Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 November 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. Slums in cities are the worst form of struggle for the teaming masses of people who cannot afford anything better. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the issues regarding the development of slums in India.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief, give a scenario of Urbanisation in India. Mention fact and figures with respect to level of Urbanisation in India. 

Body:

In the first part, write about why Slums are considered to a necessary evil – Cheap accommodation, Migrants agglomeration, Lack of housing, communitarian interests etc.

Next, mention the social consequences of living in slums – Crime, Poor living conditions, diseases, lack of basic amenities. Mention how the plight of slum dwellers worsened during the pandemic.

Mention steps to improve the living conditions in the slums at policy as well as implementation level.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Census of India 2011 explained slums as residential areas where dwellings are unfit for human habitation by reasons of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangements and design of such buildings, narrowness or faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, light, or sanitation facilities or any combination of these factors which are detrimental to the safety and health. The slum is an inevitable part of modern urbanization and the urban poor are active agents serving the non-slum dwellers and contribute to economic growth.

Body:

Slums in India

  • Out of 4,041 Statutory Towns in Census 2011 Slums reported from 2,543 Towns (63%)
  • Largest number of slums reported from Maharashtra (21,359)
  • People who are living in slums increased from 52 million in 2001 to 65.5 million 2011

Factors responsible for growth of slums

  • Rapid growth of population:
    • Population explosion and poverty force the urban poor to live in slums and that leads to an increase in the size of slums.
    • Also, a regional imbalance in development creates rural to urban migration, thus increasing the overall urban population density which pressurizes the urban poor to move into slums.
    • In the past 15 years, India’s urban population density has increased by 45%. It is further estimated that 40% of the population will live in urban areas by 2026.
    • With increasingly densified urban population, there exists a huge demand for land.
    • This shortage of land forces the urban poor to live in increasingly dense communities creating slums in the process.
  • Poor Urban governance:
    • A major factor for growth of slums use of rigid, often outdated urban planning regulations, which are typically bypassed by slum dwellers to meet their housing needs.
    • Another issue is the failure of governments to incorporate slum dwellers as part of the overall planning process.
    • This is often due to the inability of many governments to keep pace with urbanization because of ill-designed policies, lack of resources and corruption.
  • Administrative failure:
    • City authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs.
    • Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs.
  • Unavailability of affordable housing:
    • Rising material costs and labor costs resulting from labor shortage is another reason for the growth of slums as it makes developers unable to deliver affordable housing to the market.
    • The gap between growing demand for affordable urban housing and insufficient supply has encouraged the formation of slums.
    • Whenever the demand surplus is not met by formal sectors, this gap is typically filled by an informal dwelling such as a slum
  • Limited access to financial resources:
    • slum dwellers typically inhabit marginal locations such as dumping grounds mainly due to the low purchasing power of slum dwellers in formal land markets when compared with high-income groups.
    • Further, the urban poor lack the access to formal financial resources to help them purchase new homes or maintain a new life in a new housing unit.
  • Rural to Urban Migration:
    • Rural to urban migration is one of the primary drivers of growth of slums in Indian cities.
    • Urban centres which are not equipped to support additional population, fail to cope up with high influx of people which ultimately causes several problems such as housing shortages, unemployment, and development of slums.
  • Social factors:
    • Moreover, social backwardness forces people to live in congested areas away from main areas. For example, more Scheduled Castes (SCs) live in slums – with one out of every five residents belonging to the SC category.

