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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 November 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent);

1. Explain the distribution of major non-metallic minerals in India. Critically Analyze the National Mineral Policy, 2019 in revitalizing the mining sector, increasing output and focusing on responsible and sustainable mining. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: NCERT CLASS – XII: India People and Economy.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To Explain the distribution of major non-metallic minerals in India and to analyze the National Mineral policy, 2019.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by mentioning about non-metallic minerals in India and their importance.

Body:

In the first part of the body, with a neat illustrative map, highlight the distribution of major non-metallic minerals such as Mica, Limestone, Dolomite, Asbestos, Magnesite, Gypsum and Kyanite etc.

In the second part, mention about the latest National Mineral Policy, 2019 and its aims in fueling growth, improve India’s minerals sector that can catalyse sustained economic growth, achieve mineral security and growth would have also ensured a globally competitive investment regime along with sustainable development of mining sector.

Next mention about, how India’s mining sector has grappled with multiple challenges including illegal and unscientific mining, environmental and statutory process violations, increased cases of fatalities in mine sites and lack of investments in the sector. Mining curbs in Goa and Karnataka along with mine closures in top producing states, Odisha and Jharkhand have led to reduced employment opportunities for the mineral sector professionals and associated contract personnel; as a result, hundreds of young geology and mining graduates face a bleak future.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Non-metals are minerals (Non-metallic minerals) which, as a rule, do not serve as raw material for the extraction of metal. The group of non-metals, which is widespread amongst the variety of minerals, is of great economic significance.

Body

Distribution of major non-metallic minerals in India

 

  • Mica
    • India is one of the foremost suppliers of mica to the world.
    • Andhra Pradesh (41 per cent), Rajasthan (21 per cent), Odisha (20 per cent), Maharashtra (15 per cent), Bihar (2 per cent), Jharkhand (Less than 1 per cent)
  • Limestone
    • Limestone deposits are of sedimentary origin and exist in all the geological sequences from Pre-Cambrian to Recent except in Gondwana.
    • Over three-fourths of the total limestone of India is produced by Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and Tamil Nadu.
  • Asbestos
    • Two states of Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh produce almost the whole of asbestos of India.
  • Magnesite
    • Major deposits of magnesite are found in Uttaranchal, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan.
    • Tamil Nadu is the largest producer [three-fourth] of magnesite in India.
    • The largest in India are found at Chalk Hills near Salem town.
  • Salt
    • Rock salt is taken out in Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh and in Gujarat. It is less than 1 per cent of the total salt produced in India.
    • Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan produces about 10 per cent of our annual production.
    • Sea brine is the source of salt in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
    • Gujarat coast produces nearly half of our salt.

National Mineral Policy, 2019:

  • Proposes to increase the production of major minerals by 200 per cent in seven years and reduce trade deficit in mineral sector by 50 per cent in seven years.
  • Aims to attract private investment through incentives like financial package, right of first refusal at the time of auction.
  • Introduces the concept of ‘Exclusive Mining Zones’.
  • Proposes to identify critically fragile ecosystems.
  • Encourages merger and acquisition of mining entities and transfer of mining leases.
  • Proposes harmonizing royalty and all other levies and taxes.
  • Emphasizes on ensuring welfare of mining-affected people / communities and ensuring rehabilitation and resettlement.
  • Introduces the concept of ‘Inter- Generational Equity’ in mineral resource exploitation

Significance of NMP, 2019

  • The concept of ‘Inter-Generational Equity’ that deals with the well-being not only of the present generation but also of the generations to come promotes sustainable development.
  • Focus on ‘Make in India’ initiative and gender sensitivity in terms of the vision
  • In so far as the regulation in minerals is concerned, e-Governance, IT enabled systems have been incorporated.
  • NMP, 2019 aims to attract private investment through incentives while the efforts would be made to maintain a database of mineral resources.
  • The new policy focusses on use coastal waterways and inland shipping for evacuation and transportation of minerals and encourages dedicated mineral corridors to facilitate the transportation of minerals.
  • The utilization of the district mineral fund for equitable development of project affected persons and areas.
  • NMP, 2019 proposes a long-term export-import policy for the mineral sector to provide stability and as an incentive for investing in large scale commercial mining activity.

