.

Body

Sangeet Natak Academy confers “classical” status on 8 dances – Bharatnatyam, Kathakali, Mohiniattam, Kuchipudi, Kathak, Manipuri, Odissi and Sattriya. The earliest treatise on dance available to us is Bharat Muni’s Natyashastra. Dance and music are an inextricable part of drama.

Aspects of Indian classical dances

  • Dance is considered as having three aspects: natya, nritya and nritta.
  • Natya highlights the dramatic element and most dance forms do not give emphasis to this aspect today with the exception of dance-drama forms like Kathakali.
  • Nritya is essentially expressional, performed specifically to convey the meaning of a theme or idea.
  • Nritta is pure dance where body movements do not express any mood (bhava), nor do they convey any meaning.
  • To present nritya and natya effectively, a dancer should be trained to communicate the navarasas. These are: love (shringaara), mirth (haasya), compassion (karuna), valour(veera), anger (roudra), fear (bhayanak), disgust (bibhatsa), wonder (adbhuta) and peace (shaanta).
  • An ancient classification followed in all styles is of Tandava and Lasya.
  • Tandava the masculine, is heroic bold and vigorous. Lasya the feminine is soft, lyrical and graceful.
  • Bharata and Nandikesvara, the main authorities conceive of dance as an art which uses the human body as a vehicle of expression.
  • The major human units of the body (anga) are identified as the head, torso, the upper and lower limbs and the minor human parts (upangas), as all parts of the face ranging from the eyebrow to the chin and the minor joints.
  • Two further aspects of natya are the modes of presentation and the style.
  • There are two modes of presentation, namely the Natyadharmi, which is the formalised presentation of theatre, and the Lokadharmi sometimes translated as folk, realistic, naturalistic or regional.
  • The style or vrittis are classified into Kaishiki, the deft lyrical more suited to convey the lasya aspects, the Arbati, the energetic masculine, the Satvati often used while depicting the rasas and the Bharati, the literary content.

Kathak dance

  • Kathak is one of the main genres of ancient Indian classical dance and is traditionally regarded to have originated from the travelling bards of North India referred as Kathakarsor storytellers. Are people who narrate stories largely based on episodes from the epics, myths and legends.
  • The Vaishnavitecult which swept North India in the 15th century. and the resultant bhakti movement contributed to a whole new range of lyrics and musical forms. The Radha-Krishna theme proved immensely popular alongwith the works of Mirabai, Surdas, Nandadas and
  • The weight of the body is equally distributed along the horizontal and vertical axis.
  • The technique is built by the use of an intricate system of foot-work.
  • As in Bharatnatyam, Odissi and Manipuri, Kathak also builds its pure dance sequences by combining units of movement. The cadences are called differently by the names tukra, tora, and parana– all indicative of the nature of rhythmic patterns used.
  • Kathak has emerged as a distinct dance form. Being the only classical dance of India having links with Muslim culture, it represents a unique synthesis of Hindu and Muslim genius in art.
  • Kathak is the only form of classical dance wedded to Hindustani or the North Indian music. Both of them have had a parallel growth, each feeding and sustaining the other.

Conclusion

Nurtured for centuries, dance in India has evolved in different parts of the country its own distinct style taking on the culture of that particular region, each acquiring its own flavour. Today there is also a whole new body of modern experimental dance.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures—Structure, Functioning, Conduct of Business, Powers & Privileges and Issues Arising out of these.

2. Can the Members of the Parliament discharge their functions entrusted upon them, without the Parliamentary privileges? Comment. (150 Words)

Difficulty Level: Easy

Reference: Polity by M. Laxmikanth

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable

Key Demand of the question:

The importance of Parliamentary Privileges

Directive word:

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the topic and form an overall opinion thereupon

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on Parliamentary Privileges and articles related

Body:

First, mention the Various Parliamentary Privileges

Then, mention the significance of Parliamentary Privileges in enabling MPs to function freely in parliament, relating to how it would get difficult for MPs if not for these privileges

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

Parliamentary privileges refers to rights, immunities and exemptions enjoyed by Parliament as an institution and MPs in their individual capacity, without which they cannot discharge their functions as entrusted upon them by the Constitution. Parliamentary privileges are defined in Article 105 of the Indian Constitution and those of State legislatures in Article 194.