Struggles faced by Slum dwellers

  • Perpetuating cycle of Poverty:
    • Income or capability poverty is considered, with some exceptions, as a central characteristic of slum areas. It is not seen as an inherent characteristic of slums, but as a cause (and, to a large extent, a consequence) of slum conditions.
    • Slum conditions are physical and statutory manifestations that create barriers to human and social development. Furthermore, slums are social exclusion areas that are often perceived to have high levels of crime and other social dislocation measures.
    • In some definitions, such areas are associated with certain vulnerable groups of the population, such as recent immigrants, internally displaced persons or ethnic minorities.
    • Low income characteristically means poor nutrition, elementary or no education, little or no medical care which undermines human capital development and slum dwellers are trapped in the vicious cycle of poverty.
  • Social problems:
    • Socially, slums remain isolated from rest of the urban society and exhibit pathological social symptoms like drug abuse, alcoholism, crime, vandalism and other deviant behaviour.
    • Women and children living in slums are prone to become victims of social evils like prostitution, beggary and child trafficking.
    • Slum dwellers in general and regardless of gender, often become victims of such social evils.
  • Health:
    • Since slums are not connected to basic services such as clean water, sanitation and hygiene facilities, residents are at great risk of contracting water-borne and respiratory diseases.
    • High population density, lack of proper toilets and close proximity of homes allow diseases to spread quickly.
    • People living in slum areas are also prone to suffer from waterborne diseases such as typhoid and cholera, as well as from more fatal ones like cancer and HIV/AIDS.
  • Lack of basic services/ amenities:
    • The slums are characterised by lack of access to sanitation facilities and safe water sources, absence of waste collection systems, electricity supply, drainage. These are sometimes supplemented by lack of surfaced roads and footpaths and street lighting. According to Census 2011, among the slums in India-
    • 58% have open or no drainage
    • 43% must bring water from outside their communities
    • 26% do not have access to clean drinking water
    • 34% have no latrine within premises; 19% open defecate
    • 2 electricity outages occur per day
  • Substandard housing:
    • Slum areas are associated with a high number of substandard housing structures, often built with non-permanent materials unsuitable for housing and in dilapidated conditions.
  • Overcrowding:
    • Overcrowding is associated with a low space per person, high occupancy rates, cohabitation by different families.
    • Many slum dwelling units are overcrowded, with a large number of people sharing a one-room unit used for cooking, sleeping and living.
  • Unhealthy living conditions and hazardous locations:
    • Unhealthy living conditions are the result of a lack of basic services, open sewers, lack of pathways, uncontrolled dumping of waste, polluted environments, etc.
    • Further, slums come up in hazardous locations such as in proximity to industrial plants with toxic emissions or waste disposal sites. Hunger, malnourishment, lack of quality education, high infant mortality, child marriage, child labour are some of the other social problems prevalent in slums.
  • High incidence of crime rate:
    • Slum areas are also commonly believed to be places that generate a high incidence of crime.
    • This is due to official neglect towards education, law and order, and government services in slum areas.

Way Forward:

  • The focus should not only on building houses for the slum dwellers but also promoting livelihood options and social and economic infrastructure to develop the livelihood.
  • For effective urban planning, housing and population policies based on housing rights and the right to a clean environment must be established at all levels. These policies should be directed at inclusive cities and poverty alleviation
  • Attention must be paid to income generation, transport and empowerment of the beneficiaries to redress possible future problems
  • A three-pronged approach to Slum Free city should be adopted:
    • Provision of clear, free title to the residents, so that they enjoy the privileges of using property as a tangible asset
    • To upgrade the infrastructure and services providing water, power, and sewage connections to individual homes, the collection of solid waste, street lighting and neighbourhood security and police support
    • The creation of high-density, low income zoning that allows individual property owners to upgrade their homes without risk, rent out their properties to formal commercial establishments

Value addition:

Government Initiatives:

  • National Slum Development Programme (NSDP):Initiated in 1996, NSDP provided both loans and subsidies to states for slum rehabilitation projects on the basis of their urban slum population.
  • Valmiki Ambedkar Malina Basti Awas Yozana (VAMBAY):Introduced in 2001, it focused on shelter for the urban poor, with 20% of total allocation for community sanitation facilities under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) program
  • Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP):BSUP was an important component of Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). BSUP aimed to provide basic services to urban poor in 63 of the largest cities in India by population
  • Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme (IHSDP):Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) was launched by GoI by merging the schemes of NSDP and VAMBAY. The objective of the scheme is to provide adequate Shelter and basic infrastructure facilities to the slum dwellers in urban areas.
  • Interest Subsidy Scheme for Housing the Urban Poor (ISHUP): The Scheme envisages the provision of interest subsidy to economically weak section and Low income groups to enable them to buy or construct houses.
  • Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY):Launched in 2013, the scheme focussed on:
    • Bringing existing slums within the formal system and enabling them to avail of the same level of basic amenities as the rest of the town;
    • Redressing the failures of the formal system that lie behind the creation of slums; and
    • Tackling the shortages of urban land and housing that keep shelter out of reach of the urban poor.
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- “Housing for All (Urban):Launched in 2015, the scheme seeks to provide central assistance to implementing agencies through States and UTs for providing houses to all beneficiaries by 2022. It incorporates the following:
    • “In-situ” slum rehabilitation with participation of private developers using land as a resource. This approach aims to leverage the locked potential of land under slums to provide houses to the eligible slum dwellers bringing them into the formal urban settlement.
    • Promotion of Affordable Housing for weaker section through credit linked subsidy
    • Affordable Housing in Partnership with Public & Private Sectors
    • Subsidy for beneficiary-led individual house construction/enhancement
  • Slum areas (Improvement and Clearance) Act, in the year 1956:The act aimed at mechanical improvement or complete eradication of slums. It empowers the competent authority to declare any slum area in accordance with the definition, look into possibilities of improvement or eradicate slums.

 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

2. India has a huge population size and profound demographic diversity. Hence, a differential planning approach is needed in education, health and skill development to reap the benefits of the demographic dividend. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about different approaches to be taken in education, health and skill development to reap demographic dividend.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start the giving context of the demographic dividend in India.