Challenges:

  • The proposal of ‘Exclusive Mining Zones’ arise serious concerns about the impact of this proposal on forest ecology, wildlife corridors and forest-dependent communities.
  • Clearance process is not yet robust and comprehensive to improve the quality of assessment before projects are cleared.
  • Post-clearance monitoring has not been strengthened. The clearance mechanism continues to suffer from a fragmented approach. The process has largely become a bureaucratic paperwork, with little focus on protecting environment and community.
  • Air, water and soil pollution problems in almost all key mining districts of India have severely affected people’s health and their livelihood.
  • The Policy also falls short in providing necessary guidance to ensure effective mine closure practices. A key impediment for proper mine closure in India is that the current financial assurance for this is insufficient.

Conclusion

Mineral resources of a country and the extent of its utilization are important determinants of growth and prosperity of a nation and its people. Though the actual value of mineral production accounts for only a small percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country, it plays a vital role in world economy, as it has a direct bearing to the industrial growth and developments in the frontiers of science and technology.

Success of this national mineral policy will be critical in propelling India on to a loftier development trajectory. Successful implementation of this policy and shall be ensured by achieving a national consensus among various key stakeholders and their commitments to fulfil its underlying principles and objectives.

 

Topic: factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).

2. Agglomeration industries have been analyzed in the literature as drivers of economic growth, as these contribute to productivity enhancement. Elaborate on the reasons as to why firms agglomerate? (250 words)

Reference: NCERT CLASS – XII: India People and Economy.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring out the reasons for agglomeration by industries and firms.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by defining agglomeration industries. Cite few examples of Agglomeration Industries in India such as Diamond Agglomeration of Surat, Transportation Industry of Namakkal etc.

Body:

In the first part of the body, elaborate upon Agglomeration industries as drivers of economic growth. From improved access to market centers to from enhanced intra-industry linkages and inter-industry urbanization economies, which all enhances productivity.

In the next part of the body, bring out in detail, the factors responsible for agglomeration of Industries such as Proximity to Customers and Suppliers, Labor Market Pooling, Intellectual or Technology Spillovers, Natural Advantages, facilities for the development, local trade of specialized inputs and better availability of public intermediate inputs tailored to the technical needs of the industry. Substantiate these with examples from India and across the world.

Conclusion:

Summarize the overall importance of agglomeration industries, especially in their role in urbanization and conclude the answer.

Introduction

Industries based on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material (ores) are located close to the sources of raw material such as steel, sugar, and cement industries. Many industries benefit from nearness to a leader-industry and other industries. These benefits are termed as agglomeration economies.

Body

Agglomeration Economies as drivers of Economic Growth:

Agglomeration economies or external economies of scale refer to the benefits from concentrating output and housing in particular areas. If an area specializes in the production of a certain type of good, all firms can benefit from various factors such as:

  • Good supply networks
  • Supply of trained workers
  • Infrastructure built specifically for the industry
  • Good transport links.

Due to agglomeration economies, people and firms often concentrate in particular areas. For example, people tend to move to cities where is there is a greater choice of jobs, social activities and specialist services

Examples of Agglomeration Economies:

Silicon Valley. IT setups tend to cluster in similar regions, such as Silicon Valley California, and major cities, like London. The reason is that these areas attract highly skilled IT personnel and it is easier to recruit the right staff. Also, the support infrastructure will surround the areas. There will be a competitive market for designers, software engineers, and proof readers.

Chinese clothing manufacturers. China has seen a strong growth in manufacturing industries on the south-east coast. These areas have good transport links for exporting to the rest of the world. Also, the areas have attracted migrant flows from northern China, enabling wage costs to remain low

Factors responsible for the agglomeration of manufacturing industries in India:

  • The most dominant factor of industrial location is the least cost.
    • Cost of obtaining raw materials at site: Manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the raw materials of production are either available or can be arranged at lower cost.
    • Cost of production at site: These are influenced by availability of labour, capital, power, etc. Thus industrial location is influenced by the costs of availability of these factors of production.
    • Cost of distribution of production: The distance of industry from market influence the transportation costs. Transportation costs influence the cost of distribution of production.
  • Raw materials
    • Indeed, the location of industrial enterprises is sometimes determined simply by location of the raw materials.
    • Finished product of one industry may well be the raw material of another. For example, pig iron, produced by smelting industry, serves as the raw material for steel making industry.
  • Power
    • Regular supply of power is a pre-requisite for the localization of industries. Coal, mineral oil and hydroelectricity are the three important conventional sources of power.
    • The iron and steel industry which mainly depends on large quantities of coking coal as source of power are frequently tied to coal fields.
  • Transport
    • Transport by land or water is necessary for the assembly of raw materials and for the marketing of the finished products.
    • The development of railways in India, connecting the port towns with hinterland determined the location of many industries around Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.
  • Market
    • The entire process of manufacturing is useless until the finished goods reach the market. Nearness to market is essential for quick disposal of manufactured goods.
    • It helps in reducing the transport cost and enables the consumer to get
    • Things at cheaper rates.
  • Water
    • Water is another important requirement for industries. Many industries are established near rivers, canals and lakes, because of this reason.
    • Iron and steel industry, textile industries and chemical industries require large quantities of water, for their proper functioning.
  • Site
    • Site requirements for industrial development are of considerable significance. Sites, generally, should be flat and well served by adequate transport facilities.
  • Climate
    • Climate plays an important role in the establishment of industries at a place.
    • Harsh climate is not much suitable for the establishment of industries. There can be no industrial development in extremely hot, humid, dry or cold climate.
  • Capital
    • Modern industries are capital-intensive and require huge investments. Capitalists are available in urban centers.
    • Big cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, and Chennai are big industrial centers, because the big capitalists live in these cities.
    • Additional capacities are being planned to be installed in all the major manufacturing units.
  • Government Policy
    • Government activity in planning the future distribution of industries, for reducing regional disparities, elimination of pollution of air and water and for avoiding their heavy clustering in big cities, has become no less an important locational factor.
    • A public procurement policy has been proposed incorporating technology along with common facility centers while the Khadi Mark steps has been launched to promote Micro Small and Medium Enterprises.
  • Banking Facilities
    • Establishment of industries involves daily exchange of crores of rupees which is possible through banking facilities only. So the areas with better banking facilities are better suited to the establishment of industries.
  • Insurance
    • There is a constant fear of damage to machine and man in industries for which insurance facilities are badly needed.

Conclusion:

Policies in the form of taxation concession, stable policy, cheaper land, administrative ease and good governance facilitates the development of Industrial clusters. In pursuance to this GOI passed the Special Economic Zones Act, in 2005. Further Government has established National Investment and Manufacturing Zones for increasing the manufacturing share in country’s GDP from 16 percent to 25 percent by 2022. Governments adopt ‘regional policies’ to promote ‘balanced’ economic development and hence set up industries in particular areas.

 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

3. Examine the causes that led to the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. What were the reasons behind India’s victory in the war? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

As we approach the 50th anniversary of Pakistan’s abject surrender to the Indian Army on 16 December 1971, it makes for an emotive moment in the history of modern India.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the causes for Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 and to explain reasons for India’s victory.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of the conflict between east and west Pakistan.

Body:

In the first part, write about the reasons for the outbreak of the war. Ethnic clashes, Economic disparities, Political asymmetry, Language issue and the immediate cause etc.

Next, write about the reasons for India’s involved in the war – opportunity of the century, countering Pakistan, Bengali movement for autonomy and shared heritage, refugee crisis, security threats etc.

Next, write about the reasons for India’s victory over Pakistan.

Conclusion:

Link the outcome to present day and Bangladesh celebrated 50 years of its Liberation movement.

