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How is Hong Kong administered?

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Effects of policies of other countries on India.



Hong Kong authorities are pursuing new laws to tighten the city-state’s grip on public discourse critical of its Beijing-aligned government.


Need for:

Residents are resorting to self-censorship and many feel that their city’s progressive identity may have been permanently lost.


How is Hong Kong ruled?

It is ruled under One Country Two Systems approach.

As per the policy, the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions, both former colonies, can have different economic and political systems from that of mainland China, while being part of the People’s Republic of China.

Hong Kong returned to Chinese control on July 1, 1997, and Macau’s sovereignty was transferred on December 20, 1999.

  • The regions would have their own currencies, economic and legal systems, but defence and diplomacy would be decided by Beijing.
  • Their mini-Constitutions would remain valid for 50 years — till 2047 for Hong Kong and 2049 for Macau. It is unclear what will happen after this term.



Chinese law in Hong Kong to respond to foreign sanctions:

  • The law is proposed to be introduced through Hong Kong legislation rather than Beijing legislation, by adding it to an annex of Hong Kong’s mini-constitution, known as the Basic Law.


What’s the law all about?

  1. Beijing adopted a law in June under which individuals or entities involved in making or implementing discriminatory measures against Chinese citizens or entities could be put on a Chinese government anti-sanctions list.
  2. Under China’s law, such individuals could then be denied entry into China or be expelled.
  3. Their assets in China may be seized or frozen. They could also be restricted from doing business with entities or people in China.


Why was such a law introduced?

The law comes as the United States and European Union step up pressure on China over trade, technology, Hong Kong and the far western region of Xinjiang


Concerns and issues associated with the law:

Critics have warned that Hong Kong’s adoption of the law could undermine its reputation as a global financial hub.



Prelims Link:

  1. About Hong Kong.
  2. When did it become independent?
  3. About One Country Two Systems approach.
  4. Highlights of the law.

Mains Link:

Discuss the implications of the law.

Sources: the Hindu.