Body:

First, write about the various impediments which acts as barrier to India realising its demographic dividend.

Next, write about the various different approaches in education, health and skill development that need to be taken in the light of covid-19 and its impact to overcome the above limitations.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

India has long been touted as the next big economic growth story after China. India has one of the youngest populations in an aging world. By 2020, the median age in India will be just 28 years. One of the primary reasons for that has been its young population which constitutes 59% of all Indians. Since 2018, India’s working-age population (people between 15 and 64 years of age) has grown larger than the dependent population. This bulge in the working-age population is going to last till 2055, or 37 years from its beginning. The hope has remained that as the young Indian population enters the working age, it will lead to higher economic growth.

 

Body

Challenges in India to reap the demographic dividend:

  • Health:
    • Healthcare provisions in India is grossly inadequate and access to healthcare is highly inequitable. Lack of efficient public healthcare and burden of out-of-pocket health expenditures reduces people’s capacity or disables them from investing in the human capital of their children.
    • ineffective functioning (corruption and leakages) of the public distribution system (PDS), growing economic inequalities and lack of nutritional awareness pose challenges in combating malnutrition
  • Education:
    • Basic literacy (the ability to read and write) in the overall population has progressed modestly. However, there is persistent gender differentials, and major differentials by caste and religion.
    • The state of functional literacy and professional skills is poor. Indian graduates have low employability and does not meet changing economic structure or support global competitiveness.
  • Rising Inequality:
    • In India, a large portion of the population is below the poverty line, therefore, they do not have easy access to primary health and education.
    • There is growing inequality across social groups and income groups which translates itself into poor socio-economic mobility.
    • Lack of socioeconomic mobility hinders human capital development and traps a large section of population to be in the vicious circle of poverty.
  • Lack of Skilling:
    • According to the National Sample Survey, out of the 470 million people of working age in India, only 10% receive any kind of training or access to skilled employment opportunities.
    • There’s a huge mismatch between demand and supply when it comes to skilled workforce and employment opportunities, which could place a strain on the economy in the long run
  • Inadequate use of knowledge bases from technology developments:
    • There is a disconnect between India’s rate of technological growth and ability to distribute the gains from it by adequately focusing on skilling and health.
    • The use of technical advancements has been concentrated in few sectors and benefits accrued by a few elitist sections of the society.
  • Jobless growth:
    • India’s high growth rate phase (2004-05 to 2010-11) has created significantly fewer jobs as compared to previous decades of economic growth.
    • Around 47 % of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture which is notorious for underemployment and disguised unemployment.
    • Majority of the workforce is employed by the unorganized sector where workers are underpaid and lack any kind of social security.
  • Falling female labour force participation:
    • According to data from International Labour Organization and World Bank, India’s female labour force participation rates have fallen from 34.8 % in 1990 to 27 % in 2013.
    • Socio-cultural factors and rising family incomes have been identified as the main reasons for this decline.
    • Another appalling concern is that a significant proportion of qualified women drop out of the workforce for reasons ranging from no suitable jobs in the locality—particularly in rural areas—to family responsibilities and marriage.

A differential planning approach is needed:

  • To engineer an inclusive and sustainable growth for India, the social infrastructure like education, health and social protection are being given utmost priority by the Government
  • The gaps in the expenditure on social infrastructure like health and education should be closed by strengthening the delivery mechanisms of the government initiatives. Protecting and investing in people’s health, education, and skilling is vital for reducing income inequality, and sustained inclusive economic growth.

 

  • India needs to increase its spending on health and education. As recommended by the National Health Policy 2017 and the NEP 2020, India needs to increase its spending on health and education to at least 2.5 % in 6 % of GDP respectively from its current levels. Enhancing policies to maintain and even increase health and longevity will therefore be necessary.
  • The current situation calls for more and better schools, especially in rural areas. It also calls for better transportation links between rural areas and regional urban hubs.
  • India has to invest more in human capital formation at all levels, from primary education to higher education, cutting-edge research and development as well as on vocational training to increase the skill sets of its growing working-age population.
  • The flagship schemes such as Skill India, Make in India, and Digital India have to be implemented to achieve convergence between skill training and employment generation.
  • Bridging the gender gaps in education, skill development, employment, earnings and reducing social inequalities prevalent in the society have been the underlying goals of the development strategy to enhance human capabilities.
  • Improved infrastructure, skill development, access to easy finance, reducing barriers to entrepreneurship and forums for mentorship of emerging entrepreneurs in partnership with corporates are some of measures.
  • Decentralized models of development: Social policies for each state must be differentiated to accommodate different rates of population growth. The populations in south and west India are growing at a much slower pace than in the central and eastern states.

Conclusion:

A multi-pronged approach is imperative to reap the demographic dividend. There is also a need to engage with the youth and create an enabling environment for entrepreneurship. The demographic dividend offers them a unique opportunity to boost living standards, but they must act now to manage their older populations in the near future by implementing policies that ensure a safe and efficient transition from the first demographic dividend to the second demographic dividend.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

3. Trace the evolution of rock cut architecture in India. Was ancient Indian rock cut architecture predominantly religious? Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

In India, the Barabar caves are the first known examples of rock-cut cave structures and led to the making of many similar monuments all across the country at a later period.

Key Demand of the question:

The question expects us to explain in brief the various stages of rock cut architecture of ancient India.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning that rock cut architecture occupies a very important place in the history of Indian Architecture.

Body:

In the first part, Discuss the evolution of rock cut architecture from early caves like Bhimbetka, Mauryan era rock cut architecture such as Barabar caves. Discuss about the cave temples, chaityas and viharas such as those found in Ajanta and Ellora. Discuss the dynasties under which they flourished and how they evolved over time, especially in the case of temple architecture where rock cut architecture formed the first stage of temple construction in both Dravida and Nagara style of temple building.

Next, write about the various themes and contents – both religious and non-religious, of rock cut architecture of India.

Conclusion:

Based on above give a fair judgement if rock cut architecture was predominantly religious.

Introduction

Rock-cut architecture is the creation of structures, buildings, and sculptures by excavating solid rock where it naturally occurs.  The three main uses of rock-cut architecture were temples tombs, and cave dwellings. Rock-cut architecture was suited India since the country had plenty of rocky Mountains, and structures excavated in stone were the ones which were most durable.

Body

Evolution of rock-cut architecture in India

  • The earliest rock-cut caves are attributed to Ashoka and his grandson Dasaratha.
  • The early Buddhist architecture covers the period from the 2ndcentury BC to the 2nd century AD. The excavations belonging to this period mostly consists of- the chaitya, viharas.
  • They were mostly constructed of woodExamplesof the early Buddhist architecture can still be seen at Karla, Kanheri, Nasik, Bhaja and Bedsa and at Ajanta.
  • The second phase of rock-cut architecture began in the 5th century AD. This phase was characterized by the elimination of timber and by the introduction of the image of the Buddha as a dominant feature of the architectural design.
  • Viharas underwent a slight change during this time, the inner cells inhabited by the monks alone, now housed the image of the Buddha as well.
  • The next and perhaps the most dominant phase in the tradition in the rock-cut tradition happen to be Dravidian rock-cut style.
  • The primary features of this style are mandapa and ratha.
  • The mandapa is an open pavilion excavated out of a rock. It takes the form of a simple columned hall with two or more cells in the back wall. The ratha is a monolithic shrine carved out a single rock.
  • Kailash temple considered as one of the most colossal age-old rock-cut Hindu temples forms cave temple number 16 of Ellora, which is counted among the largest rock-cut monastery-temple caves complexes of the world and marked as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Maharashtra, India.
  • Slowly the rock cut architecture formed the first stage of temple construction in both Dravida and Nagara style of temple building.

Was ancient Indian rock cut architecture predominantly religious ?

  • Indian rock-cut architecture is mostly religious in nature.
  • The earliest cave temples include the Bhaja Caves, the Karla Caves, the Bedsa Caves, the Kanheri Caves and Ajanta Caves. These caves are related to Buddhism.
  • Later caves were associated with Hinduism and Jainism. Caves are found at different places like Ellora, Elephanta, Badami etc.
  • There are variations in the architectural elements according to the religions.
  • However, there were also non-religious elements.
  • Viharas which served as residence for Buddhist monks also doubled as centers for education and societal matters. Kanheri caves was one of the biggest education center in Western India.
  • Bhaja and Karle were at famous trade routes in western Ghats which used to connect sea port to hinterland. Thus, they doubled up as rest places for traders.
  • Elephanta caves for centuries had been a commercial, military, and religious centre.

Conclusion

There are more than 1,500 known rock cut structures in India. Many of these structures contain artwork of global importance, and most are adorned with exquisite stone carvings. These ancient and medieval structures represent significant achievements of structural engineering and craftsmanship.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

4. Debates are an opportunity for parliamentarians to discuss government policy, proposed new laws and current issues without which the democratic process stands defeated. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy.

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

It just took four minutes for the Lok Sabha on Monday to pass a bill that sought to repeal the three controversial farm legislations which saw farmers mobilise at the Delhi borders for over a year.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about importance of debates in the parliament for our democracy.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the importance of parliamentary debates and discussion to our democracy.

Body:

Further elaborate how these debates and deliberations are enriching for our democracy. Cite examples to substantiate your points.

Next, give instances of reduced discussions on debates in key national issues in the parliament.

Next, evaluate the legislative process with respect of debates and discussions. Mention hasty passage of bills, frequent litigations, lack of expertise, bypassing Rajya Sabha, lack of referral to parliamentary committees etc.

Mention the measures that are needed to remedy this situation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

In any democracy, the main function of the Parliament is to make laws. Parliamentary debates are regarded as most important since the pros and cons of all the bills are highlighted before it gets converted to law. Indian Parliament was once known for its high-quality debates.

Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana also recently lamented the “sorry state of affairs” of law-making and Parliamentary debate in the country, saying there was “a lot of ambiguity in laws” which was triggering litigation and causing inconvenience to citizens, courts and other stakeholders.

Body

Background

  • In the recent monsoon session, out of 20 bills, 18 bills were passed without any discussion in LSapart from 1 bill on Schedule Tribes (Order) Amendment bill, which saw discussion of 15 minutes
  • Lok Sabha recently passed a bill that sought to repeal the three controversial farm legislations which saw farmers mobilise at the Delhi borders for over a year.
  • The government refused to heed the Opposition’s demand for a discussion in the House on the subject that had been debated extensively on different platforms across the nation.
  • It is reminiscent of the manner in which the controversial laws were rammed through in Parliament in September 2020 without due consideration, as demanded by the Opposition, leading to deep distrust about the reforms itself in the society, particularly among a section of the farmer community.

Debates, discussions and deliberations: Cornerstone of parliamentary democracy

  • Parliament is the crucible of criticism, deliberation and even consensus-making.
  • Democratic accountability demands that the executive decisions be subjected to legislative scrutiny.
  • Debate in the House is important to ensure that every legislation is scrutinized extremely well on the floor of the House.
  • Debates in Parliament ensures that the views of persons who are adversely affected by a law are heard and actively engaged with.
  • Rushed law-making, rendering Parliament a rubber stamp, sacrifices two core ideals of a constitutional democracy, namely, equal participation and respect for fundamental rights.
  • The debates and discussions are also important because when the courts have to interpret a law, one of the things that they consider is the debate in the House.
  • Debates provide a forum for MPs to express their opinions and concerns, and contribute towards making policy.
  • It allows parliamentarians to voice the interest and issues of the people of their constituencies.

Why debates are not happening ?

  • The basic problem starts with the government’s refusal to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Opposition and give space to it to express its position on any issue.
  • With the Opposition not falling in line, the government has used its majority to push through important Bills without discussion.
  • The extent to which parliamentary proceedings have degenerated can be seen from the astonishing speed in passing Bills.
  • The Lok Sabha, on an average, took less than 10 minutes to pass a law, and the Rajya Sabha passed laws in less than half an hour. There were 13 Bills in this LS session in which no Member of Parliament spoke, other than the minister in charge of the Bill.
  • the PRS Legislative Research data has shown a significant decrease in the involvement of standing committees in legislative matters. So far, only 17 of the 82 Bills since the NDA government was re-elected in 2019 have been referred to standing committees for review.
  • Passing Bills without debate in the House or scrutiny by a committee reduces Parliament to a clearance window for legislations. This effectively means Parliament was neither fulfilling its function of deliberative lawmaking nor of holding the executive accountable.
  • Ordinary Bills are not so much discussed, either because their texts are handed over to the MPs at the last minute or because there is little time for debates.
  • In order to circumvent Parliamentary debates, the government has often followed the ordinance route.
  • The number of Bills that have been referred to parliamentary committees — the deliberative core of parliamentary work — has shrunk dramatically.

Solutions

  • The Pre-Legislative Consultation Policy (PLCP) was instituted in 2014 requiring that every Ministry and Department “proactively” publish every proposed draft legislation or subordinate legislation, its justification, essential elements, financial implications and an estimated impact assessment on rights, lives, livelihoods, environment, etc.
  • The policy also provides that all such information should be put in the public domain for a minimum period of 30 days and the feedback received should also be published on the website of the concerned ministry or department.
  • The policy also provides that the summary of this pre-legislative process should be made available to any Parliamentary standing committee to which the subsequent Bill may be referred.
  • Thus, the policy envisaged a consultation while the Bill is being drafted and a study and consultation by a Parliamentary committee after it is introduced in Parliament.

Conclusion

The founding fathers of Indian Constitution adopted Parliamentary system of government by considering the fact that it will be more suitable to India’s pluralism and heterogeneity character. But at present healthy debate and discussions, the hall mark of Parliamentary democracy, was overshadowed by disruption, confrontation, forced adjournment of the houses and adopting other non-democratic alternatives.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Do you think India should turn away from supply-side measures and pursue demand-side policies to address poverty and unemployment in India? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough.

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

In early November, three troubling reports came in. Approximately 5.46 million Indians lost their jobs in October as per CMIE data.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the need to re-examine the policy approach towards tackling poverty and unemployment in India.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving statistics about prevailing poverty and unemployment in India.

Body:

 In the first part, mention the approach taken so far. The supply side policy measures taken by the government. Mention their shortcomings.

Next, write about the difference a policy which takes on the demands side approach towards poverty and unemployment in India. Write about its pros and cons.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward as to how India approach should be after covid-19 worsening poverty and unemployment in India.

Introduction

Employment has always figured as an important element of the growth and development process of the Indian economy. India being a highly populated country, employment becomes a crucial element. Employment acts as a link between economic growth and poverty reduction. India was already facing a deep employment crisis before the Covid crisis, and it became much worse after it.

Body

Current scenario of Unemployment in India

  • Approximately 5.46 million Indians lost their jobs in October 2021 as per CMIE data.
  • In particular, our youth unemployment rate was 28.26 per cent in 2020-21, compared to 15.66 per cent in 2016-17.
  • By August 2021, around 33 per cent of all employable youth were estimated to be unemployed.
  • With 20 million Indians entering the job market annually, there are few jobs being created.

supply-side measures undertaken

  • Supply side policy includes any policy that improves an economy’s productive potential and its ability to produce.
  • Using the tax system to provide incentives to help stimulate factor output. This commonly means reducing direct tax rates, including income and corporation tax.
  • promotion of greater competition in labour markets, through the removal of restrictive practices, and labour market rigidities, such as the protection of employment. E.g.: recent codes on labour enables easier hiring and firing of employees.
  • Better education and training to improve skills, flexibility, and mobility – also called human capital development.
  • Privatisation of state industry helps contribute to the spread of an enterprise culture.
  • Deregulation of product markets may be implemented to bring down barriers to entry, encourage new and dynamic market entrants, and improve overall supply-side performance.

Challenges posed

  • It can take a long time to work its way through the economy. For example, improving the quality of human capital, through education and training, is unlikely to yield quick results.
  • supply-side policy is very costly to implement. E.g.: Subsidies
  • Reduction in direct taxes: while the poor are given the ‘stick’ to improve their incentives (via cuts in welfare benefits), the better off are given the ‘carrot’ in the form of tax cuts..
  • Finally, there is the issue of equity. Many supply-side measures have a negative effect on the distribution of income, at least in the short-term. For example, lower taxes rates, reduced union power, and privatisation have all contributed to a widening of the gap between rich and poor.

Demand-side policies and its impacts

  • Demand-side policies focus on maintaining a sufficiently-high level of aggregate demand so that the demand for labour remains strong.
  • Fiscal policy can decrease unemployment by helping to increase aggregate demand and the rate of economic growth. The government will need to pursue expansionary fiscal policy; this involves cutting taxes and increasing government spending.
  • Monetary policy would involve cutting interest rates. Lower rates decrease the cost of borrowing and encourage people to spend and invest. This increases Aggregate Demand and should also help to increase GDP and reduce demand deficient unemployment. Also, lower interest rates will reduce exchange rate and make exports more competitive..
  • Reducing the cost for businesses of employing extra labour.

Implications

  • Demand side policies involve a trade-off.
  • Usually, if inflation is improved, unemployment gets worse and vice versa.

Way forward

India’s demographic dividend, touted as competitive advantage, is critically dependent on meeting growing aspirations of those entering or wishing to enter labour force.

  • Analysing and Improving Labour Market Data: Availability of detailed, reliable, and comprehensive information on the labour market is critical to meet the employment challenge through well-targeted policies and programmes.
  • Create Labour Market Information System (LMIS) for identifying skill shortages, training needs and available employment opportunities.
    • This would facilitate greater synchronization with portals like National Career Service to address skill shortages and meet the demand for labour in different sectors.
  • Education and Skill Development: Government must ensure that the education, training and skill development system is aligned with the changing requirements of the labour market.
    • It includes measures to integrate vocational education with formal education (NEP 2020), ensure greater participation of the private sector in skill development and wider use of the apprenticeship programmes by all enterprises.
  • Improving Women’s Participation in the Economy: The employment policy, in line with SDG 5 on Gender Equality, should focus on developing women’s human capital and capabilities; providing support for their care responsibilities (e.g. Maternity Benefits Act 2016); establishing gender-sensitive labour market regulations; and enhancing their voice and capacity for collective action.
  • Address the issues facing agricultural sector: It will have a direct impact on the welfare of nearly half the country’s workforce, increase in domestic demand, reduce the rural-urban earnings gap, migration, informality and unemployment, and therefore lead to better working conditions in the cities and a fall in commodity prices and reduced inflationary pressures.
  • Targeted Programmes for Employment Generation: Programmes like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme must be reformed to ensure that rural unemployed find adequate employment on a more sustainable basis and there are increased opportunities for women and other socially disadvantaged groups.

Conclusion

                A right mix of supply and demand side policies is the need of the hour to tackle the post-pandemic unemployment crisis in India.

 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

6. India needs a fostering start-up ecosystem that spurs innovation which supplements and complements India’s space needs. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question: 

Today, the space economy is a $440 billion global sector, with India having less than 2% share in the sector.

Key Demand of the question: 

To analyse the role of private sector as a partner with the government to harness space technology and innovations for social welfare.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning ISRO being the prime entity for space research so far allowing very limited space for other private parties especially start-ups to pitch in.

Body:

First, highlight the possible positive outcomes of letting in the private sector to bring in innovations in the space sector.

Next, write about the major hurdles that start-ups face in space sector.

Next, write about the steps that need to be taken to ensure equitable growth of start-ups in the India’s space sector.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that the government being an enabler in the space research sector would bring in the best of all stakeholder’s capabilities to the table.

Introduction

The Indian space program dates back to 1969, when the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was established. Since then, the Indian space program has come a long way. In 2018, the 100th satellite launched helping India establish itself as one of the fast-rising space nations around the world.

India is lagging in harnessing the power of private innovation in the space domain. The space economy is a $440 billion global sector, with India having less than 2% share in the sector. This not only limits the exploitation of space for economic development, but has serious national security implications.

Body

Significance of Space startups in Indian scenario:

  • There are over a thousand space startups all around the world. India’s share of these startups remains less than 1%.
  • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is increasingly looking for collaboration with the private sector to increase the number of satellites, explore more research-related opportunity areas and to overcome manpower and budgetary constraints.
  • ISRO plans to double the number of satellites launched in the next two years and this would necessitate active involvement and participation of the private sector.
  • The current manpower of ISRO is less to meet the increasing demands of satellite launches and the heightened expectations that will arise, and hence the involvement of the emerging private sector becomes crucial.
  • In the past two decades, through a combination of technology, policy, and will, governments of more than a dozen countries have successfully transferred many space operations to the private sector and it has yielded good results.
  • Collaboration with private players is vital for capacity building, cost reduction and getting an extra mile cutting-edge advantage.
  • Since ISRO is making a lot of satellites, and a large chunk of its manpower is involved in manufacturing and launch vehicles, so active involvement of the private sector would also mean that ISRO can devote more time to core research.
  • With the introduction of the new Space Activities Bill, the Indian government has also opened up opportunities for the private sector and made it much easier for them to sustain and thrive.
  • The principal propellant of growth in the private space sector would be the medium and small industries because the big industries focus mainly on system integration.
  • With initiatives such as Make in India, Digital India, and Startup India, the government has been able to push the startup sector. What is now needed is to frame a program exclusively for space startups that will benefit the space entrepreneurs and help them make an impact in the space industry.

India needs a fostering start-up ecosystem in the space sector

  • Today, the space industry is undergoing a paradigm shift, moving from Space 3.0 to Space 4.0, driven by changes in motivations, actors, roles, and technologies.
  • While Space 3.0 has been characterized by large government investments and public-public collaborations, Space 4.0 is a more democratized and accessible field with more public-private and private-private collaborations.
  • It entails the emergence of a plethora of small to medium-sized private companies.
  • As military uses of space and prestige projects like Moon-landing emerged, major private sector entities already in the aviation industry like Boeing and Lockheed won space contracts in the US.
  • Significant expansion of satellite-based telecommunication, navigation, broadcasting and mapping, and lent a significant commercial dimension to the space sector.
  • As the digital revolution in the 21st century transformed the world economy, the commercial space sector has begun to grow in leaps and bounds.
  • The global space business is now estimated to be around $ 400 billion and is expected easily rise to at least trillion dollars by 2040.
  • One example of the rise of private sector companiesin the space sector is SpaceX run by the US entrepreneur Elon Musk. Hired for a resupply mission for the space station, it now launches more rockets every year than NASA.
  • The entry of private sector has begun to drive down the cost-per-launch through innovations such as reusable rockets.
  • India, however, is quite some distance away from adapting to the unfolding changes in the global space business.
  • In its early years, India’s space programme that was constrained by lack of resources found innovative ways of getting ahead in space.
  • Although the ISRO encourages private sector participation in the national space programme, its model is still very 20th century — in terms of governmental domination.

Challenges for private space entities in India:

  • Monopoly: In India ‘Space’ means Indian Space Research Organisation. Globally the technology is highly protected because of its dual use capability. Even if it was not, it would be prohibitively expensive.
  • Funding: A major challenge in setting up a space business in India is funding. Space industry is capital intensive and upstream activities come with a long gestation period.
  • Investor’s Dilemma: The lack of clarity among the investors and lack of the ecosystem required for significant contribution is a challenge for the investors.
  • Lack of Regulation: India is a party to the Outer Space Treaty, where one of the fundamental requirements laid upon states is the supervision of space activities within its borders, the country did not have any formally legislated laws. This is a potential roadblock for commercialization.
  • Growth Challenges: Scaling up, international marketing and funding are challenges.
  • Lack of Support: The Indian ecosystem has neither incubation support nor pointers to seek support of leaders such as ISRO for space start-ups.
  • Political and bureaucratic hurdles limit private space operations in India.
  • Low in-house capacity of ISRO restricts them to very few launches in a year. Privatization can offload 30-40% of the work and help them work more efficiently.

Way forward:

  • India should have national space activities legislation which takes on board all stakeholders.
  • A public-private partnership (PPP) model can be looked into to realise ISRO’s workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), with a joint venture between ISRO and the private sector.
  • In the UK, space ventures are treated as a complement to big organizations and not a competitor. This should be encouraged in India too.
  • A supportive international partner and likeminded local partners helps to set up a space business.
  • The idea should be to let the private industry build their own facilities after gaining enough expertise.
  • ISRO has built a space technology park spread over 25 acres in Bengaluru where the entire range of facilities have been set up for use by the industry.

Conclusion

The private sector already supplies majority of the sub-systems in satellite manufacturing. This can be further scaled up into other activities with proper regulation and partnership of the ISRO and private sector. The country must deregulate the space sector to encourage private enterprise if we are to compete in the new space economy.

Value addition

Indian space SME industry is valued at just $48 million but is expected to expand at a quick pace. Some of the space-related Indian startups that are already making a mark in the market are:

  • A small satellite developer Dhruva Space joined hands with a German company called the Berlin Space Technologies last year to establish India’s first factory to manufacture satellites for non-telecom commercial applications such as disaster management, vehicle and flight tracking, predictive analytics and imaging. It aims to manufacture 10 to 12 satellites every year.
  • Antara Space signed a satellite procurement agreement with the UK’s Dauria Aerospace in July 2014 to develop two small geostationary communication satellites for broadcasters.
  • Earth2Orbit is India’s first private space startup that offers earth observation products and launch facilitation services to different companies.
  • With the launch of ExseedSAT 1, Exseed Space has become the first Indian privately-funded startup to successfully send a satellite into space.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: social influence and persuasion.  

7. Persuasion is not as simple as just convincing someone to engage in a particular behaviour. It is about changing how people think, feel and behave. Discuss. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: A Practical Approach to Ethics Integrity and Aptitude by D.K Balaji.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving an in-depth description of Persuasion

Body:

Write about the need of Persuasion in various contexts such as family, policy forums, elections etc, its various modes such as ethos, logos, pathos and Kairos.

 Give few examples of personalities with great persuasive skills such as Mahatma Gandhi, Abraham Lincoln, Swami Vivekananda etc and how it plays a role in their respective fields.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of Persuasion and the need to use it for positive outcomes.

Introduction

Persuasion is symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people through transmission of a message to change their attitudes or behaviours. Persuasion is the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs or behaviour of a person

Body

It isn’t always easy to change how people think, feel and behave.

Changing someone’s mind can be considered quite a difficult feat, particularly if they’re entrenched in their particular way of thinking. This is because of the cognition of an individual which has the idea deeply rooted.

For instance, Sati was considered a pious practice in the 19th century. Despite efforts, Raja Ram Mohan Roy initially failed to stop the practice in the society. Likewise, despite the graphic warning images that are placed on cigarette packs, smokers continue to indulge in the addiction of smoking.

Behaviour change is complicated and complex because it requires a person to disrupt a current habit while simultaneously fostering a new, possibly unfamiliar, set of actions. Breaking these habits, the Hard to Maintain behaviours, is often not easy as it sets up a conflict between the executive and operational functions within the brain.  E.g.: Smoking for example is reputedly one of the hardest behaviours of all to quit.

Persuasion helps change how people think, feel and behave

Persuasion is one form of social influence on attitude; in fact it represents the intersection of social thinking and social influence of everyday life. At its most basic level, persuasion is about communication. But the art of persuasion is about using a sophisticated mix of communication skills and leadership abilities to bring others around to your ideas, recommendations or proposals.

Persuasion can occur through appeals to reason or appeals to emotion. For example, school-based substance abuse prevention programs using the social influences model consistently produce better results than programs emphasizing only health information.

The government has also utilized this tool of persuasion for the success of the initiatives like Swachh Bharat Abhiyan- cleanliness drives; Ujjwala Yojana’s Give it up campaign; Disclosing excess income campaign; Beti Bachao Beti Padhao by making parents understand it is necessary to protect and educate a girl child.

Conclusion

Persuasion can bring a lasting change in people’s behaviour and is highly effective in implementation of public policies provided the tools are used in a right way. It acts as a nudge to encourage people to act in a good manner and achieve certain goals or to remove certain social evils.


  •  Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos