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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 November 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).

1. Discuss the distribution and changing patterns of Iron and steel industry in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To show the distribution of Iron and steel industry in India and changing patterns associated with it.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief historical account of Iron and steel industry during pre-independence in India.

Body:

First, write about how did Iron and steel industry in India develop post-independence. Use a small map to show important industrial regions in India.

Next, Explain that there has been a change in the sense that the main producers of iron and steel are predominantly developing countries that have replaced their developed counterparts who held sway in the industry till recently.

Next, Explain the reasons for the same such as – Industry is shifting towards market, towards a location that is a transport hub, shifting towards the industrial hub so that the produced steel could be consumed by other industries like automobile and heavy engineering at same place etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Iron and steel industry act as a backbone for the physical infrastructure development of the country. The inputs for the iron and steel industry include raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, capital, site and other infrastructure. Many important geographical factors involved in the location of individual industries are of relative significance. But besides such purely geographical factors influencing industrial location, there are factors of historical, human, political and economic nature which are now tending to surpass the force of geographical advantages.

Body

Distribution of Iron and steel industry in India

 

  • In India,   iron   and   steel   industry has developed taking advantage of raw materials, cheap labour, transport and market.
  • Iron and Steel industry uses a large quantity of heavy and weight losing raw material, so its location is primarily guided by the availability of raw material.
  • All the important steel producing centres such as Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro are situated in a region that spreads over four states — West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha and Chhattisgarh.
  • These states have coal and iron ore deposits in abundance and are important producers of these materials.
  • Bhadravati and Vijay Nagar in Karnataka, Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, and Salem in Tamil Nadu are other important steel centres utilising local resources.

Changing patterns

  • Before 1800 A.D. iron  and  steel  industry  was  located  where  raw  materials,  power  supply  and  running   water   were   easily
  • Later the    ideal    location  for  the  industry  was  near  coal  fields  and  close  to  canals   and
  • After 1950,  iron  and  steel  industry  began  to  be  located  on  large  areas  of  flat  land  near  sea    This  is  because  by  this  time  steel  works  had  become  very  large  and  iron  ore  had  to  be  imported  from  overseas
  • Optimum transportation cost of carrying raw material from source and finished products to market play important role in the location of Iron and Steel Industry.
  • Following the theory of minimum transportation cost many centres of iron and steel production tend to be attracted by the market.
  • Recent technological developments in transport, the use of scrap as raw material and the agglomeration economics have made market-oriented location more advantageous than ever before.
  • Port location provides easy and cheap means of transportation. These are highly helpful in the import of raw materials and export of the finished products. When some of the basic raw materials need to be imported or the finished Steel is to be exported, seaport locations are preferred.
  • The ultimate responsibility of balanced regional development rests with the government and in view of this Government has invested heavily in backward areas for developing these industries for example in Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, etc. This approach was in accordance with the principle of the Trickle-down theory of Growth.

Conclusion

The potential for growth of this sector is enormous. This can be gauged from the fact that the per capita consumption of steel is around 29 kg whereas the world average is 150 kg. The National Steel Policy, 2017 envisage 300 million tonnes of production capacity by 2030-31. Huge scope for growth is offered by India’s comparatively low per capita steel consumption and the expected rise in consumption due to increased infrastructure construction and the thriving automobile and railways sectors.

 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).

2. Explain Weber’s theory of Industrial location and its relevance in the present day. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain Weber’s theory of Industrial location and its current relevance.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief overview that industrial location is based on various factors.

Body:

First, write about various assumptions and market orientations as propounded by Weber

Next, write about the types of cost in his studies: Transportation cost, labor cost and agglomeration effect.

Next, with examples from across the world comment on the relevance of this model in the present day.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Alfred Weber, a German economist, gave scientific exposition to the theory of location and thus filled a theoretical gap created by classical economists. His theory, which is also known as ‘Pure Theory’ has analytical approach to the problem.

The basis of his theory is the study of general factors which pull an industry towards different geographical regions. It is thus deductive in approach. In his theory he has taken into consideration factors that decide the actual setting up of an industry in a particular area.

Body

Assumptions of Weber’s industrial location theory

  • The Geographical area of industry is physically, technologically, culturally and politically uniform.
  • Both the sources of raw materials and consumption centres are known.
  • The transportation cost of goods is dependent on weight and distance.
  • The workforce or labour are geographically fixed.
  • Due to high competition, there is perfect competitive pricing among the industries.

Weber’s theory

  • Primary factors influencing the distribution of industrial units over the different regions. These are also referred as ‘regional factors’.
    • According to Weber transportation costs play a vital role in the location of an industry.
    • Each industry will try to find location at a place where transportation charges are the barest minimum, both in terms of availability of resources and place of consumption.
    • According to him transportation costs are determined by the weight to be transported on the one hand and distance to be covered on the other.
  • Secondary factors relating to the redistribution of industry from the original regions (or become cause of concentration of industry in one particular region). Weber referred these factors as “agglomerating and deglomerating” factors.
    • Agglomerating factors refer to the advantages of the industries in a particular region in the form of specialised labour, centralised purchases, uniform production policies and lesser cost of production etc.
    • Deglomerating factors relate to various demerits associated with concentration of industries in a particular region e.g. unhealthy competition, rise in local taxes, congestion and housing problems etc.
  • Weber further analysed that certain factors like depreciation, rent and interest etc. remain the same and do not have any bearing on the location of a business unit in different regions.
  • He further remarked that cost of raw material and cost of labour are two important constituents which considerably affect the location of an industrial unit in different regions.
  • According to Weber, cost of transporting the raw material and finished products to the plant greatly influence location of a unit.
  • Weber divided the raw material into two categories:
    • localised relating to a particular region e.g., lime stone used for cement, iron ore, coal and other natural deposits etc.,
    • Ubiquitouse. which are universally available such as water, air and bricks etc. Localised factors affect the location of a plant in different regions, whereas the second category of factors does not affect.
  • Another important consideration in deciding location of a plant is the cheap and adequate labour.
  • According to Weber, labour dominated industries should be situated near the labour supply centres. It will considerably minimise the transportation costs and will also lead to economies in production.
  • Weber gave another important concept relating to his theory which is known as ‘split in location’.

Relevance in today’s world

  • Iron and Steel industry of USA:
    • The location of iron and steel industry in Appalachian region of USA follows the Weber’s Model.
    • Coal is taken from New Lake regions, & iron for Appalachian region. Industries have developed in the region and markets in New England regions and European countries.
  • Bakery industry of Europe:
    • Sugar is transported from Poland, etc.
    • Wheat from Ukraine steppe fields and industries has developed around West European region around market of London, Paris.
  • The iron and steel industry at Jamshedpur (Tata steel) in India and Essen in Germany can be better understood with Weber’s theory of industrial location.

Conclusion

The manufacturing industries are becoming more complex day-by-day due to technological advances. Moreover, the industries of the 21st century focus more on semi-finished goods rather than raw material. Today, many firms begin with semi-finished goods.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3. The making of India’s Constitution was a carnival of democracy. In this context, discuss the changing contours of India’s constitutional morality. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate.

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

President Ram Nath Kovind will lead the celebrations of Constitution Day on Friday at the Central Hall of Parliament House. As a part of the Constitution Day celebrations on Friday, Prime Minister Narendra Modi will address the distinguished gathering and participate in the programmes that will be organised in the Parliament and Vigyan Bhawan.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of micro irrigation, issues in it and measures to overcome the issues.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving brief about the process of drafting and adoption of Indian constitution.

Body:

First, explain constitutional morality – adherence to the core principles of the constitutional democracy, effective coordination between conflicting interests of different people and the administrative cooperation to resolve the amicably without any confrontation amongst the various groups working for the realization of their ends at any cost; public conscience, moral order and constitutional morality- ethics of politicians etc

Next, discuss the sources of constitutional morality in India. Text of the Constitution; Constitutional Assembly debates; Events that took place during the framing of the Constitution; and Case Law History and based upon which are changing contours of constitutional morality. Use examples to justify your points.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on the importance of constitutional morality.

Introduction

The Constituent Assembly, constituted in 1946,was scripting a collective vision of the future of the country. Between December 1946 and 1949, the Assembly met for 165 days and debated extensively and drafted the documents, which laid the foundation for our Constitution.