Introduction

December 16, 2021 marks the 50th anniversary of Vijay Diwas, the day the Pakistan Army in East Bengal surrendered in 1971 and Bangladesh was born. Bangladesh War of Independence was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in East Pakistan. Bangladesh’s independence has been considered India’s most successful neighbourhood intervention.

Body:

The causes that led to the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971

  • Economic Prowess of East Pakistan:
    • Most of the foreign exchange was earned by exports from East Pakistan which was poorly defended when the big war of 1965 with India was fought.
  • Disparity of Governance:
    • Punjab and the Punjabi-dominated army ruled Pakistan soon after the birth of Pakistan.
    • The services were also dominated by Punjabis through quotas but East Pakistan dominated in literacy and high education.
    • Top seats in the civil services exams always went to East Pakistan.
  • Military Rule:
    • General Ayub Khan took over Pakistan in 1958, the East Pakistan’s needs and demands were completely suppressed.
    • Until 1962, martial law continued and Ayub purged a number of politicians and civil servants from the government and replaced them with army officers.
  • Distance factor:
    • Pakistan couldn’t tackle the strange phenomenon of being divided by a thousand miles of India.
  • Six-Point Program discarded:
    • The six point program of Mujib-Ur-Rahman in 1966 for economic and political autonomy of East Pakistan was discarded.
  • Imposition of Urdu:
    • Urdu was made the “National Language” of Pakistan. The requests from East Pakistan and option of Arabic were turned down.
  • Genocides and Refugee Problems:
    • There was a systematic ethnic slaughter which qualified as genocide. There was clear ethnic or religious targeting of the Hindu minority among the Bengalis.
    • By July-August 1971, 90% of the refugees were Hindus concentrated in the border districts of West Bengal with large Muslim populations.
    • The Response of West Pakistan to 1970 cyclone which ravaged East Pakistan was minimal and lacked compassion.
  • Immediate Cause:
    • The Awami League, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, won a landslide victory in the national elections in 1971 and demanded autonomy for East Pakistan.
    • This victory also gave it the right to form a government, but Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Chairman of the Pakistan People’s Party refused to let the Sheikh become the Prime Minister of Pakistan. This initiated the war.

Factors that led to India’s victory over Pakistan

  • Timing of war
    • India chose to fight against Pakistan in the winter months when the Himalayan passes were snowbound thus cutting China’s military support to Pakistan.
  • Decisive Leadership
    • Indira Gandhi had been a hawkish leader known for her firm decisions.
    • Her stand didn’t collapse even under US pressure by 7th Fleet Naval mobilization threat.
  • Astute Diplomacy
    • The then Prime minister Indira Gandhi sought international opinion to the cause of Bangladesh and made aware of India’s unbearable burden of refugees.
    • She build a consensus to force a UN resolution condemning the Pakistani atrocities in Bangladesh.
  • Military assistance
    • India not only gave sanctuary to the Bangladeshi government-in-exile but also trained and equipped the Mukti Bahini.
    • Large-scale usage of Indian Air Force compared to 1962 War against China.
    • Success of operations conducted by navy on western fronts by attacking Karachi and blockading of eastern front by naval ships.
  • Mutual cooperation
    • Mutual cooperation between Indian armies and Bangladeshi local population in the East Pakistan making it difficult for Pakistani armies to survive there.
  • Friendship treaty
    • To secure itself against a possible U.S.-China intervention in case events led to war, India signed on August 9 a 20-year Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation.

Conclusion

India played the great role in emergence of independent Bangladesh and was the first country to recognise Bangladesh as separate state. India’s humanitarian intervention in Bangladesh has shaped South Asia, made it a responsible power in the region. India’s links with Bangladesh are civilisational, cultural, social and economic. The shared colonial legacy, history and socio-cultural bonds demand that the political leadership of the two countries inject momentum into India-Bangladesh relations.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

4. The concept of cooperatives builds on the idea of communities creating infrastructure by using local material and family labour, which is a vital component of inclusive development. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Union Home and Cooperation Minister Amit Shah on Sunday described the cooperative model as the best suited model to achieve an all-encompassing and inclusive development in a huge country like India with a population of 130 crore.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the role of Co-operative society at the local level and how they can boost the economy on the national front.