Body

Privileges of Parliamentarians:

  • Freedom of Speech:
    • According to the Indian Constitution, the members of Parliament enjoy freedom of speech and expression.
    • No member can be taken to task anywhere outside the four walls of the House (e.g. court of law) or cannot be discriminated against for expressing his/her views in the House and its Committees.
  • Freedom from Arrest:
    • It is understood that no member shall be arrested in a civil case 40 days before and after the adjournment of the House (Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha) and also when the House is in session. It also means that no member can be arrested within the precincts of the Parliament without the permission of the House to which he/she belongs.
  • Exemption from attendance as witnesses:
    • The members of Parliament also enjoy freedom from attendance as witnesses.

Privileges of Parliament:

  • Right to publish debates and proceedings:
  • Though by convention, the Parliament does not prohibit the press to publish its proceedings, yet technically the House has every such right to forbid such publication.
  • Again, while a member has the privilege of freedom of speech in Parliament, he has no right to publish it outside Parliament.
  • Anyone violating this rule can be held responsible for any libellous matter it may contain under the common law rules
  • Right to exclude strangers:
  • Each house of Parliament enjoys the right to exclude strangers (no-members or visitors) from the galleries at any time and to resolve to debate with closed doors.
  • Right to punish members and outsiders for breach of its privileges:
  • In India, the Parliament has been given punitive powers to punish those who are adjudged guilty of contempt of the House.
  • Such contempt can be committed by the members of any House or any outsider. When a member of the House is involved for parliamentary misbehaviour or commits contempt he can be expelled from the House.
  • Right to regulate the internal affairs of the House:
  • The House has the right to regulate its internal affairs. A member of the House is free to say whatever he likes subject only to the internal discipline of the House or the Committee concerned.

According to the Constitution, the powers, privileges and immunities of Parliament and MP’s are to be defined by Parliament. No law has so far been enacted in this respect. In the absence of any such law, it continues to be governed by British Parliamentary conventions.

Significance of Parliamentary privileges

  • The Constitution confers certain privileges on legislative institutions with the idea of protecting freedom of speech and expression in the House.
  • It ensures that undue influence, pressure or coercion is not brought on the legislature in the course of its functioning.
  • The privileges given to the members are necessary for exercising constitutional functions.
  • These privileges are essential so that the proceedings and functions can be made in a disciplined and undisturbed manner.

Way forward:

  • Justice M.N. Venkatachaliah heading the Constitution Review Commission also recommended to define and delimit the privileges for the free and independent functioning of the legislature. This is based on the apprehension that codification will involve interference of the court as the matters would be presented in the court of law.
  • Supreme Court in Keshav Singh’s case observed that the privileges conferred on the members are subject to the fundamental rights. The Supreme Court has also held that any conflict arising between the privileges and the fundamental rights would be resolved by adopting harmonious construction.
  • If the privileges are not in accordance with the fundamental rights then the very essence of democracy for the protection of the rights of the citizen will be lost.
  • It is the duty of the parliament not to violate any other rights which are guaranteed by the constitution.
  • The members should also use their privileges wisely and not misuse them. They should always keep in mind that the powers do not make them corrupt.
  • The parliament cannot adopt every privilege that is present in the house of commons but should adopt only those privileges which accordingly suits our Indian democracy.
  • Restrict the use of privilege to proceedings of the legislature and not to the individual member. Any member who is falsely accused of any impropriety can use the defamation route through courts.
  • Parliament and Legislative Assemblies should pass laws to codify privilege.

 

Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures—Structure, Functioning, Conduct of Business, Powers & Privileges and Issues Arising out of these.