Body

“Constitutional morality” means adherence to the core principles of the constitutional democracy. The scope of the definition of Constitutional Morality is not limited only to following the constitutional provisions literally but vast enough to ensure the ultimate aim of the Constitution, a socio-juridical scenario providing an opportunity to unfold the full personhood of every citizen, for whom and by whom the Constitution exists.

It provides a principled understanding for unfolding the work of governance. It specifies norms for institutions to survive and an expectation of behaviour that will meet not just the text but the soul of the Constitution. It also makes the governing institutions and representatives accountable.

Constitutional Morality is scarcely a new concept. It is written largely in the Constitution itself like in the section of Fundamental Rights (Article 12 to 35), Directive Principle of State Policy (Article 36 to 51), Preamble and Fundamental duties.

The sources of constitutional morality are (1) Text of the Constitution; (2) Constitutional Assembly debates; (3) Events that took place during the framing of the Constitution; and (4) Case Law History.

Changing contours of Constitutional Morality

Constitutional morality means adherence to the core principles of constitutional democracy. However, it is not limited only to following the constitutional provisions literally but is based on values like individual autonomy and liberty; equality without discrimination; recognition of identity with dignity; the right to privacy.

For instance, In Supreme Court’s Sabarimala verdict religious freedom, gender equality and the right of women to worship guaranteed under Article 14, 21 and 25 of the Constitution was reinstated which struck down the practice of banning entry of women of a certain age to the Sabarimala temple in Kerala as unconstitutional. The Supreme Court bypassed the “doctrine of essentiality” to uphold the Constitutional morality. Constitutional morality here went against social morality that discriminates against women based on biological reasons like menstruation.

Other instances in which the Supreme Court has upheld the constitutional morality,

  • In Kesavananda Bharati Case, the Supreme Court restricted the power of the Parliament to violate the Basic Structure of the Constitution.
  • In the Naz Foundation case, the Supreme Court opined that only Constitutional Morality should prevail and not Public Morality.
  • In Lt Governor of Delhi case, SC proclaimed constitutional morality as a governing ideas that “highlight the need to preserve the trust of people in the institution of democracy.
  • In Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India, the SC provided a framework to reaffirm the rights of LGBTQ and all gender non-conforming people to their dignity, life, liberty, and identity.

Conclusion

Thus, Constitutional morality ensures the establishment of rule of law in the land while integrating the changing aspirations and ideals of the society. It  recognises plurality and diversity in society and tries to make individuals and communities in the society more inclusive in their functioning by constantly providing the scope for improvement and reforms, as envisaged by our Constitution.

 

Topic: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

4. The Pre-Legislative Consultation Policy supports the growing expectations of a transparent government and resolves contentious issues on which government is seeking to build consensus. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

In 2014, the Pre-Legislative Consultation Policy was adopted, mandating a host of rules, including that whenever the Government makes any law, it must place a draft version of it in the public domain for at least 30 days. Since the inception of the policy, 227 of the 301 bills introduced in Parliament have been presented without any prior consultation.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about importance of Pre legislative consultative policy for our democracy.

Directive word:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by mentioning about the aims of Pre legislative consultative policy.

Body:

First, write about the process involved in Pre legislative consultative policy as proposed in 2014.

Next, write about the importance of the policy in enhancing transparency and building consensus on contention issues, rectifying any overlooks etc. Substantiate with examples.

Next, write about the bottlenecks in implementation of the policy.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Pre-Legislative Consultation is a process through which citizens engage with the government by providing feedback and comments on policies and draft bills. A draft bill is a proposal made to the Parliament to become a law. It is this draft bill that is placed before the public for their feedback. The Union Government has listed 29 Bills to be tabled in the winter session of Parliament.

In 2014, the Pre-Legislative Consultation Policy was adopted, mandating a host of rules, including that whenever the Government makes any law, it must place a draft version of it in the public domain for at least 30 days.

Body

Pre – legislative consultation policy 2014

  • The policy also says that along with the draft, a note explaining the law in simple language and justifying the proposal, its financial implication, impact on the environment and fundamental rights, a study on the social and financial costs of the bill, etc. should be uploaded.
  • The respective departments should also upload the summary of all the feedback that they receive on the circulated draft.
  • It aimed to create an institutionalised space for public participation in law-making processes.

Importance of Pre-legislative consultation policy 2014

  • This policy provides a forum for citizens and relevant stakeholders to interact with the policymakers in the executive during the initial stages of law-making.
  • Protests in the recent past over laws such as the farm laws, the RTI Amendment Act, the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, etc. have all highlighted that there is discontent among relevant stakeholders and the public at large since they were not looped in while framing such laws.
  • Public consultations enhance transparency, increase accountability and could result in the building of an informed Government where citizens are treated as partners and not as subjects.
  • For example, concerns raised by civil society members (#SaveTheInternet campaign) were addressed by the Telecom Regulatory Authority in its framing of the net neutrality rules after extensive consultation and deliberation processes adopted by them.

Performance of Pre-legislative consultation policy 2014

  • During the 16th Lok Sabha (May 2014 to May 2019) 186 bills were introduced in Parliament, of which 142 saw no consultation prior to introduction.
  • From the 44 bills placed in the public domain for receipt of comments, 24 did not adhere to the 30-day deadline.
  • During the 17th Lok Sabha (June 2019 to present), 115 bills were introduced in Parliament, of which 85 saw no consultation prior to introduction.
  • From the 30 bills placed in public domain for receipt of comment, 16 of them did not adhere to the 30-day deadline.

Challenges faced

  • Though it is required that the mandates of an approved policy be heeded by all Government departments, the absence of a statutory or constitutional right has watered down its effect.
  • The effective implementation of the policy requires subsequent amendments in executive procedural guidelines like the Manual of Parliamentary Procedures and Handbook on Writing Cabinet Notes.
  • The main issues being faced by the government are in terms of awareness of the Pre-legislative consultation process.
  • At times consultations are put out in the public domain but there are no responses from the citizens.
  • On the other hand, large volumes of feedback are often not processed because of internal capacity constraints.

Way forward

  • The effective implementation of the policy requires subsequent amendments in executive procedural guidelines like the Manual of Parliamentary Procedures and Handbook on Writing Cabinet Notes.
  • Incorporation of pre-legislative consultation in the procedures of the Cabinet, Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha etc. should be prioritized.
  • Similarly, it must be required of ministers while introducing the bill to place an addendum note on the details of the pre-legislative consultation.
  • Empowering citizens with a right to participate in pre-legislative consultations through a statutory and constitutional commitment could be a gamechanger.

Value addition

  • Importance of Consultation:
    • Inclusive, regular and meaningful consultation between national governments and stakeholders – including civil society – is essential for SDG implementation and accountability.
    • It provides opportunities for diverse voices to be heard on issues that matter to citizens, allowing people to share their knowledge, insight and experience to advance implementation.
    • Solutions and laws reflect real needs and provide more forward-looking solutions
    • Increased legitimacy of proposed changes and enhanced compliance in implementation
    • Increased confidence in government institutions and trust amongst partners
    • Establishment of a cross-sector dialogue and information sharing
    • Less conflicts amongst different groups and between the private sector and government agencies
    • Partnership, ownership and responsibility in implementation
    • More effective and forward-looking harmonization and simplification efforts.
  • From protests against laws redefining citizenship and Agri-marketing to suspicions over the safety of the Covid-19 vaccine and leaks about internal differences over economic policy, government appears to be suffering from a severe case of hubris.
  • The implacable and strident tone of the farmer protests after nine rounds of talks, multiple concessions, and a Supreme Court-mandated committee are good examples of the current dissonance between the governed and the government.
  • Despite the progressive intent of the laws, the roughshod manner in which they were passed has detracted from their merits.
  • Appearing first as Ordinances, the government leveraged its brute majority in Parliament to rush through the Bills in a monsoon session, truncated by Covid-19 with the minimum of debate.
  • Later, when farmers hunkered down on Delhi’s borders, the government claimed that it had held extensive pre-legislative discussions with farm lobbies and then wielded the security agencies against key protestors.
  • Now, the agriculture ministry has admitted in reply to an application under the Right to Information Act that it has no record of such consultations. Examples such as this do not encourage trust in the government.
  • The upshot has been that, despite assurances that the minimum support price would remain and that the laws amended to remove the administrative restraints on contractual appeals in court, the farmers are disinclined to take the government at its word.
  • This trust deficit had manifested in nationwide protests against the Citizenship Amendment Act, of which Delhi’s Shaheen Bagh became a potent symbol.
  • Both protests have demonstrated that the absence of a meaningful opposition party does not preclude the citizenry from mobilizing on its own initiative when it perceives its interests are at stake.
  • In the case of the Covid-19 vaccine drive, the relatively poor turnout in several states points to distrust over the approval granted to Bharat Biotech’s candidate Covaxin because Phase III clinical trials had not been completed.
  • The fact that this vaccine is administered after the recipient signs a consent form is unlikely to instill confidence in a large majority of the population that is ill-equipped to comprehend the risks embedded in clinical trials.
  • Now, it transpires from the minutes of the Subject Expert Committee (SEC) meetings, which were released by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization, that the SEC initially expressed reservations about Covaxin but approved it just two days later without explanation.
  • The trust deficit appears to be manifesting itself within government too.

 

Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

5. Community kitchens have emerged as an empirical solution to feed those in need and an adequate food security measure. It is about time to have a national policy for community kitchens. Analyse. (250 words).

Difficulty level: Easy.

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

With the Supreme Court’s three-week deadline looming, the Food Ministry on Thursday formed a group of eight State Food Secretaries to create the framework for a community kitchens scheme.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of community kitchens and the need for national policy for their adequate development.

Directive word:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the concept of community kitchens and examples of same from across India.

Body:

First, write about the various advantages of community kitchens – Food security, feeding the needy, affordable cost, nutritious meals, reducing burden on women, involvement of SHG’s etc.

Next, mention the need to have a pan India community kitchens policy in the light of food shortage and prevalence of malnutrition.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward which will also lead to achievement of SDG-2.

Introduction

A Community Kitchen is a group of people who meet on a regular basis to plan, cook and share healthy, affordable meals. Community Kitchens Groups are for everyone, and can be run anywhere there is a kitchen (churches, schools, neighbourhood houses, community health services, workplaces, Men’s Sheds etc.).

The Food Ministry recently formed a group of eight State Food Secretaries to create the framework for a community kitchens scheme.

Body

Importance of Community kitchens in India

  • ​​In India, many states like Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Delhi, and Jharkhand have already been running community kitchens that serve meals at subsidized rates in hygienic conditions.
  • COVID – 19 global pandemic has resulted in a national lockdown leaving a large number of people vulnerable to hunger.
  • Those worst hit by this unprecedented pandemic and lockdown were daily wage labourers, migrants, homeless, the poor and many who form the floating population.
  • Community kitchens have emerged as an empirical solution to feed those in need.
  • The main idea behind community kitchen is to provide cheap and nutritious, and often free food to people who cannot afford it.
  • Community Kitchens run by SHG Women provided food to the most poor and vulnerable in Rural Areas during the COVID-19 lockdown.
  • 10,000 community kitchens were set up across five states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, to name a few. These kitchens spread across 75 different districts have been providing meals twice a day to nearly 70,000 individuals who are vulnerable and needy.

Rationale behind National policy for community kitchens

  • Food and Agriculture Report, 2018 stated that India houses 195.9 million of the 821 million undernourished people in the world, accounting for approximately 24% of the world’s hungry.
  • Prevalence of undernourishment in India is 14.8%, higher than both the global and Asian average.
  • The most alarming figure revealed is that approximately 4500 children die every day under the age of five years in our country resulting from hunger and malnutrition, amounting to over three lakh deaths every year owing to hunger, of children alone.
  • Various schemes to combat hunger, malnutrition and the resulting starvation are in place. But, in reality, effective implementation of the schemes was unclear and fairly limited.
  • In the interest of justice and for entitlement of nutritious food, which has been held as a basic fundamental and human right, in both national and international law, alike, the establishment of community kitchens may be directed as an added mechanism for provision of nutritious food.
  • Community kitchens help achieve the intent of holistically combating eradication of hunger, malnutrition and starvation in the country, and diseases, illnesses and deaths resulting thereof.
  • Community kitchens help in the following
    • increase access to healthy meals
    • help the community to develop life skills such as growing of fresh food, budgeting, meal planning, cooking and social skills
    • support members of the community to connect and start new friendships
  • Article 47 of Indian Constitution states that it is the duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and standard of living of its people as a primary responsibility

Conclusion

The community kitchens could play a vital role in mitigating the problem of malnutrition and lowering the deaths due to hunger as these community kitchens provide healthy meals for free at prices lower than the market price. Community kitchen is already a successful plan in various other states of the country.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

6. Since the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, there has been a discernible improvement in India’s counterterrorism mechanisms. Complex challenges, however, continue to confront India. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The November 2008 Mumbai attacks, also referred to as the 26/11 attacks, prompted the central government to critically heighten its counter-terrorism operations and re-examine several aspects of its already straining ties with Pakistan.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about improvements in counterterrorism mechanisms post 26/11 and the present challenges in this area.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the context of the deadly attacks of 26/11 on India.

Body:

First, mention the changes witnessed in counterterrorism mechanisms post 26/11- Intelligence capabilities and inter-agency coordination, plugging vulnerabilities of India’s maritime and coastal security architecture, emphasis on cyber security etc.

Next, mention the evolving nature of terrorism and the threats it poses – social media radicalisation, changes in Afghanistan, cyber terrorism, lone wolf attacks etc.

Next, write about the measures needed to tackle the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The November 2008 Mumbai attacks, also referred to as the 26/11 attacks, prompted the central government to critically heighten its counter-terrorism operations and re-examine several aspects of its already straining ties with Pakistan. It is 13 years since the series of dreadful terror attacks in Mumbai when 10 members of the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), a jihadist outfit based in Pakistan, carried out 12 coordinated attacks leaving 166 dead and lasting as many as four days across major locations.

Body

Improvements in India’s counterterrorism mechanisms

  • The major domestic response to Mumbai has been an emphasis on streamlined coordination between agencies across state and federal lines.
  • A new National Investigation Agency (NIA) was created with aim of the NIA is to empower a federal agency to investigate major crimes such as terrorism and organized crime without having to be asked to do so by the states.
  • India’s security apparatus has been reinforced with the establishment of Multi-Agency Coordination Centres (MACCs) and Subsidiary Multi-Agency Coordination Centres (SMACCs).
  • An infusion of funding and personnel into the overall security apparatus has also been promised, and the NSG has been deployed throughout the country to offer a quicker response to future attacks
  • One significant reform undertaken post-26/11 was the clear designation of coastal security responsibilities to different agencies like Indian Navy (beyond 12 NM), Coast Guard ( 5-12 NM) and Marine Police (Baseline to 5 NM).
  • Coordination between various agencies has improved, joint exercises are being regularly conducted to familiarise with the standard operating procedures (SOPs), and the levels of surveillance has been enhanced as well.
  • Coastal mapping has also been undertaken by the states towards improving awareness about the coastal areas. For instance, ISRO in collaboration with the West Bengal state police has also developed a coastal information system with the dual aims of creating a digital database, and creating a framework for the visualisation and analysis of coastal geospatial data.
  • After successful proof-of-concept trials by the Indian Navy and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) of a satellite-based tracking system using GSAT-6 satellite, and subsequent successful field trials, close to 5,000 mechanised boats in Tamil Nadu are been progressively fitted with the indigenously developed satellite-based transponder systems.
  • Some states have already initiated concerted steps to ramp up their cyber capabilities.
  • Besides enacting cyber legislations, the government has also undertaken organisational measures by establishing new centres for cyber security such as the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre and the National Cyber Coordination Centre; creating a division covering Cyber and Information Security within the Ministry of Home Affairs; and improving institutional capacity building through training of personnel and generating awareness.
  • India has also fought hard to cut off the terror finance to rogue nations with the global support like FATF.

Challenges that India is still facing

  • Terrorist groups are making effective use of technology, social media and other innovative tactics not only to evade arrest and prosecution but to disseminate their propaganda and recruit foot soldiers.
  • The impact of social media on the spread of terrorism can be seen in the conflict in Kashmir, where there is a growing trend of increased radicalisation especially amongst the youth.
  • The multiple challenges emanating from the cyber domain include interference in elections through the use of propaganda in social media, fake news leading to panic, and digital disruption of energy assets and transportation systems.
  • Recognising the difficulty of militarily defeating state forces, terrorists are aiming to create spectacle through lone-wolf attacks and suicide missions.
  • Funding of the terror outfits are being done through the money from drug peddling, dark web, cryptocurrency and money laundering activities.
  • India also suffers from inadequate inter-agency coordination which, in turn, leads to lack of effective intelligence monitoring and security response.

Way forward

  • To improve the level of coordination, inter-operability amongst the agencies must be enhanced.
  • This can be complemented with a comprehensive integrated border management system to guard the border areas where infiltrations take place.
  • Enabling timely transportation of security forces during terrorist attacks
  • India must integrate all its resources for deployment to combat any future contingency. Essential equipment and weapons systems must be acquired.
  • Terrorism has moved beyond the physical space to the digital space. In this context, the gathering of intelligence needs to become multi-faceted as well.
  • India’s security forces must create effective counter-narratives and build an environment that does not lead to marginalisation and radicalisation as is increasingly seen in the case of homegrown jihadis in the Valley.
  • Radicalism must be dealt with by intelligently balancing “soft” and “hard” approaches.
  • India should build robust systems to ensure uninterrupted and safe operations of the country’s digital infrastructure.
  • Collaboration between government, media and public to raise awareness about anti-terrorism.
  • At a global level, India can use its UNSC membership to get the CCIT ratified at UN.

Conclusion

As the manifestations of terrorism continue to change rapidly and become increasingly technology-centric, State forces responsible for the country’s counterterrorism response will have to adapt to these shifts and build the resilience of India’s security ecosystem.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case Study

7. There are many reasons why the death penalty should have no place in any society, not least because it violates the fundamental right to life. The argument that it may deter violent crime is countered by the observations that murder rates declined in ten out of eleven countries which had abolished capital punishment in recent years. The most egregious aspect of the death penalty is the widespread evidence of miscarriage of justice which occurs even in the most robust judicial systems, leading to the real threat of an irreversible punishment being inflicted on an innocent person.

India has a chequered history with the death penalty. For many years, until the execution of Dhananjoy Chatterjee in 2004 for the rape and murder of a minor girl, the country was a de facto abolitionist state. Since then, nearly 500 prisoners have been sentenced to death row, nine individuals have been executed since 2014, and there has been a legislative expansion of the death penalty, in particular for crimes of sexual violence.

Against this background, the release of the Deathworthy report last month on the relationship between being sentenced to death and mental health, calls upon our society to revisit its ambivalent stance on the death penalty. The report is the result of NLU Delhi’s Project 39A, under the guidance of mental health professionals from NIMHANS, Bangalore. The study involved the interview of 88 death row prisoners and their families. Its findings can be summarised in two broad ways: First, what are the origins of the violent behaviours which led to the criminal acts and second, how might living on death row affect the mental health of the prisoner.

Adverse childhood experiences are the most important determinants of poor educational attainment, violent behaviours and mental health problems. This association has been demonstrated in diverse contexts and has a clearly defined biological mechanism. The lack of nurturing environments and the exposure to toxic stress, that is, when a child experiences intense, frequent or prolonged adversity such as emotional abuse or neglect, directly impacts the development of a healthy brain architecture which is most sensitive to environmental influences in the early years of life. These influences lead to a range of psychological difficulties in young adulthood, such as impulsivity and low frustration tolerance, which are precursors to violent behaviour and antisocial acts.

The second observation is, perhaps, less surprising: Two-thirds of the prisoners were diagnosed with a current episode of mental illness, in particular depression. About half were assessed to be at “risk” of suicide. Undoubtedly, this suffering is the direct consequence of living with the fear of an imminent, violent death. More shockingly, a significant number of prisoners had evidence of cognitive impairment, often due to head injuries. Nine of these individuals were found to have an intellectual disability. This implies that these individuals had deficits in mental functioning which are well-recognised for influencing the capabilities to make responsible decisions and observe social norms. Yet, in none of their cases was their disability brought to the attention of the courts.

Ultimately, the Deathworthy report provides a sobering, if not entirely unsurprising picture of the devastating disadvantages experienced by death row prisoners which may have played a critical role in mediating their violent acts and the mental health-related pain and suffering consequent to living on death row. (250 words)

    1. Is death penalty needed in India? Debate.
    2. How to prevent crimes by addressing emotional inadequacies of childhood?

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Case Study Fridays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Mention the provision of death penalty for ‘rarest of rare’ cases India

Body:

  1. First, mention the drawbacks associated with death penalty in India. Present logical arguments and examples to substantiate your points.

Next, write about the need for having death penalty in India. Present logical arguments and examples to substantiate your points.

    1. Write about various way to prevent crimes by addressing emotional inadequacies of childhood.

Conclusion:

Conclude by giving a fait and balanced opinion regarding death penalty in India. 

Introduction

Capital punishment also called as death penalty is the execution of an offender sentenced to death after conviction by a court of law. The debate on whether to abolish the death penalty or not, has been raging in India and in several other countries for decades.

Brutal rapes in India have not decreased despite enforcement of the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 which is a piece of legislation which prescribes the death penalty and life imprisonment for sexual assaults. No study has shown that the death penalty deters murder more than life imprisonment.

Body

Death Penalty in India is needed because:

  • Supporters believe people who commit murder, have taken the life of another, have forfeited their own  right  to
  • Furthermore, capital  punishment  is  a  just  form  of  retribution,  expressing  and reinforcing the moral indignation of citizens.
  • The punishment is not arbitrary because, it comes out of a judicial process. To call it arbitrary, one has to necessarily prove the process as flawed.
  • It is being implemented in the “rarest of the rare” cases and the fact is during the last 13 years, only four people have been executed.
  • Its constitutionality is upheld, even in liberal democracies like U.S. It is not reflection of uncivilised society.
  • The sacredness of life can only be seen to be protected, if those who take it away are proportionately punished.
  • Maintaining a secure prison system for high-risk, violent offenders act as a drain on government resources.

The need to abolish Death Penalty:

  • Everyone has an inalienable human right to life as life is valuable, even of those who commit murder.
  • It unfairly targets poor and marginalised, that means, those without money & power.
  • Many people believe that retribution is morally flawed and problematic in concept and practice as it is just a sanitized form of vengeance. Retribution via capital punishment legitimizes the very behavior that the law seeks to repress -killing. Hence, capital punishment is counterproductive in the moral message it conveys
  • Executions occurred in around five cases for every 1 lakh murders and it looks quite arbitrary. It depends on judges personal beliefs.
  • Punishment should not imitate crime.
  • Most of the civilised world abolished it. Death penalty has not deterred terrorism, murder or even theft.
  • From 2000-2015, Supreme Court imposed 60 death sentences and subsequently admitted that it had erred in 15 of them. So, it clearly admitted that it has arbitrarily imposed the most extreme punishment.
  • The Police is not known for its probity or efficiency in our Country.
  • Delays in the Criminal Justice System disproportionately affects those, who suffer the tyranny of the uncertainty of their life.
  • It is argued that it is used more often against perpetrators from racial and ethnic  minorities  and  from  lower  socioeconomic  backgrounds,  than  those coming from  a  privileged background.

Measures to prevent crimes by addressing emotional inadequacies of childhood

  • Child guidance clinics should be established in order to give appropriate treatment to the disturbed and mal-adjusted children.
  • Families should be educated to realize the importance of giving proper attention to the needs of their young children. Investments in strengthening parenting skills and support can go can serve as preventive measures.
  • Proper assistance to under-privileged children should be given to build in them good character and law-abiding attitude.
  • Social environment -slum areas, busy market places, gambling centres, etc., should be improved
  • The general economic standards of the people must be increased to prevent children from becoming- delinquent due to economic exigencies
  • Measures should be taken to improve conditions of juvenile homes, correctional homes through regular inspection, adequate funds and imparting training to staff.
  • The aftercare system should be strengthened to ensure that a juvenile once released continues with his therapy and is effectively rehabilitated in the society.

Conclusion

As Law Commission said that it is the not right time of abolition experiment, the issue needs to be debated  and  researched  in  more  detail.  But,  capital  punishment  should  not  become  a  pent-up  of  society’s misplaced anger and sense of judgment. It is also against the reformative purpose of the Criminal Justice System and we must remember the words of Oscar Wilde, “Every saint has a past and every sinner a future.”


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