Directive word:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining cooperatives.

Body:

Mention the role of Cooperatives in linking the local business men/ farmer to the mainstream multi-million marketplace, giving the right forum to reap benefits of collective demand and supply in terms of financing, local level policy negotiations etc and promoting economic and social upliftment.

Further, this would also promote local interests and aligns our aatma nirbhar strategy

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that the Co-operative model can be emulated in various other sectors with a push from the government for boosting the economy of our country.

Introduction

A cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically controlled. The need for profitability is balanced by the needs of the members and the wider interest of the community.

Body

Background

  • India is an agricultural country and laid the foundation of World’s biggest cooperative movement in the world.
  • For instance, Amul deals with 16 million milk producers, 1,85,903 dairy cooperatives; 222 district cooperative milk unions; marketed by 28 state marketing federations.
  • Amul is an example of what 36 lakh women dairy farmers can achieve if they work together with transparency
  • There are over 8 lakh cooperatives of all shapes and sizes across sectors in India.
  • The Union government of India in July 2021 created a new Ministry of Cooperation for strengthening cooperative movement.
  • It was created for realizing the vision of ‘Sahakar se Samriddhi’ (Prosperity through Cooperation) and to give a new push to the cooperative movement.

Cooperatives are a vital component of inclusive development

  • Cooperatives are self-help Economic Enterprises and play a vital role in uplifting socio-economic conditions of their members and the local community amongst in which they operate.
  • Locally owned, people-centric Cooperatives have served as catalysts for social organization and cohesion.
  • The concept of social cooperatives builds on the idea of communities creating infrastructure by using local material and family labour.
  • These can be the village tank, paving the village road — with or without MGNREGA — finishing the last-mile construction of a canal network or even keeping watch on the contractor.
  • In India, a Co-operative based economic development model is very relevant where each member works with a spirit of responsibility.
  • In India ,it is an organization for the poor, illiterate, and unskilled people.
  • It provides agricultural credits and fundswhere state and private sectors have not been able to do very much giving much relief to small and marginal farmers
  • As cooperatives foster economies of scope and scale, they increase the bargaining power of their members providing them, among others benefits, higher income and social protection.
  • Cooperatives accord members opportunity, protection and empowerment – essential elements in uplifting them from degradation and poverty.
  • It softens the class conflictsand reduces the social cleavages.
  • It creates a conducive environment for small and cottage industries, which is a major employer in India.
  • Cooperatives are contributing towards gender equality  by    expanding women’s opportunities to  participate in  local     economies and societies.
  • Cooperatives ensure healthy lives by  creating the   infrastructure  for    delivering  healthcare services;  financing  healthcare  and   providing home-based  healthcare  services  to   people living with HIV/AIDS, among others.
  • Cooperatives are  increasingly  getting  involved  in  direct  provision  of  quality  education  by  setting  up  their  own  schools,  enabling  students  to  access  secondary  education  in  remote
  • Cooperatives are   increasingly   becoming   major   actors   in   facilitating   access   to   clean   water   and   sanitation  services  to  make  up  for  the  failures  of  both the public and private sectors.

Way forward

  • Principle of the cooperative movement is to unite everyone, even while remaining anonymous. The cooperative movement has the capacity to solve people’s problems.
  • The pandemic seems to have increased the significance of community effort.
  • Reducing vaccine hesitancy, providing food to those waiting outside hospitals and, most importantly, looking after orphaned children are imperatives crying out for the cooperative model.
  • Implementing the steps provided by the Vaidyanathan committee on credit cooperative societies.
  • The idea of cooperatives must take the agenda beyond agriculture, milk, credit and housing cooperatives
  • New areas are emerging with the advancement of technology and cooperative societies can play a huge role in making people familiar with those areas and technologies.
  • There is a need to create more cooperatives with women at the helm of it.
  • The irregularities in cooperatives need to be checked and the need of the hour is to have rules and stricter implementation of same.