3. Why was the anti-defection framework included in Indian Constitution? Critically analyze if the ‘Anti-Defection law’ has brought in a new epoch in the political life of the country. (250 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: Polity by M. Laxmikanth

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable

Key Demand of the question:

The importance of Anti defection law

Directive word:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on Anti-defection framework, schedule, and articles related

Body:

First mention why the framework was included in Indian Constitution, citing historical references and amendments

Then, analyze the act by mentioning the advantages of the anti-defection law

Further, mention the criticisms associated, followed by recommendations in this perspective

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

Defection is “desertion by one member of the party of his loyalty towards his political party” or basically it means “When an elected representative joins another party without resigning his present party for benefits”. The institutional malaise is defection and party-hopping is state- neutral, party-neutral, and politics-neutral.

Body

Background

  • For a very long time, the Indian political system was impacted by political defections by members of the legislature. This situation brought about greater instability and chaos in the political system.
  • Thus, in 1985, to curb the evil of political defections, the 52nd constitution amendment act on Anti-defection law was passed and the 10th Schedule was added in the Indian Constitution.
  • The main intent of the law was to combat “the evil of political defections” which may be due to reward of office or other similar considerations.
  • The law applies to both Parliament and state assemblies. However, there are several issues in relation to the working of this law.
  • 91st Constitution Amendment Act-2003 was enacted and was aimed at limiting the size of the Council of Ministers to debar defectors from holding public offices, and to strengthen the anti-defection law.

Flaws of the current Anti-defection law

  • Does not prevent Defection: The Anti-defection law has failed to curb “horse trading” and defection, leading to toppling of governments through machinations of corrupt legislators.
    • Eg: The 17-MLA’s of coalition government resigned in Karnataka, leading to change in government. The 17 MLA’s later contested from the party that formed new government.
  • Wholesale defection: The law prevents individual defections, but not wholesale defections.
    • Eg: Congress government in Madhya Pradesh lost majority due to resignations of MLA’s.
  • Against the true spirit of representative democracy: The anti-defection law seeks to provide a stable government by ensuring the legislators do not switch sides.
    • However, this law also enforces a restriction on legislators from voting in line with their conscience, judgement and interests of his electorate.
  • Impedes legislative control on government: The anti-defection law impedes the oversight function of the legislature over the government, by ensuring that members vote based on the decisions taken by the party leadership.
    • In short, if legislators are not able to vote on laws independently, they would not act as an effective check on the government.
    • The Anti-Defection Law, in effect, dilutes the separation of powers between the Executive and the Legislature – and centralises power in the hands of the executives.
  • Role of presiding officer of the house: The law lays down that legislators may be disqualified on grounds of defection by the Presiding Officer of a legislature based on a petition by any other member of the House.
    • However, there are many instances when presiding officers play a part with the vested interests of a political party/government in power.
    • Also, the law does not specify a time period for the Presiding Officer to decide on a disqualification plea.
    • The decision thus is sometimes based on the whims and fancies of the presiding officer.
  • Affects the debate and discussion: The Anti-Defection Law has created a democracy of parties and numbers in India, rather than a democracy of debate and discussion.
    • In this way, it does not make a differentiation between dissent and defection and weaken the Parliamentary deliberations on any law.

Steps to be taken

  • To be used for major decision making: Several experts have suggested that the law should be valid only for those votes that determine the stability of the government. e.g. passage of the annual budget or no-confidence motions as recommended by Dinesh Goswami Committee.
  • Non-partisan authority: Various commissions including National Commission to review the working of the constitution (NCRWC) have recommended that rather than the Presiding Officer, the decision to disqualify a member should be made by the President (in case of MPs) or the Governor (in case of MLAs) on the advice of the Election Commission.
  • Independent committee for disqualification: Justice Verma in Hollohan judgment said that tenure of the Speaker is dependent on the continuous support of the majority in the House and therefore, he does not satisfy the requirement of such independent adjudicatory authority.
    • Also, his choice as the sole arbiter in the matter violates an essential attribute of the basic feature.
    • Thus, the need for an independent authority to deal with the cases of defection.
  • Intra-party democracy: 170th Law Commission report underscored the importance of intra-party democracy by arguing that a political party cannot be a dictatorship internally and democratic in its functioning outside.
    • Thus, the parties should listen to the opinions of the members and have discussions on the same. This would give the freedom of speech and expression to its members and promote inner-party democracy.
  • Limiting Speaker’s discretion: Recent Supreme Court Judgement ruled that Speaker must decide on disqualification within three months of receiving application. It cannot be the discretion of the Speaker to take no action.

