Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 3 January 2022

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature, and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. The art of numismatics helps in deciphering the achievements of an empire in India. Discuss. (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: New Indian Express

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how numismatics helps in deciphering the achievements of an empire.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly describe the art of numismatics.

Body:

In the first part, trace the evolution of numismatics, from the period of ancient history until modern. Briefly describe various features of coins in the time of Indo ‘Greeks, Guptas, Cholas, Sultanates, Mughals, etc like secular themes, religious, etc. Also, state the importance given to standardization of currency.

Next, mention how numismatics helps in deciphering the achievements of various empires along with examples. Mention both pros and cons.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating the importance of numismatics and its importance in present times.

Introduction

Numismatics is the study/ collection of currency (coins, banknotes, or money in some other form like beads, tokens, and related objects). Historians use these to understand the past. The importance of coins as a source of reconstructing history cannot be denied, particularly in case of ancient history where very few chronicles were produced. An old coin (or currency) is a window to history.

Body

Significance of numismatics

  • Surviving written texts that feature the ancient history of India were created as religious or literary texts.
  • To reconstruct the past, historians look to other sources, such as archaeological finds and inscriptions on stone and metal.
  • Coins offer another form of evidence, requiring similar care and expertise in the interpretation of engraved words, symbols, and images.
  • Coins are an important source of history, as they suggest important historical processes.
  • Not only the monetary situation, but broader questions related to economy and polity can be answered through numismatics.
  • Each coin was developed for a special purpose during a specific era, which served as a great revelation over centuries.
  • As in the vast and deep history of India there have were numerous big and small dynasties and empires spreading across every part of the country and there were no rigid proof or evidence for their presence.
  • However, it is observed that nearly every Ruler tried to have their unique lineage of coins which when deciphered properly, gave umpteen information about the period.
  • Coins help apprehend the socio-political, cultural and administrative aspects of past kingdoms and rulers.
  • Numismatics also reveals the religious beliefs and sentiments during that time.
  • For Example, it was first in the coins of Kanishka dynasty that Buddha was represented in form while earlier it was demonstrated symbolically.
  • Similarly, on the coins of Gupta Empire one can witness forms of Durga, Laxmi and Ganga.
  • The wide distribution of Kushana coins suggests trading activities, and the presence of ship motifs on Satvahana coinage reflects the importance of maritime trade.
  • The inscribed figures of rulers, deities and legends give us an insight into social and political aspects of various kingdoms.
  • It must be noted that dates are seen very rarely on early Indian coins.
  • Barring western Kshatrapa coins which give dates in the Shaka era and some Gupta silver coins which give the regnal years of kings, coins in early India are mostly devoid of dates.
  • Dated or undated, coins found in archaeological excavations often help date the layers of time.
  • An example is a site of Sonkh near Mathura, where the excavated levels were categorised into eight periods on the basis of coin finds.
  • With regard to the later development in coinage, the numismatic history of later ancient and the early medieval period saw a decline in trade and the feudal order marked stressed urban centres, and as a result, even though the circulation of coins did not stop, their purity and aesthetic quality saw degradation at many levels.

Ancient Indian coins conjure up marketplaces along the Silk Road, the trade route that connected the East and West; conquerors and their traveling mints; wars; and lost kingdoms. The complexity that Numismatics offers, is evident from the fact that the number of distinct dynasties that existed during that time tried to develop their own style of Coinage. Indeed, it is the in-depth study of coinage over the years in India that has revealed the presence of many rulers and dynasties in India which otherwise could not have been justified.