 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

5. It is the duty of the opposition to make known in parliament the feelings of those sectors of society whose views may otherwise be ignored or unknown to the government. Comment on the role of the opposition in a democracy. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Om Birla talks about the role of Standing Committees and Opposition, addresses the absence of a deputy Speaker, reiterates the freedom of MPs to speak in House without fear of labels such as anti-national, and defends not telecasting protests inside Parliament.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the significance of coherent opposition in a democracy and discuss in what way the role of opposition can be made effective for better functioning of democracy.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what “opposition” means in a democracy.

Body:

Discuss the role of opposition in a democracy. Explain that the opposition parties are those political parties that do not belong to the parliamentary majority or the government coalition and voice their disagreements and critical views concerning government action and are competing for legal accession to and the peaceful exercise of power.

Opposition parties are Inseparable components of parliaments and they also function according to the rules of the game, reassuring the application of those checks and balances with their contribution to government policies and constructive criticism. Democracies become complete with opposition. Suggest key measures to strengthen democracy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with summarising the importance of opposition in a democracy.

Introduction

Official Opposition is a term used in Parliament of India and State Legislatures to designate the political party which has secured the second largest number of seats in either upper or lower houses. In order to get formal recognition in either upper or lower houses, the concerned party must have at least 10% of the total strength of the house.

Today the parliamentary Opposition in India is not merely fragmented but also in disarray. There seems to be hardly any Opposition party with a vision or strategy for its institutional working or for the Opposition as a whole.

Body

Significance of opposition party in a democracy:

  • For a healthy democracy, a healthy opposition is as important as a strong government.
  • It helps keep the regime in power under control for one.
  • It also prevents it from developing arrogant and autocratic deviations from the path of progress and democracy by questioning such steps, assessing their policies objectively and also giving important inputs.
  • They ensure that the acts of the ruling party are not detrimental to the interest of general public or nation at large.
  • The opposition ensures that the ruling political parties have a definite programme and policy to offer to the people and who can show a progressive path by action and not just by propaganda.
  • The role of the opposition party is not to oppose every decision of the ruling party.
  • Rather, it is the duty of the opposition party to support the ruling party for the acts that are in the interest of the nation.

Role of the opposition:

  • The Opposition’s main role is to question the government of the day and hold them accountable to the public and also helps to fix the mistakes of the Ruling Party.
  • The opposition provides practical criticism of the ruling party. However, it should not be totally antagonistic.
  • It basically checks the excesses of the ruling or dominant party,
  • It is also consulted when important appointments are to be made.
  • The Opposition is equally responsible in upholding the best interests of the people of the country.
  • They have to ensure that the Government does not take any steps, which might have negative effects on the people of the country.
  • There are actions of the ruling party which may be beneficial to the masses and nation building and opposition is expected to support such steps.
  • In legislature, Opposition Party has a major role, which is:
    • Constructive criticism of government.
    • Putting restriction of arbitrariness of ruling party.
    • Safeguarding liberty and right of people.
    • Preparation to form government.
    • Expression of public opinion.

Steps to strengthen the opposition party in India

  • National parties and regional parties have their own strength and shortcomings. It is of importance that these aspects are identified and acknowledged, to forge a successful coalition.
  • The flaws of the election process need to be removed – including the power of money that causes the voter to swing sides in the quest for money.
  • It is high time that the opposition works smartly in stitching an alliance.
  • It must engage in building a blue-print committed to subaltern empowerment, building a progressive narrative of all-round development and prosperity to represent itself as a vibrant and viable political alternative to the nation.
  • Opposition unity needs to be chalked out setting aside individual aspirations and egos.
  • One must not forget that to win elections, merely social arithmetic is not enough; proper chemistry is required to defeat authoritarianism that poses a threat to the constitution and social harmony.

Conclusion

In this context, the parliamentary Opposition in India has much to learn from its own legacy. It can draw from it lessons to position itself as the representative voice of democratic and egalitarian urges that is at the same time critical of the idea of the nation that has left behind a significant section of its population from any meaningful sense of belonging to it. But it also may be the opportune context to think of new ways by which dissent and opposition can be sustained in a new media-induced public culture that invariably breeds docility and compliance.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

6. A strategy that can think beyond petty political gains and strike an optimum balance between the deployment of hard and soft power is the need of the hour in Kashmir. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question: 

Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) has been on the boil since Independence. Several solutions to the problem of militancy have been put forth. Recently, there was a suggestion that de-radicalisation camps should be organised for the youth.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the need of a strategic mix of hard and soft power to resolve the Kashmir issue.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the recent developments in Kashmir in the aftermath of abrogation of article 370.

Body:

First, identify the major issues that need to resolved in Kashmir – cross border terrorism, radicalisation of the Kashmiri youth, alienation of Kashmiris, allegations of fake encounter etcs.

Next, mention the hard power approach towards the problem.

Next, mention the soft power approach towards the problem.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about the need to achieve an optimum mix of both.

Introduction

Two years after the bifurcation of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union territories of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh, there is a growing demand for the restoration of statehood in both places. It is significant for Ladakh to have demanded this given its long quest for UT status had finally materialised in 2019.

Body

Background

  • The reorganisation of the state on August 5, 2019, included the effective nullification of Articles 370 and 35(A) that gave the erstwhile state its special status and the mandate to define its domicile rules that also laid down conditions for employment.
  • The UT of Jammu and Kashmir has a legislature, but Ladakh doesn’t have one.

Current challenges

  • Cross border terrorism
    • The volatile security scenario in J&K is a manifestation of Pakistan’s proxy war with India, combined with the unsettled political issues of the state.
    • Many steps have been taken for maintaining peace in the state; but political instability, separatism and Pakistan-sponsored terrorism continue to surround the erstwhile state of J&K.
    • Attacks like Pulwama, Uri by terrorist organizations have time and again posed a challenge to peaceful environment.
  • Political misadministration
    • Mis-governance, the politics of entitlement, all pervasive corruption and rampant rent-seeking together with despicable babudom contribute to the erosion of faith in the system.
    • As values of merit, honesty and integrity are seen as impediments to material success, a society loses its moral fibre: this has happened throughout Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Radicalisation of the Kashmiri youth
    • Kashmiri children in schools and colleges outside the State are often mistreated when any misadventure takes place in J&K.
    • The incidents of violence against minorities, including Muslims, in north India have only worsened their problems.
    • Unfortunately, from the perspective of the youth of Kashmir, there is a growing trust-deficit.
    • Not only does Jammu and Kashmir have more people than the rest of country 0-14 age-group, its youth population (15-34 years) also has a bigger employment problem.
    • The lack of quality jobs may be one reason for the frustration of Kashmiri youth.
  • Human rights abuses
    • Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir range from mass killings, enforced disappearances, torture, rape and sexual abuse to political repression and suppression of freedom of speech.
  • Threats to Civilians
    • A spate of targeted killings in Kashmir has kept the minorities and migrant workers on edge.
    • Civilians are soft targets for the terrorists in this milieu. According to police figures, J&K saw 28 civilian killings, surpassing the 22 casualties of security personnel so far in 2021.
  • Allegations of fake encounter

Measures needed

Soft measures

  • Non-violent and democratic methods to achieve political aspirations.
  • Engaging the non-state actors through interlocutors, Tier-2 diplomacy should help alleviate the fears and misunderstandings that have cropped up.
  • The way out of the deadlock is to strengthen democracy.
  • Empowerment of Local Governments which involves people at the grassroots level.
  • Setting aside of the mutual fears of the people of Jammu and of Kashmir and bringing the people of Ladakh into this ambit as well.
  • Socio economic development through various governmental schemes.
  • Economic development through investments can be a game changer for Kashmir. All Kashmiris should get the due share in the growth story of India.
  • Urgent steps should be taken to bridge the gaps of trust deficit in the minds of Kashmiri youth.
  • De-radicalisation camps should be organised for the youth.
  • Conducting recruitment rallies to employ the youth, who are in a different state of mind

Hard measures

  • There is need for the Army to maintain status quo of the overall security situation, and primarily only address strategic security challenges.
  • In hinterland operations, it must adhere to all HR norms/guidelines and not give any triggers which, in the current fragile situation, could prove to be extremely counterproductive.
  • Army columns could operate only as Quick Reaction Teams for major intelligence based surgical operations.
  • A series of actions involving the reduction of violence to the extent possible, soft policing(such as use of non-lethal means) for riot control, and the establishment of the rule of law in the remotest of areas is needed.
  • The police must be prepared to take over the majority of responsibilities from the Army in the hinterland against targeted civilian killings.

Conclusion

A balanced mix of hard and soft powers can help improve the situation in J&K. The need of the hour is proper integration of Kashmir, Jammu, and Ladakh with India. Integration should not be seen in a limited dimension of territory. India should be able to win the heart of the people of Kashmir.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance;

7. When morality is not in consonance with a law, what should prevail – the moral principle or the law? (150 words)

Difficulty Level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Philosophical Mondays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To debate as to what should prevail if morality is in conflict with the law.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start the answer by mentioning the relationship between morality and law.

Body:

Explain that the popular conception of the connection between law and morality is that in some way the law exists to promote morality, to preserve those conditions which make the moral life possible.

Write about the reason for conflict. They conflict most often because morality gives you a sense of what is right and wrong or acceptable and what is not according to human nature. Law commands obedience not out of a sense of right or wrong but out of necessity. Substantiate the above with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by underscoring that Morality forms the foundation, the pre-condition, for laws. Put another way, laws do not have the necessary foundation or reason to be, if there is no such thing as morality.

Introduction

Law is the codification of societal norms and values which helps in delivering justice. While Morality is very those values and norms on which law is framed to decide what is right and wrong. Law and morality are intimately related to each other. Laws are generally based on the moral principles of society. Both regulate the conduct of the individual in society.

Body

Relation between law and morality:

  • Law is essentially a set of rules and principles created and enforced by the state whereas morals are a set of beliefs, values and principles and behaviour standards which are enforced and created by society.
  • Legal and moral rules can be isolated with the former being created by the legislative institution of parliament whereas the latter have evolved with and through society and are the standards which society in general accepts and promotes.
  • Some laws mirror the majority of society’s moral view, for example, that murder is wrong but the introduction of same sex marriages is seen by some people as morally wrong and society is divided.
  • The existence of unjust laws (such as those enforcing slavery) proves that morality and law are not identical and do not coincide.
  • The existence of laws that serve to defend basic values such as laws against murder, rape, malicious defamation of character, fraud, bribery, etc. prove that the two can work together.
  • Morality forms the basis of good law and therefore laws are framed to prohibit any immoral act. For example, Laws in India prohibits domestic violence, atrocities on lower castes, child marriages, crimes like murder and rapes because they are immoral.
  • Laws govern conduct at least partly through fear of punishment. Morality, when it is internalized governs conduct without compulsion. The virtuous person does the appropriate thing because it is the fine or noble thing to do.
  • Morality can influence the law in the sense that it can provide the reason for making whole groups of immoral actions illegal.
  • Law can be a public expression of morality which codifies in a public way the basic principles of conduct which a society accepts. In that way it can guide the educators of the next generation by giving them a clear outline of the values society wants taught to its children.
  • Obedience to law depends upon the active support of the moral sentiments of the people. Laws which are not supported by the moral conscience of the people are liable to become dead letters.

Conclusion

The only check against the breach of morality is social condemnation or individual conscience. Moral actions are a matter of choice of inner conscience of the individual; laws are a matter of compulsion. Law cannot be made on each and every aspect of life. More than law behavioral change is the key to a moral society, as rightly said by BR Ambedkar, “No law can protect us if it’s not avowed by the moral conscience of the society at large”.


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