Conclusion

There is a need to prevent unholy defections that lead to instability in the governance system of the nation. The current law is clearly flawed and has not effectively curbed defection due to lure of power and money. There is a need for a more rationalised version of anti-defection laws which will help establish a truly representative democracy.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4. Analyse the scope and potential of India-Japan ties and how the friendship between the two-nation can help achieve global peace and prosperity. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article analyses the scope and potential of India-Japan ties in the background of new dynamism of global politics and closeness of US-Japan relations.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyze the scope and potential of India-Japan ties and their relevance for securing world peace.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief history of India-Japan ties.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the Scope for a deepened India-Japan ties – Balancing security policy against China, Scope for technology partnership, Economic ties, Scope for expansion: Support for key manufacturing initiatives such as ‘Make in India’ and Japan Industrial Townships, secure infrastructure investments in strategically vital connectivity projects currently underway in Northeast and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Etc.

Explain that time has come for India and Japan to take a hard look at reports suggesting that joint infrastructure projects in Africa and Iran have stalled with substantial cost overruns and different stands on Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.

Also, both the nation, as democratic countries in Asia, can cooperate to contribute to global peace and prosperity. The partnership can further strengthen the economy of the Indo-Pacific, as well as the world economy.

Conclusion:

Writing in 2006, Shinzo Abe, in his book, Utsukushii Kuni E (Toward a Beautiful Country), expressed his hope that “it would not be a surprise if, in another 10 years, Japan­India relations over­ take Japan­U.S. And Japan­China relations.”

Introduction

The friendship between India and Japan has a long history rooted in spiritual affinity and strong cultural and civilization ties. India and Japan established diplomatic relations on 28 April 1952. The year 2022 marks the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and India.

Japan is regarded as a key partner in India’s economic transformation. In the recent past, the India Japan relationship has transformed to a partnership of great substance and purpose. Japan’s interest in India is increasing due to a variety of reasons including India’s large and growing market and its resources, especially the human resources.

Body

India-Japan bilateral relation

  • Within India: Japan has been a leading financial donor in the form of ODA (Official Development Assistance)to India.
  • It continues to maintain a high degree of interest and support for India’s mega infrastructure projects like the Delhi-Mumbai Freight Corridor, Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor, Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor and the Ahmedabad-Mumbai High Speed Rail
  • Outside India: Asia-Africa Growth Corridor (AAGR)announced in 2017 and joint projects in some third countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka and in Africa as well will be taken jointly.
  • Defence ties:Quadrilateral Security Dialogue is a strategic dialogue between India, United States, Japan and Australia will be carried out.
  • Malabarexercise has been carried by India Japan and USA on a continuous basis.
  • 2+2 dialogueat the defence and foreign minister level.

Potential areas of development

  • There are a plethora of fields that we can cooperate in security issues including cyber security, outer space and economic security to build a rules-based free and open international order.
  • Our economic partnership can further strengthen the economy of the Indo-Pacific, as well as the world economy.
  • In spite of CEPA India Japan trade it has not produced the anticipated results. In 2011-12, the total volume of the bilateral trade was $18.43 billion, but it declined to $13.48 billion during 2016-17.
  • The defence technology sharing is still a thorn. The US-2 amphibian aircraft has been on the back burner.
  • Both have diverging interest with respect to Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.
  • Both countries do not have a specific China policy.
  • India and Japan need to strengthen their naval power vis-à-vis China and hasten the pending projects in the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean respectively