Conclusion

Thus the history of Indian Coinage is both exciting yet complicated as it is immensely vast. Over umpteen reigns there has been a great lineage of coinage set by different rulers that throw a light on the customs and traditions of that Era. Thus, Numismatics is extremely important to get details on periodical changes in history.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies

2. In relevance to the Constitutional provisions, do you think India is rightly described as ‘an indestructible union of destructible states’? Comment, highlighting the instances where these provisions were implemented in post-Independent India. (250 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: Polity by M. Laxmikanth

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable

Key Demand of the question:

Mention the constitutional provisions relating to the Parliamentary powers to reorganise new states, along with the instances when this was done in post-Independent India

Directive word:

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the topic and form an overall opinion thereupon

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on the constitutional provisions-Article Numbers, schedule, historical references if any

Body:

First, focus on the detailed provisions relating to the statement in question

Then, attempt to form opinion on the statement given in question and elaborate on it

Further, mention the instances where these powers under constitutional provisions were exercised by Parliament in Post-Independent India

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

India has been called as “indestructible union” by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as no Indian state can secede from the Indian union as in the case of confederation or loosely held federation. But on the other hand there is situation of destructible nature of the state as seen in context of Article 3. This has given opportunities to accommodate the aspirations of the people to form their own state and maintain unity and integrity of the country intact.

Body

Article 1 of the Constitution of India (the Constitution) describes India as a Union of States. Although, the Constitution is federal in structure, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar while submitting the draft clearly specified the advantages of using the term union over federation. Usage of the term union indicates that the Indian state is not the result of some sort of arrangement among the states and these states have no right or freedom to secede from India.

The Article 3 of the Constitution provides for:

  • The Center can change the “name, boundaries and territories” of the State.
  • For doing the same the consent of the state is not necessary. for example: Formation of the state of Telangana.

Thus, Article 3 suggests the following points:

  • Indian states do not enjoy full sovereignty as in case of States in USA.
  • The USA, unlike India, follows the concept of “indestructible states” as the territorial integrity and continued existence of the state is guaranteed by the constitution.
  • Moreover, any changes brought in the states as per Article 3 is not deemed as an amendment in the Constitution so does not require the process of Article 368 to be followed (no special majority required to pass such a bill).

Events after independence

  • Since then, India has seen multiple reorganization acts implemented largely on linguistic grounds like the Bombay Reorganization Act, 1960 which split the Bombay State into Gujarat and Maharashtra.
  • It has all been possible due to the implementation of just one Article for the purposes of internal reorganization.
  • Article 3 of the Constitution allows the formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries and names of existing states as one can comprehend from the text below
  • The Bihar Reorganization Act, 2000 created a separate state of Jharkhand while the Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2000 created a separate state of Chhatisgarh.
  • The Uttaranchal (Alteration of Name) Act, 2006 changed the name of the state of Uttaranchal to Uttarakhand. Similarly, the Orissa (Alteration of Name) Bill, 2010 changed the name of the state of Orissa to Odisha.
  • The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 bifurcated the state of Andhra Pradesh into Telangana and Andhra Pradesh due to the 10 year long Telangana movement. The Act in addition to laying down the status of Hyderabad as the temporary capital of Andhra Pradesh and permanent capital of Telangana, determined how the assets and liabilities will be divided and defined the boundaries of the two states.
  • Recently, the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Act, 2019 received the assent of the President on 9th August 2019. This act will be effective from 31st October 2019 and it reconstituted the state into two union territories – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.

Conclusion

Our constitution, according to Sir Kenneth Clinton Wheare, D. D. Basu and Supreme Court judgments, is quasi-federal in nature yet the union has the last say and has powers to override any state’s decision. For all these reasons, India is known to be a union of states and not a federation of states like the countries of United States of America wherein the Federation does not have the power to create new states or alter borders of existing states.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

3. Critically analyse the consonance of the ‘Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) 2019’ with the Indian Constitution. (250 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable

Key Demand of the question:

The holistic analysis of the CAA

Directive word:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on CAA, and the background for passing such an act

Body:

First, focus on the provisions/objectives of CAA

Then, analyse the positive aspects relating to it – how it is in sync with constitutional provisions

Further, analyse how CAA is not in accordance with constitution

Mention, way forward as to how it can be tweaked/further amended, along with recommendations, if any

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) was notified on December 12, 2019 and came into force from January 10, 2020. It seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955.

Body

Provisions of CAA

  • The objective of the CAA is to grant Indian citizenship to persecuted minorities — Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist, Parsi and Christian — from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan.
  • Those from these communities who had come to India till December 31, 2014, facing religious persecution in their respective countries, will not be treated as illegal immigrants but given Indian citizenship.
  • The Act provides that the central government may cancel the registration of OCIs on certain grounds.

CAA is in consonance with principles of Constitution

  • This Bill will come as a big boon to all those people who have been the victims of Partition and the subsequent conversion of the three countries into theocratic Islamic republics.
  • Government has cited that the partition of India on religious lines and subsequent failure of the Nehru-Liaqat pact of 1950in protecting the rights and dignity of the minorities in Pakistan and Bangladesh as the reasons for bringing this Bill.

CAA is not in consonance with principles of constitution

  • The first is that the Citizenship (Amendment) Act is against the letter and spirit of our Constitution. Articles 5 to 11 of the Constitution deal with citizenship, and the Citizenship Act, 1955, lays down criteria for citizenship based on birth, descent, registration, naturalization, and citizenship by incorporation of territory.
  • By setting new criteria, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act goes against the premise of common citizenship regardless of differences of caste, creed, gender, ethnicity and culture.
  • Further, Article 14 of the Constitution lays down that the “State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India”.
  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act is divisive, deeply discriminatory and violative of human rights.
  • Our national unity was won through struggle; the Citizenship (Amendment) Act is one of the many threats to its survival. Our hard-won Constitution recognizes individual and social differences, and that we must weave the cord of unity by creating a sense of belonging and inclusiveness for all.
  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act attempts to create and deepen communal division and social polarization in the country.
  • The Act gives eligibility for citizenship to Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan who entered India on or before December 31, 2014, and specifically excludes Muslims from that list.
  • In granting citizenship on the basis of religion, it discriminates against Muslims and rejects the basic concept of secularism.
  • That the Citizenship (Amendment) Act is discriminatory and violative of human rights has been recognized by those who have come out on the streets in many States, in opposition to the Act.
  • The agenda of Hindutva and its ultimate goal of establishing a “Hindu Nation” underlie the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, is well established both by past experience and the present actions of the BJP-Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
  • In the days since the passage of the CAA, multiple protests across north and Northeast India last week. Ironically, these protests are themselves expressions of India’s overlapping multi-religious, multi-ethnic character that the CAA seeks to undermine.
  • The mobilizations in the Northeast were about anxieties of ethnicity, culture and language as much as religion while the protests in Delhi, Aligarh and Lucknow are chiefly about religious identity and discriminatory exclusion of Muslims from the CAA.

Conclusion

The onus is now on the Supreme Court, being the Guardian of the Constitution, to interpret the provisions of the Act and test its Constitutionality that whether the “classification” done in the Act is “reasonable” or not if tested against Article 14. The policy towards illegal migrants and refugees needs wider debates and deliberation. However, religion can never be the basis of Indian Citizenship.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution, and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4. India is in the mid of an unprecedented expansion in the renewable energy sector. In this context, examine its negative impact on ecology and human livelihood. How can we mitigate those impacts? (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains the negative impact as well as opportunities for a sustainable renewable transition for India.

Key Demand of the question:

Examine the negative implications of the expansion of renewable energy. Suggest ways to mitigate it. Substantiate your answer with examples

Directive word:

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic, get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief introduction of the status of renewable energy presently deployed as well as future plans of India

Body:

Give a detailed description of various negative implications of the unhindered expansion of renewable energy such as solar, wind, etc. For example, impact on biodiversity-rich Open Natural Ecosystems (ONE).

In the next part, give innovative suggestions, including what the government is doing, for mitigation of the negative impact e.g. use of Roof-top Solar Panels or use of Agrivoltaics on degraded agricultural land.

Conclusion:

You may conclude by:

While it is true that renewable energy projects seek to reduce our reliance on an energy economy pivoted on fossil fuels, more attention needs to be paid to how and where these projects are established and the impact these have on ecology and human life.

Introduction

Global concerns about mitigating climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions have led to innovations in the energy sector. Across the world, 192 countries have announced policies to promote renewable energy and are looking to expand the installation of renewable energy. Renewable energy is considered as a win-win solution because it allows us to mitigate climate change without sacrificing economic development. Indeed, renewables are poised as the energy choice of the future.

Body

India and her Mega renewable energy projects:

  • In 2015, under its international climate change commitments, India had promised to cut down its emissions intensity by 33-35% by 2030 and have 40% of its power, around 350,000 MW installed capacity, from renewable power.
  • Consequently, India is racing to achieve a target of installing 175,000 MW of renewable energy power by 2022, a commitment it made as part of its global climate goals.
  • At present, India’s installed renewable energy capacity is about 89,635 MW (as on 31 December 2020) only which means that in the next two years India needs to nearly double it to achieve the required target.
  • But India is lagging behind the target of 40,000 MW of rooftop solar – which was the vital part of the 175,000 MW target.
  • In such a scenario, the government is probably looking at developing large solar parks and wind parks to bridge the gap.
  • Recently, the government in Gujarat cleared land allotment of about 60,000 hectares in Kutch region for the development of 41,500 MW mega solar and wind energy park that is estimated to attract investment of around Rs 1.35 trillion.

Social impacts:

  • The following social benefits can be achieved by renewable energy projects: local employment, better health, job opportunities, and consumer choice.
  • However, renewable power projects pose equal if not a greater threat to ecological biodiversity and cause wide-scale dispossession of lands and livelihoods.
  • Large scale solar or wind energy farms require areas of contiguous land.
  • The availability of land is contentious, especially in developing countries.
  • Renewable energy projects, particularly wind and hydro, compete with local livelihoods, conservation interests and other development activities.
  • Additionally, these projects often entail a process where development is usually prioritized over conservation, and livelihood activities.
  • Shepherds, landless labourers and others depending on common lands for their livelihoods are neither being consulted before a project is set up nor are they compensated for their losses.
  • This leads to slew of issues among the local people like land alienation, poverty, health issues, psychological issues, migration etc.
  • Case study:
    • In India all development projects, including renewable energy, are required to gain consent from village level panchayats.
    • In most cases, the certificate of consent from village level panchayats provides mere lip service.
    • The project developers often use empty claims of providing electricity and economic benefits to impoverished, local communities in order to jumpstart the projects.
    • There is no mechanism to monitor how much electricity will be provided and to how many households at the local level.
    • A case in point is the 113 MW, Andhra lake Wind power project, promoted by the multi-national Enercon, on the outskirts of Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra.
    • The villagers who live next to the project site don’t have access to electricity, even though the project threatens their livelihoods and the rich biodiversity of the region.

Ecological impacts:

  • One major complaint against the rapid clean energy transition is that it is usurping fertile agricultural land and massively impacting avifauna.
  • In India, forest lands are the default choice of location for wind and hydel power project developers.
  • It is cumbersome to negotiate private land deals and agricultural land needs to be converted to commercial land, in order to be procured for renewable energy development.
  • In comparison, it is relatively easier for renewable energy projects to get approval from the federal and regional forest departments, because they are considered ‘sustainable’.
  • Setting up of a renewable energy project requires felling of trees, laying transmission lines and constructing a sub-station for relaying the electricity to the grid.
  • The wind turbines are massive structures that need to be hauled to higher altitudes thereby significantly affecting the ecology of the landscape.
  • In high rainfall areas, these changes could lead to landslides, floods, conflicts with local livelihoods, and massive soil erosion.
  • Case Study:
    • In late 2020, a news report highlighted that the Gujarat government has plans to develop a 41,500-megawatt (MW) hybrid renewable energy park in Kutch.
    • The state government has cleared the revenue department’s proposal for allotment of 60,000 hectares of land – nearly the size of Greater Mumbai – for this project.
    • The land finalised for the Kutch project is considered “wasteland” by the government but that may not be the case for the local people and could be an important area for them.
    • In Kutch, there are many protected areas and they need to be preserved.
    • If one looks at Kutch there is a huge wetland Shakoor Lake which falls in both India and Pakistan.
    • This region is home to hundreds of bird species and its adjoining areas are also prime habitat for the vultures and flamingos.
    • There are many studies by reputed institutes like Wildlife Institute of India that have warned against the death of birds due to collisions with power lines.
    • The area is also part of the Central Asian Flyway.
    • The Rajasthan High Court stayed work related to a solar energy park in Rajasthan over land issues after locals filed a case against the land allocated for the project which the Rajasthan government had termed as a wasteland.

Measures needed

  • RE plants need to be allotted go/no-go zones where they can and cannot be set up, based on ecological and livelihood sensitivity of the regions.
  • A fair and transparent public-hearing process is crucial for any development project.
  • Independent EIA Authority and Sector wide EIAs needed.
  • Creation of a centralized baseline data bank.
  • Dissemination of all information related to projects from notification to clearance to local communities and general public.
  • All those projects where there is likely to be a significant alternation of ecosystems need to go through the process of environmental clearance, without exception.
  • No industrial developmental activity should be permitted in ecologically sensitive areas.
  • Public hearings should be applicable to all hitherto exempt categories of projects which have environmental impacts.

Way forward

  • Even as renewable power projects pose equal if not greater threat to ecological biodiversity and cause a wide-scale dispossession of lands and livelihoods, they are rarely critiqued.
  • The state should take into account the precarity of local populations that depend upon natural resources for their livelihoods while encouraging renewable energy projects.
  • Some probable solutions include giving greater powers to the village level panchayats, making EIA mandatory for all renewable energy projects and ensuring economic as well as electricity access for people who live in close proximity to renewable energy projects.
  • As increasing number of practitioners, policy makers across countries are focused on fostering renewable energy; it is even more crucial to examine the complex and layered ways in which such projects are operationalized.

 

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology, and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. Cryptocurrencies are said to empower people on one hand but at the same time create regulatory hurdles on the other. In light of the statement discuss the pros and cons of banning cryptocurrencies. (250 Words) 

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The government has recently proposed that cryptocurrencies be banned but crypto assets be legalised and strongly regulated.

Key Demand of the question:

Briefly describe the advantages and disadvantages of banning cryptocurrencies.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly describe what are Cryptocurrencies and the current debate about their use.

Body:

Give a description of how cryptocurrencies can be a tool for empowerment e.g. it is a great opportunity for poorly banked countries. Then, go on to briefly describe how it creates regulatory hurdles such as misuse of cryptocurrency is hard to detect.

Then next, enumerate some pros of banning (e.g. it will prevent money laundering using crypto) and cons (e.g. it will give a tech-unfriendly image for India)

Conclusion:

Conclude by giving a balanced view about the use of cryptocurrency.

Introduction

A cryptocurrency is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange wherein individual coin ownership records are stored in a ledger existing in a form of a computerized database. It uses strong cryptography to secure transaction records, to control the creation of additional coins, and to verify the transfer of coin ownership. It typically does not exist in physical form (like paper money) and is typically not issued by a central authority.

Body

Pros of banning cryptocurrencies

  • Sovereign guarantee: Cryptocurrencies pose risks to consumers. They do not have any sovereign guarantee and hence are not legal tender.
  • Market volatility: Their speculative nature also makes them highly volatile. For instance, the value of Bitcoin fell from USD 20,000 in December 2017 to USD 3,800 in November 2018.
  • Risk in security: A user loses access to their cryptocurrency if they lose their private key (unlike traditional digital banking accounts, this password cannot be reset).
  • Malware threats: In some cases, these private keys are stored by technical service providers (cryptocurrency exchanges or wallets), which are prone to malware or hacking.
  • Money laundering.

Issues Associated with Banning Decentralised Cryptocurrencies

  • Blanket Ban: The intended ban is the essence of the Cryptocurrency and Regulation of Official Digital Currency Bill, 2021. It seeks to prohibit all private cryptocurrencies in India.
  • However, categorising the cryptocurrencies as public (government-backed) or private (owned by an individual) is inaccurate as the cryptocurrencies are decentralised but not private.
  • Decentralised cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin aren’t or rather, can’t be controlled by any entity, private or public.
  • Brain-Drain: Ban of cryptocurrencies is most likely to result in an exodus of both talent and business from India, similar to what happened after the RBI’s 2018 ban.
  • Back then, blockchain experts moved to countries where crypto was regulated, such as Switzerland, Singapore, Estonia and the US. With a blanket ban, blockchain innovation, which has uses in governance, data economy and energy, will come to a halt in India.
  • Deprivation of Transformative Technology: A ban will deprive India, its entrepreneurs and citizens of a transformative technology that is being rapidly adopted across the world, including by some of the largest enterprises such as Tesla and MasterCard.
  • An Unproductive Effort: Banning as opposed to regulating will only create a parallel economy, encouraging illegitimate use, defeating the very purpose of the ban.
  • A ban is infeasible as any person can purchase cryptocurrency over the internet.
  • Contradictory Policies: Banning cryptocurrency is inconsistent with the Draft National Strategy on Blockchain, 2021 of the Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY), which hailed blockchain technology as transparent, secure and efficient technology that puts a layer of trust over the internet.

Way Forward

  • Regulation is the Solution: Regulation is needed to prevent serious problems, to ensure that cryptocurrencies are not misused, and to protect unsuspecting investors from excessive market volatility and possible scams.
  • The regulation needs to be clear, transparent, coherent and animated by a vision of what it seeks to achieve.
  • Clarity on Crypto-currency definition: A legal and regulatory framework must first define crypto-currencies as securities or other financial instruments under the relevant national laws and identify the regulatory authority in charge.
  • Strong KYC Norms: Instead of a complete prohibition on cryptocurrencies, the government shall rather regulate the trading of cryptocurrencies by including stringent KYC norms, reporting and taxability.
  • Ensuring Transparency: Record keeping, inspections, independent audits, investor grievance redressal and dispute resolution may also be considered to address concerns around transparency, information availability and consumer protection.
  • Igniting the Entrepreneurial Wave: Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain technology can reignite the entrepreneurial wave in India’s start up ecosystem and create job opportunities across different levels, from blockchain developers to designers, project managers, business analysts, promoters and marketers.

Conclusion

India is currently on the cusp of the next phase of digital revolution and has the potential to channel its human capital, expertise and resources into this revolution, and emerge as one of the winners of this wave. All that is needed to do is to get the policymaking right. Blockchain and crypto assets will be an integral part of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Indians shouldn’t be made to simply bypass it.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

6. “Gandhi ji’s philosophy on education emphasized not just on merely educating the child but emphasized on education which makes the child endeavor for the large-scaled welfare of humanity”. Comment (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question?

Efforts by the government in recent times (NEP, 2020) to transform Indian education to make it globally competitive; structural issue with Indian education (rote-learning, becoming more mechanical and selfish in recent times).

Structure of the answer

Introduction

Highlight the main characteristics (excessive competition, selfishness, value-less) of present education in a brief manner and how it affects society.

Body

Throw light on Gandhi’s views on the system of education that he envisioned for India. Ex: Focus on handicraft education, teaching children to be self-sufficient, selfless) etc. and how it can help India to realize the objective of building a happy and inclusive India.

Conclusion

Conclude how we can include these values in our education system

Introduction

“To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society” aptly captures the idea behind the above quote by Mahatma Gandhi. Education promotes the metamorphosis of a child to become a full-fledged adult. Mere learning without promotion and development of values even discards the definition of education. Education of values and principles shapes and moulds a soul

Body

Achieving academic excellence for all students is at the very core of any school’s purpose, and will inform much of what they do. Character education is not a new thing, extending as it does back to the work of Aristotle. Yet it could be argued that the pursuit of success in schools in more recent years has sought to put the cart before the horse. In driving students to think of success solely in terms of exam grades and university places, pressure is created that can often be counter intuitive to student well- being and academic progress.

