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[Mission 2022] MINDMAP – Boosting Green Hydrogen


General Studies-3


Topic: Infrastructure: Energy

Boosting green hydrogen


  • India aims for net-zero carbon emissions by 2070.
  • India is the only major economy whose policies and actions are on track to  limit global average temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, as envisioned in the Paris Agreement.

Tapping Green Hydrogen

  • As of now, 75% of India’s energy demand is met by coal and oil, which is expected to increase.
  • Therefore, green hydrogen must be tapped to tackle the dependence on fossil fuel.
  • Hydrogen generated through renewable energy sources is called green hydrogen.
  • Green hydrogen is a crucial weapon in India’s arsenal to fight climate change.
  • It improves the long-term energy storage capabilities of renewable energy.
  • It is also the most promising solution to decarbonise sectors like cement, steel, and refineries.
  • It is thus an essential solution to reach the 1.5°C climate scenario.

Transition towards green hydrogen

  • Several major economies are adopting legislation to catalyse global efforts towards transitions to green hydrogen.
  • More than 30 countries have hydrogen road maps and over 200 large-scale hydrogen projects across the value chain.
    Insights Mindmap
  • Governments worldwide have committed to more than $70 billion in public funding, according to Hydrogen Council, to develop a hydrogen economy.
  • With its abundant and cheap solar energy, India has the upper hand to tap into these investments and lead global efforts in transitioning to green hydrogen.

Scaling up the use of green hydrogen

  • Nearly 70% of the investments required to produce green hydrogen through electrolysis goes into generating renewable energy.
  • With India’s solar capacity increasing nearly 3,000 times in less than a decade, it gives India a unique head start in scaling up the use of green hydrogen.
  • India can reduce its carbon emissions and annual import bills by developing a value chain for hydrogen from its diverse applications.

Way Forward

  • Government funding and long-term policies that attract private investments are essential to boost green hydrogen.
  • Hydrogen’s cross-sectoral capabilities should be exploited.
  • A few key sectors with low transition costs, such as refineries, fertilizers and natural gas, should be mandated to use hydrogen.
  • Shipping, aviation and energy storage should be mandated to use green hydrogen in the long run.
  • Enforcing time-bound mid- and long-term policies would inspire the private sector to invest more in green hydrogen.
  • India should aim to produce 4-6 million tonnes of green hydrogen per annum by the end of the decade and export at least 2 million tonnes per annum.


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