Way Forward

  • It is clear that the government has set India-Japan ties on an accelerated geopolitical course that will be a major factor in its dealings with the rest of the world, especially China, at a time when the U.S. is perceived to be retreating from the region.
  • However, the strategic partnership needs stronger economic ties. While Japan is India’s largest donor and the third largest provider of FDI, bilateral trade has steadily declined since 2013.
  • Today, India-Japan trade languishes at around $15 billion, a quarter of trade with China while Japan- China trade is around $300 billion.
  • The two countries have decided to boost defense ties given the escalating tension in the region in the wake of the nuclear test by North Korea and China’s growing assertiveness in the South China Sea.
  • However, certain issues still remain like sharing of the defence technology, delay of US-2 amphibian aircraft.
  • Both countries need to work on trade, defence and regional issues. A strong Indo- Japan will arrest the inconsistency being witnessed in the region thus contributing to peace and prosperity in the region and the world.
  • Cultural exchanges including literature, movies, music, sports and academics are essential for our relations, enabling a better understanding.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc.

5. “Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth. “Discuss in the light of India’s experience. (Answer in 250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The question was asked in this year’s UPSC GS3 a week back.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need to focus on infrastructure development, both physical and social, as this would have a multiplier effect on the economy.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with key data on the current status of infrastructure in the country.

Body:

Give a brief outline of India’s Infrastructure journey (e.g. key schemes of the government and its benefits).

Discuss briefly the challenges India is facing.

Then in detail give how investment in Infrastructure will bring about economic and inclusive growth e.g. creation of jobs, more entrepreneurship, increasing value of assets and thus income, benefits for farmers, etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the way forward.

Introduction

Infrastructure sector is a key driver for the Indian economy. The sector is highly responsible for propelling India’s overall development and enjoys intense focus from Government for initiating policies that would ensure time-bound creation of world class infrastructure in the country. Infrastructure sector includes power, bridges, dams, roads, and urban infrastructure development.

Basic infrastructure facilities in the country provide the foundation of growth. In the absence of adequate infrastructure, the economy operates at a suboptimal level and remains distant from its potential and frontier growth trajectory.

Body

Background

The infrastructure sector will be the key to overall economic growth and macroeconomic stability, the Survey said emphasising that the year after the crisis (2021-22) will require sustained and calibrated measures to facilitate the process of economic recovery and enable the economy to get back on its long-term growth trajectory.

Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth

  • Foundation for growth:
    • Basic infrastructure facilities in the country provide the foundation of growth.
    • In the absence of adequate infrastructure, the economy operates at a suboptimal level and remains distant from its potential and frontier growth trajectory.
  • Increases employment:
    • Infrastructure development such as road construction, real estate, railway construction, etc. is labour intensive, leading to increase in employment opportunities in formal and informal sectors and thus, fuelling domestic demand.
  • Raises Farmer’s Income:
    • Investment in infrastructure would play critical role in ensuring doubling of farmers income through focus on increased irrigation infrastructure and storage, processing and marketing infrastructure.
  • Health and Well-being:
    • Infrastructure development of superior healthcare facilities, electronic health records and better equipped health infrastructure at primary levels. (Telemedicine)
  • Reduces Logistic Cost:
    • Building world class roads, railways, ports, inland water ways, will cut down logistic costs and improve competitiveness and promote exports.
    • This would bring more revenues to government and may promote socio – economic development.

Way forward

  • Rs 111 trillion National Infrastructure Pipeline for 2020-2025 will be a game-changer for the Indian economy. Sectors like energy, roads, urban infrastructure, railways have a lion’s share in it that will help boost growth.
  • To boost private investment in infra sector, it said the government has set up the Public Private Partnership Appraisal Committee (PPPAC) for appraisal of PPP projects.
  • Revamping of the proposed VGF scheme will attract more PPP projects and facilitate the private investment in social sectors (Health, Education, Waste Water, Solid Waste Management, Water Supply etc.)
  • The Aatmanirbhar Bharat has brought manufacturing at centre stage and emphasized its significance in driving India’s growth and creating jobs.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers, and administrators

6. “Leadership is not about executive position or title. It is about connection and influence. At its highest, leadership is all about adding value to the world and blessing lives through the work you do.” Discuss the statement using suitable examples. (15M)

Structure of the question

Introduction

Define leadership in a brief manner

Body

  • Explain the salient characteristics which are highlighted in the quote vis a vis the role of leadership. Ex: Adding value, blessing lives through work, influence, connection, etc.
  • List examples for each of the above characteristics

Conclusion

Suggest in a brief manner as to how one can emphasize this role of leadership in both public and private enterprise.

Introduction

Leadership can be defined as the ability of the management to make sound decisions and inspire others to perform well. It is the process of directing the behaviour of others towards achieving a common goal. In short, leadership is getting things done through others.

The above quote by Robin Sharma shows the importance of key qualities of leadership

Body

Many people assume that leadership is all about titles, positions, money, and fame. However, leadership is not an actual position or title. In fact, it is about the action you take and the example you set for others. Leadership is the ability to influence others; it’s about the impact you have on others.

e.g.: Sourav Ganguly, the ex-skipper of Indian Cricket took over the reins of a deteriorated team and made it one of the strongest teams in the cricketing world.

Leadership is not the exercise to control others and guide them it is all about making others best. Leadership is all about empowerment of oneself and then influence others towards a shared vision.

True leaders are inspiring the people who follow their path and bringing out the best in your employees creates a true leader. By doing this they create a positive workplace culture and give people wings to soar.

For instance, leaders like Ratan Tata, Anand Mahindra have time and again recognized the deserving, young talent and have helped them to grow immensely.

Leadership is a choice; achieve which influence anything or by anyone. You can lead and influence from where you are, and you can have a significant impact on the people around you and the organization.

Conclusion

A good leader always will bring end results back to one unified team and purpose, though. Molding consensus involves acknowledging different inputs but also must make sure that anyone on the “losing” end of a competitive atmosphere is always given another chance to succeed the next time around. Leadership can mean different things to different people. However, the essence remains the same. It’s like water. It becomes what it is poured into.

 

Topic: GS 4: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance, and compassion towards the weaker sections.

7. What does this quotation mean to you in the present context? “Small acts, when multiplied by millions of people, can transform the world.” (10M)

Structure of the question

Introduction

Highlight the major challenges in the world as of now or you can define the value of ‘kindness’ which is at the core of this quote in a brief manner

Body

  • Highlight any major events in the past where scores of people came together through their small acts to bring about a transformation in society. Ex: Helping migrants during the pandemic, arranging for medical supplies during the pandemic, etc.
  • Highlight major challenges in the present world. Ex: Climate change, poverty, Refugee crisis and how small acts of millions of people could address these existential challenges

Conclusion

Suggest what could be done to evoke such small acts among individuals in the society in a brief manner.

Introduction

                There’s a well-known Chinese proverb that says“A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.” Yet far too many people never even get started on that journey and make big changes to reach their destination.

                The above quote by Howard Zinn emphasizes the importance of each individual act. No action irrespective of its magnitude is a waste, every action has its own significance.

Body

Each of us can (and must) be part of the solution to a more sustainable society. 2020 laid bare the daunting challenges to a more sustainable, just, and equitable future. We suffered through a global pandemic and struggled with the ravages of injustice and lack of socio-economic opportunity.

Today, we are dealing with life threatening consequences of rapidly changing climate, rising sea levels, wildfires etc. due to increase anthropogenic interventions in nature and its processes. To make the world more sustainable not everyone needs to be a billionaire innovator like Elon Musk.

In other words, the journey to a more sustainable future requires all of us to keep taking those small actions that eventually lead to something transformative. Those actions begin in our hearts and in our minds. They grow in our home and in our neighborhood. And eventually they multiply in our communities and among our networks of friends.

However, these actions should be consistent, habitual, with passion and led by and efficient leader from the front. A very good example for this is development of village – Ralegaon Siddhi in Maharashtra – which metamorphosed itself from a barren land to fertile land. On the other hand, there are millions who sleep hungry every night without one square meal, the well-to-do can donate to the best of their abilities to ensure that none sleeps hungry due to poverty.

Conclusion

Dreams remain just that until you take action toward their reality. Giant leaps are great, but there is power in small steps. Even a single, small step toward something you really want breathes life into that thing and announces that you are ready. It gives you energy toward the next step.


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