It does not matter how educated or wealthy one is, if the inherent character or personality lacks morals. In fact, such personalities can be threat to a peaceful society. E.g.: Mussolini, Hitler are all examples of education devoid of morality leading mankind to their destruction.

In contemporary times it is equally relevant. For instance, An educated man taking dowry will be a death spell for gender equality and gender justice. The seven sins of Gandhiji will materialise when we are educated without morality like Science without humanity as is the case with nuclear weapons today. Thus, Education without values as useful as it seems makes a man, a clever devil.

Conclusion

Education without morals is like a ship without a compass, merely wandering nowhere. It is not enough to have the power of concentration, but we must have worthy objectives upon which to concentrate. It is not enough to know truth, but we must love truth and sacrifice for it.

 

7. Discuss how Basavanna’s philosophy is still relevant in contemporary Indian society. (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question?

Karnataka’s efforts to unveil a 210 ft statue of Basavanna’s statue in the state

Structure of the answer

Introduction

Highlight the most important or underlying value in Basavanna’s philosophy. Ex: Egalitarianism

Body

Highlight the teachings of Basavanna and how it helps to address issues in the present society in multiple domains. E.g.: Work, gender equality, the role of compassion in religion, against caste discrimination, etc.

Conclusion

Conclude what can be done to throw more awareness and spread these messages in the society in the present times.

Introduction

Basavanna or Lord Basaveshwara was an Indian 12th-century statesman, philosopher, a poet and Lingayats saint in the Shiva-focussed Bhakti movement and a social reformer in Karnataka. He lived during the reign of the Kalyani Chalukya/Kalachuri dynasty. He was active during the rule of both dynasties but reached his peak of influence during the rule of King Bijjala II in Karnataka, India.

Body

Role and influences of Basavanna as a social reformer:

  • Basavanna was a philosopher and a social reformer, who fought against social evils of his time such as caste system and the ritual practices of Hinduism.
  • His teachings were based on rational, progressive social thoughts
  • His teachings and philosophy transcend all boundaries and address the universal and eternal.
  • Basava was a great humanitarian, who advocated a new way of life, in which divine experience was at the center of life and where caste, gender and social distinctions carried no special importance.
  • From socio-economic prejudices and untouchability to gender discrimination, he waged war against all ills.
  • Basava championed devotional worship that rejected temple worship and rituals led by Brahmins, and replaced it with personalized direct worship of Shiva through practices such as individually worn icons and symbols like a small linga.
  • Basavanna spread social awareness through his poetry, popularly known as Vachanas.
  • Lord Basava had guided the society on subjects like social and gender equality and our progress is incomplete until the weaker section gets equal rights and respect.
  • Basavanna had laid the foundation for such a social democracy where priority was given to the person at the bottom-most stratum of the society.
  • Basavanna had touched every aspect of human life and had suggested solutions to improve it.
  • His world vision was filled with compassion and love. He always kept non-violence and love at the centre of Indian culture.

Relevance today

  • Basavanna’s universal message of unity of mankind, equality, brotherhood and compassion, which transcends religious boundaries, is not only contemporary but most relevant for building a modern, progressive society in the 21st century.
  • The words of Lord Basaveshwara and his teachings are such a great source of knowledge that is not only a spiritual guide but also a medium of showing us the path like a practical guide.
  • Lack of rationalism and presence of superstitions are visible in hinterlands.
  • His teachings also tell us to be a better human being, and help us to make our society more liberal, kind and humane.
  • The differences on the basis of caste and colour, for instance lynching of Dalits and racial attacks, are still prevalent.
  • There are still historic disputes over construction of religious buildings.
  • So today, as our country India, is moving ahead addressing various challenges, then Basavanna’s ideas become equally relevant.

Conclusion

Basavanna gave rise to a system of ethics and education at once simple and exalted. 12th century saint, philosopher and social reformer, Basaweshwara’s universal message of unity of mankind, equality, brotherhood and compassion is most relevant for building a modern and progressive society.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos